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Chapters of the History of Nowy-Dwor


Nowy-Dwor and its Jewish Settlement
The City and Its Surrounding Areas

by Dov Berish First, Tel Aviv

Translated by Pamela Russ

Nowy Dwor always belonged to the Warsaw environs, and was a distance of 31 kilometers from the capital, Warsaw itself.

On the left bank of the Narew River, in the shallow baths of the Mazowiecki sand, there was once, long ago, a princely court, and from there comes the name Nowy Dwor. Gradually, around that court, a village grew, and from that village after a few generations Nowy Dwor evolved as we knew it until 1939.

In the town, underneath the Modlin Bridge, the quiet flowing Narew River joined the broad waters of the Vistula. There, on the sandy shores on the other side of the bridge, where the Vistula in her intense rush to the Baltic Sea touched the ground of Nowy Dwor – the red-bricked, massive fortifications of the famous Modlin fortress jutted out in long streams. The fortress was once built to protect the nearby capital of Warsaw.

A document, yet from 1355, tells of Nowy Dwor as one of the most secured locks in Mazowiecki. So it seems that even then Nowy Dwor was an important, strategic point in the waterways of the Vistula, Bug, and Narew Rivers.

Nowy Dwor was connected to the larger world in two ways: first, in the waterway of the Vistula where they would transport all kinds of materials until distant Danzig; and second, through at that time the “Nadwislianer” train line that before the First World War went on the route between Warsaw and Mlawa until the Prussian border. After World War One, with the Polish independence, the train line was extended until Danzig. From Nowy Dwor onwards the train travelled through Jewish settlements, cities, and towns.

Around Nowy Dwor, as far as the eye could see, stretched the thinly grown plains of the sparse Mazowiecki flatlands from which the resident farmer received hardly any meager profit even after his hard work. A few dried out pathways, a muddy track, that led to nearby villages. Here and there – a sloped little hill, and on the far horizon, a few thin pine trees – that was the prosaic landscape around Nowy Dwor.


The Historical Development of Nowy Dwor

When and by whom was Nowy Dwor established, the city in general, and the Jewish community specifically? And what kind of historical events …

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… did Nowy Dwor experience until 1939, when it ceased to exist as the Jewish Nowy Dwor?

According to historical sources that I provide in the bibliographic listing at the end of this work, Nowy Dwor went through all kinds of transformations.

According to Professor Stanislaw Pazira, in his historical work titled A Study of the History of Mazowiecki, from the Twelfth to the Twentieth Centuries, in the notes of the Matricularium Regni Poloniae Sumaria VI—3 Sup. 358, 372, Nowy Dwor was declared a city on June 29, 1374, by the German government. That means, that the then existing small settlement (Osada) was removed from the jurisdiction of the ruling kingdom, and an independent governing circle and administrative body were established.

In his works, Professor Pazira cites all kinds of official documents from the years 1545 and 1690, where Nowy Dwor is mentioned as a city. In 1690, Nowy Dwor received its official status as a city.

It seems that at that time the main income of the city came from payments for transporting material across the rivers Narew and Vistula.

Sebastian Fabian Klonowicz writes in the “Flow”:

Here you see Nowy Dwor on the sand,
Here your step approaches the shore.
And here your payment for the water
You will give, young man.

That's how the clang of the coins for the water payment was heard, even in song.

The number of residents Nowy Dwor had at that time, and how many of those were Jews, is not clearly documented. But there is a source that says that because the above mentioned flowing rivers at that time were important for business and selling, it attracted large numbers for settling there, and certainly among those was a significant number of Jewish families.

According to T. Landberger, who writes about various historical researches, Mozawiecki, to which Nowy Dwor also belongs, was the most densely populated part of Poland. In the fourteenth century, before the time of King Kazimierz the Great, the population of the entire Poland was 930,000, and Mazowiecki had 134,000 residents.

At the turn of the sixteenth century, Nowy Dwor is mentioned again as a small settlement (Osada). The reasons that contributed to the destruction of the city are not known to us. Likely ….

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… it was a result of the constant warring, and an abundance of plundering which was evident in this part of Poland.

We know about the history of the Swedish wars in Mazowiecki in the years 1656-1657; about the Crusades, and about the Great Plague in the year 1662 that affected the entire area and affected the residents of the whole city. It is also certain that the town Nowy Dwor fell as a victim to all these destructions and remained a small, abandoned settlement.

Once again, we encounter the name of the small settlement that went through various upheavals at the turn of the seventeenth century, and beginning at that time, we already have more information, such as how Nowy Dwor became a city in the year 1782, thanks to the efforts of Duke Stanislaw Poniatowski, a general and head of the royal guard. He, this Stanislaw Poniatowski, as an inheritor and rightful owner of the estates of Nowy Dwor, acquired the status of a city for this village.

With the goal of raising the level of business in the new city, Poniatowski set up a cloth factory. This factory is also mentioned in the large work of Dr. Yitzchok Shipper, The History of Jewish Business in Poland. According to Dr. Shipper, the factory was established in the year 1780, and even though it did not belong to the Jews, it was dependent upon the Jewish producers for its raw materials and for its credit. One of the producers of these raw materials was a well-known Yosef Yakov from nearby Zakrucyn.

How dependent the factory was for the above mentioned credit, is evident in the fact that when Yosef Yakov went bankrupt, the factory had to be liquidated.

According to the same source, 21 weavers worked in this factory, and 10 of these worked exclusively for Jewish customers.

We, the last generation of Jews in Nowy Dwor, already know nothing of the existence of this factory; there were no traces of it left in the town. Nonetheless, it is known that it existed until the year 1820, and the next inheritor (leader) of Nowy Dwor – after Poniatowski – Senator Ludwig Gutakowski, who other than this place in Nowy Dwor, also had houses in the Gzhebow area in Warsaw, assumed the task of extending the activities of the factory, but without success.

Along with the establishment of the factory, warehouses for shipbuilding were also built. Later, from these warehouses, and in our times, the well-known waterworks projects were undertaken in the Modlin port.

Also, to those times, belonged the well-known Jewish printing business in Nowy Dwor that existed until the year…

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… 1813. We'll discuss this more later on, when we discuss the Jewish settlement in Nowy Dwor.

We do not have a clear indication of the numbers of Jewish settlers in Nowy Dwor at the beginning of the eighteenth century. We do know, however, according to various historical findings, that a certain number of Jewish families were already then found in the city and worked in the lumber industry that took place in the area of those rivers – Narew and Vistula. It is unimaginable that in the first half of the eighteenth century the Jews were already a small organized community with all the religious institutions, as in those times, in all Jewish settlements.

