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[Page 201]

Notes (cont.)

B. The Jewish Community of Roman throughout time

  1. Suchard Rivenzon, The Jewish School of the Village of Roman, Printer Beram, Father, Roman, 1943, p. 5. Return
[Page 202]
  1. Sami Wechsler– Contributions to the Monograph of the Jewish Community of Roman 1928, ms.). Return
  2. “Îfrǎţirea” (Brotherhood), year II, no. 43/ August 8, 1887. Return
  3. “Revista Israelitǎ” (Jewish Magazine), year V, no. 11/ June 15, 1890. Return
  4. “Egalitatea” (Equality), XVIII, no. 4/26 January, 1907. Return
  5. “Curierul israelit” (The Jewish Courier), year II no. 63 /April 19, 1908. Return
  6. “Neamul evreiesc” (The Jewish Nation), no. 8 / May 15, 1910. Return
  7. “Dimineaţa” (The Morning), year XXII, no. 5094 / September 23, 1920. Return
  8. “Renaşterea noastrǎ” (Our Rebirth), no. III, no. 162 / March 5, 1927. Return
  9. The almanac of the newspaper “Tribuna evreiascǎ” (The Jewish Tribune) for the year 5698 (1937), Iaşi, 1937. In 1936, the Jewish Community Committee was composed of: President – Attorney Arnold Cramer, Secretary – M. Rintzler and Members – Attorney A. Ghertner, David Laufer, M. Schaechter, Zalman Bercovici, Iancu Poilici, Avraham Hecht, Michel Brucmaier, Solomon Beram, I. Bentin, Smaie Aizic, Haim Smilovici, Avram Solomon, Lazǎr Barasch and Moty Pinsler. Return
  10. “Renaşterea noastrǎ“ (Our Rebirth), year XVI, no. 711/ May 18, 1940. Return
  11. State Archives, Neamţ, Funds of the Jewish Community of Roman. (A.S.N.F.C.E.R.), file 24/1941; President of the Roman County C. E. R. was Mauriciu Daniel and Secretary General was Mauriciu Rosenberg. Return
  12. “Curierul Israelit” (The Israelite Courier) / June 19, 1932, “Annals of the Jews of Romania”, 1937. Return
  13. Sami Wecsler, op. cit. Return
  14. Mendel Frenkel, op. cit. (Monograph of the Jewish Community of Roman ms.). Return
  15. “Neamul evreiesc” (The Jewish Nation) no. 9/ May 22, 1910. Return
  16. A.S.N.F.C.E.R., file 10/1941. Return

[Page 203]

  1. Anti Jewish Legislation…p. 446; “Şoarei” synagogues are mentioned as well. Return
  2. A.S.N.F.C.E.R., file 44/1942, Tefila Ţedek, Poalei Ţedek and 2 Beit–Tefila Return
  3. Iţic Kara “Rabbis and scholars in Moldavian communities” in “R.C.M.”, 269/I.II.1972; “Israelite Magazine”, year II, no. 7, p. 194–197; Jewish Cemetery of Piatra Neamţ (Pincu Pascal), “Jewish Reality” no. 11/1995, Archives of the Jewish Community Piatra Neamţ, State wages C.E.R./42. Return
  4. Sami Wecsler, op. cit. Return
  5. “Revista Israelitǎ” (Israelite Magazine), na. II, no. 7/1887 p. 196. Return
  6. Ibidem Return
  7. Idem no. 3, p. 79; Bogdan Dragoş Street Cemetery inaugurated in 1849. In its center there exists an imposing monument in memory of heroes, inaugurated in 1925 in the presence of local authorities, and the chapel consists of a ceremonial room and a room for the cleansing of the remains. There was also an area to store the coffins (Mendel Frenkel, op. cit.). Return
  8. A. Eliezer The Pinkas [Register] of the Jewish Community of Roman”/”R.C.M.” no. 103 of April 1964. Return
  9. “Social Historic Annals – Iuliu Barasch” / March 1889, p.79. Return
  10. “Revista Israelitǎ” (Israelite Magazine), year II, no. 8, p. 221, “Egalitatea” (Equality), year II, no. 21/ May 29, 1892. Return
  11. Mendel Frankel, op.cit. Return
  12. Neamţ, State Archives, Neamţ County Health Services, file 10/1904. Return
  13. “Egalitatea” (Equality) no. 34/ August 31, 1901.
  14. Propǎşirea [Prosperity], scientific and literary journal”, year I, Sunday August 13, 1844. Return