Dr. Yakov Shazki, in his History of Jews in Warsaw, tells that in the year 1780, Praga, the suburb of Warsaw, that in those times was actually a separate city – received the rights to its own cemetery in the nearby village of Targuwek, and the deceased no longer had to be taken to Nowy Dwor.

According to statistics, there were about 100 Jewish souls living in Praga then. Warsaw, that had about 3,000 Jewish residents at that time, did not have its own cemetery, and the Jewish deceased were buried in Grodisk – about 30 Polish viorst from Warsaw, and farther to Sochaczew. The Jews in Warsaw, because of the government chicanery, did not get permission for their own cemetery.

What you can be certain, from all this, is that the small communities in Nowy Dwor in those years had their own cemetery, and in this issue, they were in good standing with all the other Jewish communities.

We also know about various accomplishments (Dr. Shazki, M.G. Gshuri) of one of the first rabbis in Nowy Dwor (around the year 1765-1770), Reb Uriel. He was the former Rav of Riczewol and was considered among the first Chassidim of those times, when Chassidus began with quiet, bold steps to move in to Warsaw and her surroundings, along with the masses of Jews from Podolye and Ukraine, who in 1768 had run from the Haidamak murderers.

The composition of the population in Nowy Dwor, according to the above mentioned and other sources, that I will provide later, are as follows:

According to chart #13, page 301, from T. Landberger, that is based on the smoke-and-chimney taxes, in the year 1797, Nowy Dwor had 81 houses, with a general population of 578 residents. There is no mention of the number of Jews.

During the first population census in the year 1808, Nowy Dwor showed 745 residents, of which 183 were Jews.

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In the year 1827, the general population reached 1234, of which 334 were Jews.

The number of Jews continued to grow. According to Professor Bogdan Wasojtinski and his statistical study The Jewish Population in Poland in the 19th and 20th Centuries (published in Warsaw in the year 1930), the general population of Nowy Dwor in 1857 was 2766, of which 1305 were Jews. In the year 1872, the general population was 4405, of which 2773 were Jews.

According to the Russian-Jewish Encyclopedia, in the year 1856 there were 2806 residents, and approximately half of those were Jews. Forty years later, in the year 1897, the general population numbered 7302, and of those 4737 were Jews; that was 65% of the general population.

As Bronislaw Khlebowski explains in his geographic lexicon, in the year 1881, Nowy Dwor had 336 houses, and 5 factories with a production worth 92,650 Russian rubles. The income of the city reached 2833 Russian rubles. The general number of the population in the year 1881 was 5268. The number of Jewish residents in that year is not mentioned by Khlebowski. That same writer says of the year 1806 that there were 600 residents of which 150 were Jews.

The fighting around Modlin and the flood of 1813 were devastating to Nowy Dwor. And in the year 1830, Ludwig Gutakowski, the owner of Nowy Dwor until that time, exchanged Nowy Dwor for other royal estates, and only then did the governing kingdom of Crown Poland reaffirm the previously granted status and the settlement of Nowy Dwor as a recognized city.

The building and development of the neighboring Modlin fortress contributed greatly to the development and growth of Nowy Dwor.

According to the same source, in 1860, Nowy Dwor had 3149 residents, and among those were 2197 Jews. There were 164 wooden houses and 36 of bricks. The Catholic church was built in 1792 by Duke Stanislaw Poniatowski. The Catholic parish since then has moved over from the nearby village Okunyn to Nowy Dwor.

In the above mentioned chronicle about Nowy Dwor in the geographic lexicon, Bronislaw Khlebowski concludes:

“Now this is a lively but dirty and muddy town that is primarily populated by Jews. The population is supported mainly by the supplies and manufacturing for the nearby military fortress in Modlin, and this is also the reason that there are so many small stores and pubs in the town.”

According to the famous German Encyclopedia, the great “Brockhaus,” …

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… of the year 1932, the general population in Nowy Dwor in 1921 was 7,800, and half of these were Jews. It seems that these are accurate numbers, because also in the proposal that the Deputy Counsel Yitzkhok Grinboim and his colleagues from the Jewish Council Club presented, to change the numbers of members and representatives in the Council and committees for the Jewish communities in Poland, the number of Jews in Nowy Dwor for the year 1931 was 3916.

For the above mentioned numbers, it is valuable to add statistical details for the last years before World War Two.

From the Socio-Political Annual that was published in Poland as a periodic publication, we know that in the year 1934 Nowy Dwor had 9397 residents. The city budget for that year was 241,489 zlotys. In the same annual for 1937, there is the description of a widespread bus connection between Warsaw, Nowy Dwor, Yablona, Zakrocyn, and Plonsk, and that the growth of the general population went to 10,150. At that time the mayor was Ramwald Ceslow Przedwecki, and his deputy was Dr. Alexander Cekhanowski. As far as we know, both remained in their offices until the outbreak of World War II in 1939.

To the general picture of the Nowy Dwor population we have to add a large number of German colonists – the majority were Protestants who lived in and around the town, mainly in nearby Weisendorf. In Nowy Dwor they had their own constituency, and a brick church with a beautiful garden. It's hard to say what their numbers were, but on a Sunday, during the time they were in church, they could be seen in the hundreds. They were the “Volks-Deutchen” who tormented the Jews of Nowy Dwor so terribly when the Hitler troops moved in to Nowy Dwor in 1939.

A little later, we'll come to the Jewish Nowy Dwor, but we have to notice here that the above mentioned chronicler Bronislaw Khlebowski and his geographic lexicon also mentions the existence of a Jewish synagogue and a Jewish printing company that grew and existed until the year 1813.

According to those sources, it is also important to mention that in the 18th century, the Polish bank of the Warsaw principality, in order to support the development of the grain business in the entire area, built right by the Vistula near the outflow of the Narew, colossal warehouses that at that time cost a sum of about 800,000 Russian rubles.

These were the tall, red bricked buildings that very visibly stood out as one crossed over the bridge that went …

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… from Nowy Dwor to Modlin, and got the name “the bank feeders”(Bankowe Speikhlers) from the Jews of Nowy Dwor.

As we conclude this section of our historical descriptions, we bring the following statistics chart showing the growth and development of the Jewish population in Nowy Dwor in proportion to the totals of the general population.


Year General
of residents
Percent of
the Jewish
of houses
1797 578 ---- ---- 81
1806 600 150 25 ----
1808 745 183 24 ----
1827 1,234 334 27.5 104
1856 2,806 1,403 50 ----
1857 2,766 1,305 48.6 ----
1860 3,149 2,197 69.7 164 wooden
36 brick
1872 4,405 2,773 63 ----
1881 5,268 ---- ---- 368
1897 7,302 4,737 65 ----
1921 7,800 3,900 50 ----
1931 9386 3,961 50 ----
1934 9,397 ---- ---- ----
1937 10,150 ---- ---- ----
1956 7,600 1 ---- ----


Let us try to see what we can understand from the simple numbers on this chart, first from the number of houses.

At the turn of the 18th century, there were 81 houses for 578 residents – that makes seven people per house. Thirty years later, in 1827, there were already 104 houses for 1234 residents – that makes 12 people per house. One can draw from this that from small, spread out little family houses, they moved up to larger and more comfortable houses, because otherwise with the increased number of people, there should have been an increased number of houses.

Thirty years after that, around 1860, there were already 20 houses of which 36 were made of brick, for a population of 3149, and that comes out to 16 people per house. One can learn from this that they built houses with business in mind – taking in boarders for rent.

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In the year 1881, Nowy Dwor was already a bigger business town with a few factories. They began to build the fortress, but even when the population reached the number 5268, the number of houses did not grow. Then too, there seems to have been 16 people per house. That implies that rent was already a good income, and that they built larger and more comfortable houses to meet the needs of the continually growing population.

Another interesting point that is worth mentioning is that in 1860 there were already 36 brick houses that were most certainly burned down in the various big fires, because as we remember Nowy Dwor, until 1914 there were hardly any brick houses. The Czarist strategists did not permit the building of brick houses in Nowy Dwor and its surrounding areas viewing them as impediments to their strategic planning.

Let us further analyze the growth of the population according to the numbers provided. These numbers show us interesting demographic information.

Within about half a century, from 1806 until 1856, we see a consistent growth both in the general population and in the Jewish population that in 1856 made a significant jump from twenty some percent to a complete fifty percent. This definitely is related to the times since it was then that they began building the famous Modlin fortress, and all those who participated in the construction came to Nowy Dwor with their families, as “recorders,” inspectors, and so on.

One year later, in 1857, the number of residents decreased somewhat, both in the general and in the Jewish population. But this was just a passing phase of the ongoing strong growth. At the beginning of 1860 until 1897, again we see an increase in the Jewish population that now reached about 70% (later only 65%) and that's how it became the majority of the city's population.

The reasons for this continued growth are easily explained. It is all related to the events of that time: the pogroms in Russia, the expulsion from Moscow, the beginning of industrialization of Poland, and the multifaceted building project of the Modlin fortress and her surrounding fortifications. A significant contributing factor was also the establishment and exciting development of the Nowy Dwor printing business that attracted many printers, typesetters, and merchants of whom many settled in Nowy Dwor.

At the beginning of the 20th century, it was found that there was a consistent decrease of the Jewish population in Nowy Dwor. The reasons for this are well known:

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The nearby capital of Warsaw catered to and attracted the newly-arrived wealthy for whom the little town was already too small. This was also how the large warehouses and factories and industrial centers that grew out of Warsaw and catering to the large Russian market, once they had dissolved the border crossings between Russia and Poland, became a welcoming center for the newly arisen proletariat class from Nowy Dwor, those who were looking for work and found some in the large city of Warsaw. Many of them remained and settled there.

The Russo-Japanese War, the 1905 revolution that was lost, the huge fire in 1907 (that destroyed almost three quarters of the city and left 7,000 residents without a roof over their heads), the fear of having to do service in the faraway wastelands of Siberia – had a tremendous influence on the decreasing Jewish population of Nowy Dwor. Many were already looking for another route and became caught up in the flow, as did many other Polish Jews at that time – with the route to the “Goldene Medina” (golden country) America. But despite all this, the Jewish population managed to hold onto its 50% in relation to the general population, as we see in the chart provided until the years 1921-1925.

In the later years, the number of Jews in relation to the general population consistently dropped. In 1931, the number of Jewish citizens went down to 42%, and after that, went even lower. The thinking is that this was already a result of the anti-Semitic direction of the municipal politics of the government in the new Poland that had arisen again.

With all kinds of kosher and not-so kosher means, the Polish regime in some clever way wanted to move out the majority of the Jewish residents of the cities and villages, setting up settlements outside the city centers, and even smaller villages that were populated with Volks-Deutchen (German folks), in order to create a Christian majority in the cities and towns that in fact, in the natural and honest course of events, would have remained with a Jewish majority. Nowy Dwor would certainly have gone through this same process.

When World War II broke out, in 1939, Nowy Dwor counted more than 10,000 residents, of which 4,000 were Jews, still at 40% of the population.

After World War II, after the destruction, Nowy Dwor, as all the Jewish cities and towns in Poland, was Judenrein (cleansed of Jews). Today, Nowy Dwor has 7,600 residents, and among them, one surviving Jew, the last one from the holy community of Nowy Dwor.

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Jewish Printing in Nowy Dwor

In this book, we bring a separate printing of Dr. Ringelblum's exhaustive work about Jewish printing in Nowy Dwor that he published in 1935, under the title: “Johann Anthon Kruger, The innovative printer of Hebrew books.” We are reprinting this important segment of Emanuel Ringelblum's book: “Chapters of History of the Former Jewish Life in Poland” (published in 1953 in the publication of the Union of Polish Jews in Argentina). Ringelblum's investigative work has much to say about the history of the printing business in Poland and about the intrigues and machinations around that, both from the non-Jewish concessions and from the Jewish merchants and from the middlemen. For us, in the center of a historical overview of Nowy Dwor, it is important to show the workings of the printing business in the city of Nowy Dwor, its influence on the lives of the local Jewish settlers, and the results of this – how Nowy Dwor became known, thanks to the printing, among the Jews of Poland, Belorussia, Lithuania, and other countries.

In order to demonstrate this, it is also important to learn about the topic of the Nowy Dwor printing through the materials of Chaim Dov Friedberg, Menashe Ungar, Yeshaye Frishman, Dr. Herman Frank, and from Israel, Avrohom Jeri. Ringelblum speaks only about Hebrew books, but we also have in front of us a row of books and storybooks published in Yiddish. Ringelblum ends his study with the year 1795 (until the third time Poland was divided), but thanks to the other materials, we can go until the year 1818 – until the final liquidation of Jewish printing in Nowy Dwor.