[Page 204]

  1. Ministry of Public education and Culture – School Houses –“The Golden Book of Donors 1851–1901”, Bucharest, 1901, p. 276, 223. Return
  2. M.O. no. 19 / December 31, 1879. Return
  3. “Roman”, Roman / June 18, 1887, “Egalitatea” (Equality) September 1, 1906. Return
  4. “Revista Israelitǎ” (Israelite Magazine), year II, no. 13. Return
  5. “Egalitatea” (Equality) / December 22, 1900. Return
  6. Idem December 15, 1900. Return
  7. Dr. Iacob Felix, “Istoria igienei in Romania” (The history of hygiene in Romania) in the “Annals of the Romanian Academy”, 2nd series, Tome XXIV, The scientific section Memoirs, 2nd Part, 2nd Memoir, Bucharest, 1902, p. 34. Return
  8. Mendel Frankel, op. cit.; Sami Wecsler, op. cit. Return
  9. Dr. Epifanie Cozǎrǎscu, “The beginnings of health aid in Roman” (Roman Israelite Hospital), in New and Old Hospitals, Medical Edition (editor Dr. G. Brǎtescu) Bucharest, 1976, p. 103–104. Return
  10. Sami Wecsler, op. cit. Return
  11. Dr. Epifanie Cozǎrǎscu, op. cit. Return
  12. Sami Wecsler, op. cit., “Egalitatea” (Equality) / January 11, 1902. Return
  13. “Fraternitatea” (The Fraternity) / July 5, 1885. Return
  14. Dr. Epifanie Cozǎrǎscu, op. cit., p. 105, Victor Gomoiu, op. cit., vol. I, p. 357.
  15. Paul Pruteanu, Contributions to the History of Moldavian Hospitals, Bucharest, 1957, p. 19. Return
  16. Dr. Epifanie Cozǎrǎscu, op. cit., p. 106, “Revista Israelitǎ” (Israelite Magazine), year II, no. 7, p. 194–197. Return
  17. State Archives, Iaşi, Funds of the Health Committee, Transport 1757, opis 2005, file 209/1859. Return
  18. “Romanu” [The Roman], Roman / January 24, 1885. Return

[Page 205]

  1. Dr. Victor Gomiu, Farm. Gh. and Marian Gomoiu – Addendum to “Listing of doctors, pharmacists and veterinarians in the Romanian counties before 1870”, Bucharest, 1941 (letter L). Return
  2. Dr. Iacob Felix – General Report regarding public hygiene and health services of the Romanian Monarchy [Regat] for the year 1892, Bucharest, 1893, p. 166, 172. In 1891, in Roman county was founded a hospital for sufferers of granulous conjunctivitis (trachoma), an illness often striking Jews; “Egalitatea” (Equality) / no. 15 April 18, 1908, p. 180. Return
  3. “Gazeta Balului” (The Ball Gazette), occasional issue of the Roman Jewish Community / November 25, 1933. Return
  4. Dr. Epifanie Cozǎrǎscu – Medical and hygiene aid in modern times until 1945; in the History of the City of Roman, Roman, 1992, p. 363. Return
  5. A.S.N.F.C.E.R., file 32/1944. Return
  6. A period of great restrictions, 2nd part, p. 420. Return
  7. Dr. Epifanie Cozǎrǎscu, article cited in “History of the…” p. 364. Return
  8. Mariana Sefer – Ethnic Elements from the XIXth century, in the archive of manuscripts of Professor Grigore Creţu, in “Microbiology, Parasitology, and Epidemiology”, no. 1 January–February, no. 2 March–April, no. 3 July–August, 1971. Return
  9. Invǎţǎmântul medical si farmaceutic din Bucureşti (Medical and Pharmaceutical Study in Bucharest), Bucharest, 1963, p. Return
  10. State Archives, Iaşi, Health Committee, tr. 1434, op. 1634, file 522/1838/371; tr. 1567, file 262/1852 and inventory, “Health Committee” (1832). Return
  11. State Archives, Iaşi, Committee of Health, tr. 1434, file 529/1844, 532/1846, 259/1850, tr. 1567. Return

[Page 206]