The book selling business at that time was well developed. The “People of the Book” made sure that there would be Jewish books in each house. In the poorer homes, the treasury of books consisted of a siddur (prayer book), a machzor (prayer book especially for the holidays), a chumash'el (a small Bible), and a Tzena Urena (stories of the Bible for women's reading) for the women, and the rich Jew allowed himself to own a set of Talmud and commentaries (Shas and Meforshim).

In those times, there were not yet many printing companies in Poland, and the book business – books were imported mainly from Holland and Italy – was not primarily in Jewish hands, because non-Jews also saw that here was a good business here and so they became involved as well.

In the year 1776, the Krotoszyn Jew Leizer ben Yitzchok, asked permission to open a printing company in Galedzinow, behind Warsaw, with the goal that this would spare them the need to import books from other countries. Leizer ben Yitzchok received this permission, but because of lack of funds, the company did not open. Years later, the Frenchman Peter Defour established this type of printing company that had a publishing house in Warsaw, on Altstadt #58.

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In 1780, he received permission to open a printing company, but because of the anti-Semitism of the city's government, he could not think about Jewish settlers and Jewish merchants in that area. The German Johann Anthon Kruger took over this privilege from the Frenchman Defour that same year – 1780, and he opened the printing company in Nowy Dwor. The company existed with many interruptions until 1818. During the first 17 years, that is until the year 1797, the printing company published 120 different books.

The main development of the printing company took place between 1780 and 1794, that is before Poland's independence, under the rule of the last Polish king, Stanislaw August Poniatowski.

In the year 1812, when Napoleon began his march on Russia, penetrating Poland and bringing in an excitement and an economical life, the printing company ceased its activities for two years. After this critical period, the company was revived, and as mentioned, existed until her final liquidation in the year 1818.

It's worthwhile to pause and look at the extraordinary appearance of the books that were printed in Nowy Dwor. On each of the title pages, the following was written, first in Hebrew then in Yiddish: “In Nowy Dwor, under the strong leadership of Duke Stanislaw Poniatowski; printed in the government printing company under Herr Johann Anthon Kruger.”

The above mentioned “strong leader” Stanislaw Poniatowski, was then the rightful owner of Nowy Dwor.

We want to pause here to discuss the sefer (religious book) Gevuros Hashem written by the Maharal of Prague, that we have in our possession. The Nowy Dwor printing company reprinted this sefer from a previous printing. The first publishing was in Krakow still during the lifetime of the author, the Maharal (1609-1520), the legendary creator of the Golem. It is not understood why the later publication of this reprinted book Gevuros Hashem did not include the Maharal's full name, Harav Rebbe Yehuda Loewe, son of Rebbe Betzalel, head of the Jewish court, and leader of the Jewish community of Prague – also popularly known in the abridged version as the Maharal of Prague.

The Nowy Dwor printing company published this sefer of the Maharal two hundred years after the first publication appeared in print. The Nowy Dwor publication shows the year 5556 (1796), that means the first year after the tri-partition of Poland, when Nowy Dwor already belonged to the Prussians who changed the name of Nowy Dwor that was used for generations to Neuhof. The sefer was printed with the fine letter printing of that time, with an introduction written by the author on seven double sides, and has 72 chapters with 102 double-sided pages.

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The content is strictly scholarly, discussing specifically the miracles of the Exodus of Egypt, with all the Talmudic commentaries around this subject. In many of the chapters, there are also extensive worldly discussions of the Maharal regarding natural science and biological science. The Nowy Dwor printing was also endorsed by two prominent leaders of that time – Re Levi Yitzchok of Berdiczev and the Kozhnicer Maggid, Reb Yisroel. The endorsements were actually a song of praise for the publishers of this sefer in Nowy Dwor – the famous Reb Yakov Moishe Beharbonai, the honored, famous descendent of Shlomo Zalman from Yeroslav, who settled in Warsaw.

As we see on the title page, the author is not short of any endorsements, and through these printed endorsements the publisher's business needs are satisfied because both endorsers deliver a strict prohibition saying that no one should reprint this sefer within seven years after it appears. In fact, the title for these endorsements is: “Endorsements and Punishments.”

It is also important to note how important was the work of the typesetter and printer – right on the title page was the full name of the printer, with his whole lineage: Yakov Beharbonai the famous one, descendant of Naftali Zvi Hirsh, of blessed memory, from the house of Joles from the holy community of the Rayvicz and who is occupied with the holy work of printing in Nowy Dwor.”

Printers, typesetters, workers of the printing press, and in general all those who were involved in printing seforim, were considered by Jews – and not only by Jews – to be doing holy work. They all needed to know the “fine print” and had a reputation of being scholars.

At the end of the above mentioned book, there is a list of the three typesetters and two printers. These are the names of those typesetters who were involved in holy work, with faith: Asher Aryeh our esteemed Rebbe and teacher Menachem Manis of blessed memory from the holy community of Zhulkew; Moishe our esteemed Rebbe and teacher Eliezer Lazar Katz Rappaport from the holy community of Krotoczyn; Benyomin our esteemed Rebbe Zvi Hirsh of blessed memory, of Nowy Dwor. These are the names of the printers who were involved in holy work, with faith: Avrohom Yitzchok our esteemed Rebbe Aron Zelig of blessed memory, from the holy community of Ostrow; Yuda our esteemed Rebbe Chaim Tzav of Nowy Dwor. We see among these five names listed that aside from the two from Nowy Dwor, there is one from Ostrow, one from the distant Galician town of Zhulkew, and one from at that time the area of Posen – Krotoczyn.

Zhulkew was a city with a few Jewish printing companies and with scores of well qualified Jewish printers. According to Ch. D. Friedberg, the first Jewish printing company in Zhulkew was established in the year 1691, about 100 years before the printing company in Nowy Dwor. The typesetter from Zhulkew, Asher Aryeh, was brought down to Now Dwor both as worker and as a teacher to instruct the less qualified workers in Nowy Dwor.

That's also what the printing of the “Widow and Brothers Rom” did in …

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Title page of sefer (book) Gevuras Hashem by the Maharal of Prague


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Page of sefer showing Stanislaw Poniatowski's name at the bottom


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… in Vilna. Rom's printing, as well as others in Poland and Lithuania, hired the well qualified printing workers from Nowy Dwor. Among these printers (from Rom's printing) we find the name of Reb Shimon Bar Yehuda from Nowy Dwor. After the liquidation of the printing company in Nowy Dwor, the printing company the “Widow and Brothers Rom” bought the printing type and the presses from Kruger. In 1812, a well-known Tzvi Hirsh ben Nosson opened a printing company in Warsaw and brought typesetters from Nowy Dwor. Among them were: someone with the name Chaim Moishe bar Avrohom, Kruger's former proofreader from the printing company in Nowy Dwor; Reb Yonoson bar Moreinu Yakov opened a printing company in Dubno and brought his brother along with him, Nosson Feitel, one of the best typesetters from the Nowy Dwor printing company. When Anthon Kruger, the founder of the Nowy Dwor printing and Korez printing opened a new printing company in Wengrow, he brought along with him a former typesetter from the Nowy Dwor printing, Boruch ben Tzvi Hershkowicz who became the supervisor in the Wengrow printing company.

Friedberg remembers several Nowy Dwor residents who were trained experts in the Nowy Dwor printing: the organizer Harav Shmuel bar Yitzchok from Nowy Dwor; the press operator Harav Yukel bar Avrohom of Nowy Dwor; the typesetter Chaim Abramowicz; the printer Aba Chaimowicz; the typesetter Benyomin Hershowicz.

The Nowy Dwor printing company that worked with four printing presses, employed 40 workers, according to Ringelblum's account. For those times, that was considered a large workshop, and we can certainly consider this work center as the seedling of a Jewish labor union as we knew these unions in the social life of Nowy Dwor during the two world wars.

It is also worthwhile to pause and look at the reasons that the shrewd Kruger, the former cloth merchant from Warsaw, selected Nowy Dwor as the place for his printing shop. At that time the legislations for the Jews in Warsaw and the strong anti-Semitic interceders of the Warsaw city suppliers did not create favorable conditions for opening a printing shop – so Kruger chose Nowy Dwor, closest to Warsaw, that was also at the point of a great industrial evolution, thanks to the initiative of the founder of Nowy Dwor at that time, Duke Stanislaw Poniatowski, as we discussed in the previous chapter. Also, Nowy Dwor then had a dense Jewish population, where you could easily find and train Jewish printers and typesetters for the printing business.

The Jewish printing company that was opened in Nowy Dwor raised the little known name of the Jewish community. Nowy Dwor, in the Jewish world of Poland, Lithuania, and Belorussia, became…

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… a household name. The printing company drew around it a wide periphery of Rabbonim: writers, book merchants, paper merchants, bookbinders, and so on.

How far the book production extended past Nowy Dwor can be seen from the state finance commission that found it necessary to establish a place in Nowy Dwor where they could stamp the books on the spot and safe large costs. In general, the government saw a great source of income in the printing of Jewish books, and it was a deterrent to importing books from outside the country.

In 1784, when the Nowy Dwor printing company decided to undertake the huge project of printing the Talmud, the state finance commission found it necessary to send out a special letter that the communities should take the responsibility of this job and sign as subscribers to the Talmud project.

Also for the local Jewish residents, this printing company along with the book business around it became a source of income. Merchants and middlemen from all over Poland would come here. These were merchants who worked to spread Kruger's printed publications to all the Jewish settlements.

Because of the regular contact with other Jewish settlements and the connection to the printing in Nowy Dwor, we can gather information from the various events that are described in these materials that the author collected for his work.

At the end of the 18th century, when a plague broke out in Krakow, the famous printing company owner there, Reb Yitzchok son of Aharon from Prusticz, better known by the name of Yitzchok Druker, the printer, took his family and moved over to Nowy Dwor, brought along part of his printing business, and here completed the printing of the sefer “Pardes Rimonim” (“Garden of Pomegranates”) written by the kabbalist from Tzfas, Reb Moishe Cordovero (known as “the Ramak”). When the epidemic quieted down, Yitzchok Druker left Nowy Dwor and again established his printing work in Krakow and there he published Jewish seforim.

At the beginning of this work, we mentioned the Jew Leizer Yitzchok of Krotoczyn, who was a relative to the royalty and moved in the large, princely court, and was for a significant time the royal money changer, and later – also the sandek (person holding the baby boy during a bris milah) in Lowicz. He, along with his son Yehonoson (Yonah ben Yakov) were the middlemen between Defour and Kruger while delivering Defour's concessions to Kruger. From various sources, we also know that this very Leizer, all the time during this printing shop's existence, did business in selling and distributing seforim and in imprinting the books. Very likely, for a significant time, he was also a silent partner in the Nowy Dwor printing company.

According to Ch.D. Friedberg, 17 local merchants, all Nowy Dwor residents, had the job of buying, stamping, and distributing the seforim to Jewish book merchants around the world. Aside from that …

[Page 35]

… merchants came from other cities to do business with books. Among those cities, Friedberg remembers: Zhulkew, Lanowiecz, Lisse, Bilgorej, Sidlowcza, Wengrow, Gombyn, Pinczew, Bojbernik, and so on.

Kruger ran his printing company with his Jewish assistants, and publishing books that were quite old-fashioned and very diverse: first, from the heavy Talmudic works of dialectics, basics for Jews – scholars; to the popular Chassidic storybooks in Yiddish, Tchinas (special prayers that women recite) for women, and the very beloved by our mothers and grandmother – the Tzena Urena (simplified commentary on the Torah written for women and used exclusively by women), the popular Kav Hayoshor (popular mussar book [ethics] written in the 1700s), Haggados for Passover, Kinos (for Tisha B'av), Selichos (recited during the period before Rosh Hashana and between Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur), bentcherlech (for reciting the blessings after meals), machzorim (for prayers during the High Holidays), siddurim (everyday prayer books). His calendars were known to all – a life's guide for the entire year, both for the ordinary Jew and for the scholarly Jew to know the times for the Jewish holidays, days of the new months, and Fast Days. In these calendars, he also described all the seforim that had been published and those that were in the planning – like a catalogue for his publications.

It is also interesting to know that in the year 1794 – one of the most fruitful years in the printing business – Kruger published a map of Israel. In 1816 he published the very popular and much read Chassidic story book Shivchei Ha'besht (stories of the Baal Shem Tov [founder of the Chassidic movement]). Kruger felt and knew what the people wanted and needed. The Shivchei Ha'besht was first published in Hebrew and in Yiddish in the Kapuster printing, and was widely received by the general readership. The energetic Kruger probably sensed the opportunities for success that can come from these publications. One year later, in his publications in Nowy Dwor and in Korecz, he published two new printings of the Shivchei Ha'besht in Yiddish. These were not ordinary, dry translations of the Hebrew, but they were folk stories as well.