  1. Heinz Rohrlich “Rumȁnischen studenten an der Ludwig–Maximilians Universitȁt–Műnchen, in der 19 Jahrhundert” (Romanian Students at the Ludwig Maximilian University–Munich in the XIX–th Century) in “Al XII–lea Congres internaţional de istoria medicinei” (The XII–th International Congress on the History of Medicine) p. 460; Neamţ State Archives, Vital Statistics Roman, births 1879. Return
  2. Neamţ, State Archives, Budget of the Roman Hospital, file 4/1879. Return
  3. Dr. P. Cazacu – I.C. Frunǎ, Documentary material to resolve the pharmacy question in Romania, Bucharest, 1916, p. 177. Return
  4. Heinz Rohrlich – Dr. G. Brǎtescu in “Revista medicalǎ” (Medical Magazine), Tg. Mureş, no. 3/972 (in other documents he is listed as Joseph Roitman). Return
  5. Dr. Epifanie Cozǎrǎscu – The Roman Hospital in the First World War, in “Trecut şi viitor în medicinǎ” (Past and future in medicine), Bucharest, 1981 (edited by Dr. G. Brǎtescu, p. 481, 485). Return
  6. Dr. Pharmacist Vasile I. Lipan – Istoria farmaciei in date (Chronological History of Pharmacies), Braunschwieg, 1991. From other sources we learn that in 1948 the pharmacist Iosepovici Şloim was the president of the interim committee of the Pharmaceutical Collegiate of Roman County. Return
  7. Sami Wecsler m.s. cit.: in 1836 there were 10 Jewish teachers in Roman (Jewish Contribution to culture, p.496); In 1880 the Community secured the operation of a school with three teachers of Hebrew and one of Romanian (“Fraternitatea” [The Fraternity] Year II, no. 30 / 1880). Return
  8. Suchard Rivenzon, op. cit., p. 16–17, Lǎcǎrǎmioara Iordachescu, Education in the History of Roman, 1992, p.302. Return

[Page 207]

  1. “Egalitatea” (Equality), no. 48 / 10 December, 1893. Return
  2. Suchard Rivenzon, op. cit., p. 17, 20, 22, 26. Return
  3. “Egalitatea” (Equality), / 24 August, 1901. Return
  4. Idem, no. 30 / 30 July, 1904, no. 15 /18 April, 1908. Return
  5. Idem, year XVI, no. 28 / 22 July, 1904, 10 February 1906, year XVIII, no. 2/12 January, 1907, no. 1 / 19 December, 1908; S. Rivemzon, op. cit., p. 55. Return
  6. “Curierul Israelit” (The Israelite Courier) no. 39/10 July, 1909. Return
  7. Suchard Rivemzon, op. cit., p. 30, 32, “Neamul evreiesc” (The Jewish Nation) year II, no. 8 / 15 May, 1910, A.S.N.F.C.E.R., file 3/1909–1910. Return
  8. Suchard Rivenzon, op. cit., p. 37, Neamţ, State Archives, Neamţ County Health Services, file 15/1920. Return
  9. “Curierul Israelit” (The Israelite Courier) year XVIII, no. 2 / 11 January, 1925 Return
  10. Idem, year XX no. 36 / 30 October 1927. Return
  11. S. Rivenzon, op. cit., p. 38–41, 44, 46. Return

 

C. Welfare and mutual aid societies
  1. Horia Nestorescu – Bǎlceşti – The Romanian Masonic Order, Bucharest, 1993, p. 9, 13, 16, 18. Return
  2. A.D. Ştern – From the life of a Romanian Jew, vol. 1, Bucharest 1915, p. 154. Return
  3. “Egalitatea” (Equality), / year XV, no. 8 / 20 February, 1903, in 1990 the honorary president of the “Progresul” Order was Dr. Henc. Return
  4. “Romanu” (The Roman), Roman, 16 February, 1886, “Revista Israelitǎ” (Israelite Magazine), year II, / 15 February, 1887. Return
  5. “Egalitatea” (Equality), / 16 February, 1901. Return

[Page 208]