Yohann Kruger was one of the first publishers of seforim who used his own funding, and because of that many rabbis and writers who had no funds of their own to publish their works were drawn to him. His books gave him the financial means to run a book exchange with other publishers in the country, as well as in other countries. Kruger decorated his publications with a monogram of his own initials. The style of the monogram was made to fit the style of the sefer. There were times that in order to give distinction to their publications, other printers also used Kruger's monograms. This type of thing happened in the Ostrow printing company that belonged to Reb Aron bar Yona.


Religious Teachers and Rabbis in Nowy Dwor

In the religious, traditional circles in Poland, Nowy Dwor was known as a Chassidic city, with its religious teachers, rabbis, and scholars.

When Chassidus was brought into Poland, and primarily …

[Page 36]

… into the area of Mazowie, by the Ukrainian Jews, during the time that the Jews were escaping from the Haidamak murderers in 1768 – the Warsaw Jews did not take on Chassidus very strongly. They were still under the strong influence of the Misnagdim (opponents to Chassidism, characteristically practiced the “Lithuanian” approach to Judaism; marked by a concentration on highly intellectual Talmud study), with the renowned leader HaRav Reb Avrohom Katzenelenbogen from Brisk at its head. Nonetheless, in Praga, the main city in Warsaw, that in those times was still a city unto itself, the Chassidic movement took strong root. Also, the towns around Warsaw, such as Grodzisk, Strikew, and Nowy Dwor, were already strong centers of Chassidus.

As I mentioned earlier, at that time, in the years 1775-1785, the head of the Rabbanus in Nowy Dwor was the fiery Chassidic HaRav Reb Uriel, who was formerly the Rav of the town Ryczwol.

Many of the Chassidic rabbis that later became renowned religious teachers and established their own rabbinic dynasties, actually held the rabbinic leadership in this town of Ryczwol. It's enough to mention the names of Reb Shmelke of Nikolsberg and Reb Levi of Berdiczew. From the rabbinic position in Ryczwol, Reb Shmelke was invited to take the prestigious rabbinic position on the larger city of Nikolsberg. For a significant time, Reb Levi of Berdiczew was the Rav in Ryczwol, and from there, because he was being harassed by the Misnagdim, he had to flee on Hoshana Rabba, clutching his esrog and lulav, to the Magid of Koznicz. Also, the great miracle worker and first Radzymin Rav, Reb Yakov Aryeh Guterman, before he came to Radzymin, was also a Rav in Ryczwol; and also Reb Uriel came from there.

Reb Uriel's time as Rav in Nowy Dwor was the same time as the establishment and existence of the Jewish printing business in Nowy Dwor. It seems that it was the workings and influence of Reb Uriel that Chassidic books and stories be printed, as well as the renowned Chassidic book Shivchei HaBesht.

Let's now pause and look at another great Chassidic personality, the great teacher, HaRav Reb Henoch from Alexander, who for many years was Rav in Alexander and later in Nowy Dwor.

The position of Rav in Nowy Dwor was held by Rev Henoch until the year 1859. He greatly influenced the spread of Chassidic life in Nowy Dwor and in the surroundings. This created tremendous conflicts with the Misnagdim (the opponents), because of which he eventually had to leave town.

Before Reb Henoch's time, many Lithuanian Jewish “contractors” settled in Nowy Dwor, and they had large businesses with the building of and around the Modlin fortress, as it was then called the “Nowy Dwor Krepost (fortress).” One of the Nowy Dwor community leaders was then one of the rich, active men, Avrohom Faigin. Between him and Reb Henoch a terrible argument broke out once before Passover about making an oven kosher for baking matzos. The proud man Faigin took …

[Page 37]

… it upon his own responsibility to give the stamp of it being kosher as having been given by a dayan (expert on Jewish law). Reb Henoch said that these matzos were forbidden to be eaten, and the conflict grabbed the entire town. Chassidim demanded of the Rav that this wealthy man be excommunicated, which didn't happen. The end was that Reb Henoch of Alexander – the student of Reb Bunim of Psyzkhe – after that from the Kotzker Rebbe Reb Mendele, and then from the first Gerer Rebbe, the Chidushei Harim – he was told that he had to leave the Nowy Dwor position of Rav, because of a meddling Jew, and he became a Rav in the nearby town of Prosnicz. In the year 1865, Reb Henoch had to leave his position in Prosnicz, again because of a conflict with the local businessmen, until he finally returned to Alexander , no longer as a Rav, but as anyone else, and his son – the very wealthy man, Reb Yechiel Efraim Fishel from Melnicz – supported him into his old age.

In 1859, when Reb Henoch left his position of Rav in Nowy Dwor, for a short time Nowy Dwor had a Rav that was a Misnaged, who likely held this leading rabbinic position with the backing of the above mentioned wealthy, community man, Avrohom Faigin. In his old age, Faigin lost all his properties and had an ugly death. The Chassidim said that this was a punishment for Reb Henoch of Alexander. Probably, in connection with this, with Avrohom Faigin's end, the Misnaged Rav also left Nowy Dwor.

The well-known rabbinic scholar HaRav Yosef Lewinshtayn, the very elderly Rev from Serock, says in his sefer “Generations, and Generations, and Their Generations,” with its calculations of the great Jewish leaders since the time of Adam, in a succinct line: “HaRav HaGaon Shimshon, Av Beis Din of Nowy Dwor” (titles of leadership and scholarship), and the year of his death – the year 5598 (1838). It seems that this was one of the Rabbis in Nowy Dowr after Rav Uriel and before Reb Henoch. When we wanted to know more about the details of who was this Reb Shimshon, the author of the seferOholei Shem” (The Tents of G-d), Reb Shmuel Noach Gotlieb from Pinsk was very helpful. In this sefer, on page 136, we find the following notations, which I include here in its full text:


A poem by Reb Henoch of Alexander, with the initials of his name,
written in the handwriting of Reb Hersh Mendel Lichtenshtayn

[Page 38]


As we know, the Sczegow Rav, Reb Yitzchok Srebrenik, after World War One became the Zakroczyner Rav and took the Chief Rabbi position, until he and the community were annihilated by the Nazi murderers. The Zakroczyner Rav, Reb Yitzchok Srebrenik, was a cousin of our well-known Nowy Dwor Zionist community activist Reb Shimshon Nute Srebrenik, may his memory be blessed, and the grandfather of both of them, Reb Shimshon, was the unknown Nowy Dwor Rav who occupied the position of Chief Rabbi about a hundred and fifty years ago.