  1. “Curierul Israelit” (The Israelite Courier) year XIII, no. 18/ 2nd January, 1921; in 1934, the association “Iubirea de oameni” (“Love of Mankind”) is mentioned, led by Noel Bring (idem 24 June, 1934). Return
  2. “Renaşterea noastrǎ” (Our Rebirth), year III, no. 158/5 February, 1927, A.S.N.F.C.E.R., file 91/44. Return
  3. “Egalitatea” (Equality), / 18 January, 1902, 28 May, 1914, “Renaşterea noastrǎ” (Our Rebirth), /14 May, 1927. Return
  4. “Egalitatea” (Equality), / 28 February, 1903, “Curierul Zionului” (The Zion Courier) 17 February 1904. Return
  5. A.S.N.F.C.E.R., file 91/1944. Return
  6. “Stindardul”(The Flag) year I no. 3 / 1 September, 1882. Return
  7. “Egalitatea” (Equality), / year XXXVII, no 25 / 18 June, 1926, “News from the Jewish World” of 20 September, 1928 (in this year the kindergarten opened, founded and maintained by A.C.F.E.), idem year VI, no. 396/2 October, 1930, “Jewish Woman” no. 45 / 5 January 1931. Return
  8. “Mântuirea” (Redemption), year III, no. 800 / 1 September, 1921, “Renaşterea noastrǎ“ (Our Rebirth), year III, no. 169 / 30 April, 1927, “Lumea” (The World) year X, no. 2697 / 4 August, 1927, “Dimineaţa” (The Morning), / 16 June, 1928, “Curierul Israelit” (The Israelite Courier) / 28 may, 1933. Return
  9. “The Maccabi” no. 20 / 1 September, 1934, Cernǎuţi. Return
  10. “The Maccabi Bulletin”, year III, no. 17–18 / 8 February, 1935. Return
  11. “Lumea” (The World) year X no. 2697/4 August, 1927. Return
  12. “Egalitatea” (Equality), no. 30/2 August, 1891. Return
  13. Idem, no. 38/3 October, 1903, “Curierul Israelit” (The Israelite Courier) /1 March, 1913. Return
  14. “Curierul Israelit” (The Israelite Courier) year XII, no. 24 (546) / 5 March, 1920. Return
  15. Idem, no. 16 / 8 May, 1932, 12 May, 1932. Return

 

D. The Zionist movement
  1. Dr. Hary Kuller, Eight studies on the history of the Jews of Romania, Bucureşti, 1997, p. 231–232;

[Page 209]

    on the expulsion of the Jews from the villages see “Romanu”, Roman / 16 / 1883: on the law of the ambulant commerce (“Yearbook for Israelites”, year VIII / 1888) Return
  1. “Equality”, year IV, no. 226 / 20 July 1893. Return
  2. “Voice of Zion” / 16 Apr 1899 Return
  3. “Equality” / 31 Dec 1899 Return
  4. Ldem / 16 Nov 1901 (from the sheke1ists, Soc. “Cremieux”) Return
  5. Idem / 3 Jan 1903 Return
  6. Idem / 18 Apr 1903, 18 Jul 1903 Return
  7. “Ha'ivri” (the Hebrew), Brody, 7 May 1886 Return
  8. “Equality” / 12 May 1900, 2 Jun 1900, 16 Jun 1900, 30 Jun 1900 Return
  9. Dr. Th. Loewenstein – Herzl, p. 43 Return
  10. “Equality” no. 37 / 19 Sep 1903 Return
  11. “The salvation”, year II no. 554 / 5 Nov 1920 Return
  12. A.S.N.F.C.E.R, file 17 / 1942 Return
  13. “Equality”, year XV / 26 Nov 1904 Return
  14. Idem / 22 May 1909, 27 Nov 1909; Hary Kuller, cited book, p. 247 Return
  15. “The Israelite Courier”, year XII no. 24 / 5 Mar 1920 Return
  16. “Rebirth”, year I, no. 18 / 18 Jan 1925
  17. “News from the Jewish life” / 19 Mar 1929 Return
  18. A.S.N.F.C.E.R., file 103 / 1945, file 40/1 942 Return
  19. “Equality” 17 Sep 1899 Return
  20. Idem, year XIII, no. 31 / 9 Aug1902, no. 50 / 27 Dec 1902, no. 6 / 7 Feb. 1903, no. 9 / 28 Feb. 1903, no. 14 / 11 Apr 1903, no. 28 / 18 Aug 1903, no. 2 / 15 Aug 1903, no. 26 / 2 Jul 1904 Return
  21. “The Zionist” I, no. 5 / 28 Jul 1906, no. 14 / 6 Jan 1907; “The Equality” / 2 May 1908, no. 47 / 4 Dec 1909 Return

[Page 210]

  1. “The Jewish people”, year XIV, no. 23–24 / 16 Oct 1921 Return
  2. The Voice of Zion” / 16 Apr 1899, 30 Apr 1899, 21 May 1899, 3 Jun 1899, “Equality” / 17 Sep 1899, “The Sunshine” / 24 Nov 1899, Equality” / 5 Nov 1899, 25 Jul 1903, “The Israelite Chronicle”, year III, no. 37 / 27 Sep 1903 Return
  3. “Equality” / 8 Oct 1899, “The Sunshine” / 8 Oct 1899, “The Courier of Zion” no. 8 / 29 Feb 1904, “Equality” / 15 Oct 1899, “The Courier of Zion”, year I, no. 7 / 17 Feb. 1904, no. 11 / 21 Mar 1904 Return
  4. “The Israelite Courier” no. 38 / Sept. 1909 Return
  5. “Equality”, year XXVI, no. 39 / 9 Oct 1915, “The Israelite Courier”, year XII, no. 2 / 12 Sep. 1920, no. 18 / 2 Jan 1921, “The Jewish people”, year XIV, no. 23–24 / 16 Oct 1921 Return
  6. “Our rebirth,” year IV no. 189 / 22 Oct 1927, “Equality” / 9 Mar 1928 Return
  7. ”News from the Jewish World” / 15.Jan. l928, “Our Rebirth” / 17 Mar 1928, “R.C.M.” no. 76 / Oct 1993 Return
  8. “Sami Wecsler, cited manuscript,” “Hasmonaea,” year XXI no. 11–12 / May–June 1940 Return
  9. “Equality” 28 Feb 1903, 2 May 1908, “News from the Jewish world” / 9 May 1940 Return

 

E. Aspects of the spiritual life of the Jews of Roman and surroundings
  1. “R.C.M.” / 15 Sep 1987 Return
  2. Lya Benjamin, Irina Cajal–Marin, Hary Kuller – Myths, rites and ritual objects, Bucureşti, 1994,

[Page 211]

    p. 90–91; Rabbi Mendel Frenkel offers additional details concerning the dress of the Jews of Roman: the Kapote, a long black coat, made of cloth, for Saturdays one made of silk, and on their heads, on holidays, a shtreimel. On the same occasions, the women wore on their heads a sterntikhel [lit. forehead–scarf], a kind of headband made of beads. Return
  1. Iulian Şvarţ, in “ Bucareşter şriftn” [Bucharest Writings], vol. IV. Bucureşti, 1981, p. 153; of the children games, Lazǎr Şǎineanu mentions: the game with the flag on Simkhat Tora, when on top of the flag was placed an apple with a candle, the spinning toy (dreidl), on Hanukah, the rattler (grager), on Purim (Lazǎr Şǎineanu, in “The annals of the Historic Society Dr. Iuliu Barasch”, year III, 1889) Return
  2. Haralamb Zincǎ , “Miriam” in “R.C.M.” 698 / 1 Nov 1990 Return
  3. H.B. Oprisan – The Romanian Popular theatre Bucureşti, 1987, p. 167–169 Return
  4. Andrei Oişteanu – Mithos/Logos – Studies and essays of cultural anthropology, Nemira publishing house, 1998, p. 177, 178 Return
  5. I. Kara–Şvarţ, in “Bucareşter şriftn” [Bucharest Writings], vol. IV, Bucureşti, 1981, p. 110 Return
  6. Moişe Lax – Literarişe notn (Yidish) [Literary Notes], Bucureşti, p. 143, “R.C.M.” / 1 Mar 1982, Israel Bercovici in “ Bucareşter şriftn” [Bucharest Writings], I. Bucureşti, p. 98 (1978) Return
  7. “Shevet Romania (Romanian tribe)” / 1 May 1977; collaborators at “Jerusalem” were B. Bercoff, A.H. Solomon, A. Rindman, B. Moscu, Dr. Abr. Stern: “Romanu”, Roman / 29 Jan 1887, 7 May 1887, 14 Feb 1888, l Oct 1888

[Page 212]