In the above mentioned seferDor Ve'dor Ve'dorshov,”HaRav Levinshtayn remembers: “The scholar Reb Avrohom Tzvi from Nowy Dwor, author of the sefer “Divrei Ha'bris,” died in the year 5489 (1729). From these few lines it is hard to know whether this Reb Avrohom Tzvi was a Rav in Nowy Dwor or whether he was originally from there. As one can understand from the year of his death, he lived in the second half of the 17th century, until a few decades into the 18th century – that means, even before the rabbinic period of the mentioned Reb Uriel. But, with that said, there is no evidence about the Rabbanus of Reb Avrohom Tzvi in Nowy Dwor itself, and his name only adds and confirms the theory that about three hundred years ago Nowy Dwor there was a Jewish settlement with scholars and writers.

Many Nowy Dwor residents certainly remember the grave with the large tombstone of a “fine Jew” in the local cemetery. Religious Jews used to throw in kvitlech (notes requesting blessings), light candles, and in challenging times, they would pour their strong emotions onto the grave of a Tzaddik (righteous man); women who would go to these graves and beg for cures for a dangerously sick person, would first go to the grave of the holy Tzaddik, then pour out their tears, express their problems, and beg the Tzaddik to intervene on their behalf in the heavenly heights. There, at the half caved-in tombstone, were the bones of the Nowy Dwor Rav of long ago, of very prestigious ancestry. His name was Reb Yakov Moishe Teumim, a grandson of the Chidushei Harim, the founder of the Gerer Rabbinic dynasty. The time when he was taken on as the Rav of Nowy Dwor is difficult to determine, but when one carefully examines the years, and examines when others held this rabbinic position, it seems that Reb Yakov Moishe was Rav in Nowy Dwor between the years 1863 and 1898.

Reb Yakov Moishe Teumim, who was more a religious teacher than a Rav, brought back the “old crown”; brought in and strengthened the Chassidus according to the ways of Koczk and Ger, as many years ago his predecessor Henoch of Alexander had done. How holy Reb Yakov Moishe was for the Jews of Nowy Dwor. One can see this on the day of his death – Lag B'Omer – they put up a large tombstone on his grave, and for many years….

[Page 39]

… after his death, on every Lag B'Omer, the Gerer Chassidim celebrated his yahrzeit.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Nowy Dwor had its own Rebbe, the Zwolner Rebbe Reb Moishe Aharon. After Zwolen was burned down, Reb Moishe Aharon and his family moved to Nowy Dwor. Rebbe Moishe Aharon Taub, the son of Reb Shmuel Eliyahu of Zwolen, was the grandson of Reb Yechezkel Kuzhmirer and a brother of the elderly Modziczer Rebbe, Reb Yisroel, may his memory be blessed, the famous Chassidic musician. The two sons of Reb Moishe Aharon established the style of Modziczer music. One of these sons, the famous musician Reb Chaim Yerachmiel, left for Warsaw and there he held the position of Zwolner Rebbe. The second son, Reb Yankele, conducted a Chassidic tisch (celebration or gathering) with a small group of Chassidim in Nowy Dwor. He was an exceptional leader of the prayers and musician, using the Modziczer style. In the year 1920, Reb Yankele and his refined wife “Pessele the Rebbetzen,” the daughter of the former Rav of Nowy Dwor Reb Yakov Moishe Teumim, left for Warsaw and there he became known as the Nowy Dwor Rebbe. He and his entire family were murdered by Hitler and his bandits, together with all the Jews in Warsaw.

One of the most revered rabbis in Nowy Dwor and one of the most famous in Poland was Harav Reb Menachem Mendel Chaim Landau – a tremendous genius with a great ancestry, a son of the Nazielsk Rebbe Reb Yenkele, and a grandson of the well-known genius the Chekhanower Rav and Rebbe Reb Avremele Landau. Harav Reb Menachem Mendel Chaim Landau held the position of Chief Rabbi in Nowy Dwor for six years, from 1898 until 1904. Then he left Nowy Dwor and was taken on as the Rav in Zawiercze.

These six years of Rav Landau's position as Rav were very productive years for the Jewish community because his rabbinic leadership was bound up with the concerns and activities of Jewish life. HaRav Landau was a man for the community in all areas of Jewish life in Poland.

In the year 1903, he organized a large rabbinic conference. He presented a big plan for developing religious Jewish life in Poland. The main point was that he addressed the problems of religious education for the growing youth. His platform of ideas was later published in book form under the title “Mikeitz Nirdomim” (wake up those who are sleeping).

Rav Landau was also the author of many scholarly seforim. He was also known for his great love for the country of Israel.

After Reb Landau, the position was taken over by HaRav Reuven Yehuda Neufeld, the last Nowy Dwor Rav, to whom we are dedicating a separate section in this book.

To end this chapter about Nowy Dwor rabbis and religious teachers, I would like to mention an event that involves Reb Yitzchok Meyer Alter …

[Page 40]

…. of blessed memory, the Chidushei Harim, founder of the Ger Rabbinic dynasty, and his concealment in Nowy Dwor.

In connection with the decrees and secret instructions by the Czarist regime in 1845, saying that the Jews have to change their traditional clothing and begin to wear more “German like” clothing, and with the resistance to these decrees by the religious Jews in Warsaw – at the head of which was the Rav of the community of Warsaw Reb Yakov Gesundheit, Reb Yitzchokel Worker, and the Chidushei Harim – the Czarist representative in Warsaw, Ivan Federovitch Paskevitch gave out an order to arrest the leader Chidushei Harim, Reb Yitzchok Meyer Alter, who then was not yet the Gerer Rebbe and was a member of the Warsaw rabbinate. Reb Yitzchok Meyer was imprisoned only for one day; he was released the following morning by the same Ivan Paskevitch, because the uproar around his arrest reached all the way to Duke Konstantin, the brother of the Czar and the then ruler of Poland.

After his release, Reb Yitzchok Meyer did not feel secure in Warsaw. The Czarist powers had already looked at him negatively for a long time because of his and Mendele Koczker's sympathy for the Polish resistance in the year 1837, and their becoming closer to the Polish general, the well-known lover of Israel, Ostrowski. (At that time, the date shows the change of Reb Yitzchok Meyer's prominent name Rotenberg -- after the famous Tzaddik and holy Rav and teacher of Rotenberg – to Alter.) The fear of oppression and of the bitter conflict between the Chassidim and Misnagdim in Warsaw in connection with his arrest – urged him for a long time to uproot himself and move to Nowy Dwor.