    (Iancu Gross has also translated “The Harem woman” and ”America's billionaires,” Hary Kuller, Bucharest Jewish Press, 1857–1994, Bucureşti, 1996, p. 58 (Iancu Gross) and 62 (S. Rivenzon). Israil Bercovici, A hundred years of Jewish theater in Romania, Bucureşti, 1982, p. 37 (H. St. Streitman); I. Psantir, cited work and Sam. Svemer, cited work; I. Kara, “Reviews and studies in “Bucareşter şriftn”, vol. V, Bucureşti, 1982, p. 155– 156 (Iacob Iosef Romaner) Return
  1. Piatra Neamţ – Illustrated monograph, Publishing house Cetatea Doamnei, Piatra Neamţ, 1996 Return
  2. I. Kara in “R.C.M.” no. 652 / 1 Sep 1988; A.S.F.C.E.R., Register 1 / 1929, The census of the Jewish population of Roman, 1938, Extract letters I–L; Moişe Lax, cited work, p. 152 (Ronetti – Roman); Anghel Corbeanu – Max Blecher in “R.C.M 1 Jan 1972; other writers and publicists: Ira Keiss, Solomon Schoss – Roman; Leibiş Beram, Library “Rosenberg”, founded from the donation of Bruno Rosenberg; “The Israelite Courier”, year XII. No. 3 / 19 Sep 1920, year XIX no. 16 / 2 May1926, “The Jewish Tribune”, year VI, no. 194 / 2 May 1937 (Library I Neulicht) Return
  3. The “Rosenberg” library, which between the years 1940 and 1944 was partially part of the library of the Jewish elementary school and of the Jewish High–School of Roman, contained authors like: Eugen Relgis, Moses Schwartzfeld, Barbu Lǎzǎreanu, Dr. W. Filderman, Israel Zangwill, Theodor Herzl, Horia Carp, Max Nordau, Aurelian Weiss, Dr. A.D. Stern, Enric Furtunǎ, Heinrich Heine,

[Page 213]

    Eliezer Frenkel, S. Rivenzon, Bezalel Safran, H. Sanielevici. Return
  1. “The Israelite Courier”, year II, no. 22 / 7 Jun l903, “The Opinion”, Iaşi, year XVIII, no. 4511 / 11 Jun 1922, no. 39 / 28 Nov 1926 Return
  2. A.S.N.F.C.E.R., file 57 / 1942–1943 Return
  3. Archives of the Jewish community Piatra Neamţ, Register 87 / 1948 Return
  4. “The Equality”, no. 21 / 30 May 1903 Return
  5. Idem, no. 29 / 25 Aug 1903, no. 46 / 26 Nov 1904
  6. Idem, 24 Feb 1906, “The Israelite Courier” / 2 May 1913. “The salvation”, year 2, no. 529 /3 Oct 1920; In 1920 Merlaub discussed Yohanan ben Zakai, at a meeting of Maccabi, “The rebirth,” year I, no. 16 / 4 Jan 1925. In 1925, a lecture about “Chaim Nahman Bialik” was given at a Zionist meeting (“Our rebirth” / 3 Apr 1928, “The Israelite Courier” no. 1 / 4 Jan 1931) Return
  7. “The Israelite magazine”, year III, l Aug 1888, “Romanu”, Roman / 13 Aug 1888 Return
  8. “Equality” / 4 Mar 1903, 7 May 1904 Return
  9. In 1885, theater shows were performed in a theater on Strada Mare, in the Riven houses (“The vulture” / 19 Oct 1985; “Opinion,” Iaşi, year XVIII, no. 4484 / 5 May 1922) Return
  10. “Opinion”, Iaşi / 13 Mar 1928, 3 May l928: In the third decade of the 20th century, at the Zionist section “Or Zion” an amateur group presented ”Orfelina,” and the Vera Kamiewska group played the operetta in 3 acts “Berele Tremp” by Aron Nagher (History of the city of Roman, Roman, 1992, p. 333) Return

[Page 214]

  1. “The Israelite Courier” / 25 Jun 1933 Return
  2. Iulian Şvarţ, Portraits and essays (Yidish), Bucureşti, 1981, p. 243, “The Jewish Gazette” no. 10 / 24 Apr 1942.
    In addition we shall mention the musician Ignat Polydodi, born in Kiev, and the photographers Rozenthal Solomon, Avramescu Aurel, Avramescu Josef, Schwartz Suchar and Barmack Iţic. Return

 

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