It was not just for a simple reason that Reb Yitzchok Meyer chose Nowy Dwor for his place of refuge. First, it was because in this town there were many Chassidim, and they welcomed him with great respect. The author of “Ma'ir Einai Hagula” mentions several times in his book the name of HaRav Duvid Shloime of Nowy Dwor, who moved heaven and earth in order to set up the Rebbe in Nowy Dwor as best as he could, and got him a large, beautiful house in which to welcome his Chassidim.

Rebbe Yitzchok Meyer Alter came to Nowy Dwor in the month of Adar, year 5611 (1851), and the Rebbe felt very good among the Nowy Dwor Jews. His phrase is well known: “Nowy Dwor means (in Polish) a new court – so it will be a good place to learn new Torah.” His Chassidim in Warsaw wanted that he come back to Warsaw for Passover, but he in no way wanted to do this until the decree about the dress would be revoked. Five days before Passover, the Rebbe wrote to his two Chassidim, the honorable Reb Eliezer (later the Pluczker Rav) and Reb Yosef Krel, pleading that they end the arguments because of him, and he wished them a happy holiday. Because of …

[Page 41]

…. the historical importance of this event, I bring here the entire text, taken from the seferMa'ir Einai Hagula”:


Signature of text: Your dear friend, the humble lecturer, Reb Yitzchok Meyer

But the Chidushei Harim did not stay in Nowy Dwor for Passover. The day before the eve of Passover a special delegation from Warsaw came to see him and told him that the decree was definitely going to be revoked, that the custodian Paskovitch and his advisors were already compiling a new ordinance, and the Rebbe went back to Warsaw where thousands of his Chassidim were waiting for him and welcomed him with the greatest joy.

The decree was actually revoked, but only two years later. In 1853, the new ordinance appeared, saying that the Jews could dress either “German-like,” meaning European, with short beards and side-locks, or like the Russian merchants – wearing hats with visors (caps), and the pants tucked into their boots, and they could leave their beards.

The name of Reb Yitzchok Meyer Alter, the Chidushei Harim, remained bound up with the prestigious chain of all the Nowy Dwor Jews for many years after his visit as one who was persecuted by the kingdom and as an escapee from the conflicts between Jews.


In this work, I stressed that Nowy Dwor was a Chassidic city. This is certainly more true of those times of which I am writing, or better said, it IS true, according to the historical accounts of those times, which I have discovered through my research. That, however, doesn't mean that it was all unified and strongly the same, as from one mold. In those times there were certainly also …

[Page 42]

…. among us some heretics, enlightened Jews, and some individual rebels who tried to push out of the fixed ways and settled traditions. It is known that the Berlin “Enlightenment” with gradual steps also reached some individuals in the town.

We remember the enlightened and heretical Reb Hershel Jeruzalimski, the enlightened and Zionist veteran Shimshon Nute Srebrenik, the progressive-thinking rebel and literary person Shmuel Grabman. In this record book there are published memories of Simcha Wago, Avrohom Goldberg, Sam Borenshtayn, Hershel Himelfarb, and others, from whom we also know about the role that many in Nowy Dwor had in the revolutionary circles in the lively year 1905. We remember the well-organized, professional unions in Nowy Dwor; the proletariat parties such as the Bund and Poalei Zion with their large membership, as well as the activities of other radical political groups, one more outstanding than the other, as a mass political movement in such a small town. None of this happened by chance, and it certainly had roots in those individuals or small groups of enlightened individuals and thinkers of over a hundred years before.

Dr. Shaczki writes of this in his “History of Jews in Warsaw.” In volume 1, a writer from Nowy Dwor by the name Chaim ben Avrohom Perlmuter, in the year 1814, published his “Shira Le'Chaim” (Song to Life), with a dedication to the new ruler of Poland after the defeat of Napoleon, the Russian Czar and king of Poland, Alexander I. A Hebrew poet 150 years earlier in such a small town was not just a random appearance, but this probably had to do with tight laws in this conservative area, and it seems that there the kernels fell for the future new age and bubbling Jewish social life in Nowy Dwor of our times.

And finally, thank you to all who helped me find the necessary material and gave me their additional professional direction with love: HaRav Avide of blessed memory (Y.L. Zlotnik) of Jerusalem; HaRav Margalit of the “Sifriah Toranit” (Torah Library) in Tel Aviv; my brother HaRav Avrohom Simcha First, of blessed memory; the unknown friend Y. Davidowicz from Wraclaw, who responded to my ad in the Jewish newspapers and sent me the requested materials from Poland; my Tel Aviv friend Moishe Morgenshtern for the access to his rich library; the friend A. Kalish from Yad Vashem in Jerusalem, for his advice in determining the number of Jewish residents in Nowy Dwor of long ago; and all the writers in the following bibliographic list.

[Page 43]


Translated by Yoceheved Klausner

Prof. Stanislaw Pazira, “Studia z dziejów miast na Mazowsku od XIII do XX wiecku”.
Sebastian Fabian Klonowicz, “Flis”, 1895.
Dr. Ignacy Schiper, “Dzieje Handlu Żydowskiego na Ziemiach Polskich”, 1937, Nakładem Centrali Zwiasku Kupców w Warszawie.
Bronisław Chlebowski, “Słownik Geograficzni Królewstwa Polskiego I innych Krajó Słowianskich”, 1886, Wydawnyctwo Gebethner I Wolff.
Mała Encyklopedia Powszechna, 1959, Warszawa.
Der Grosse Brokhaus [German Encycl. Handbook of Science].
Dr. Józef Dawidsohn, “Gminy Żydowskie” Warszawa 1931, Klubu Posłów Sejmowych, Żydowskiej Rady Narodowej.
Evreiskaia Encyklopedia [Jewish encyclopedia], Vol. 11 p. 769.
Dr. Yakov Schatzki, Geschichte fun Yiden in Warshe [Yiddish, History of the Jews in Warsaw], Vol. I, II and III, YIVO publ. 1947, 1948, 1953.
Emanuel Ringelblum, Kapitlen Geschichte fun Amoliken Yidishen Lebn in Poilen [Yiddish, Chapters in the history of Jewish life in Poland], Publ. Central Association of Polish Jews in Argentina, 1953.
Gevurot Hashem [Hebrew, The Might of God], Rav R'Yehuda Liwai, Nowy-Dwor, 5556 [1796].
Dr. Herman Frank, Yiddishe typografie un Buch-Oisarbetungs-Kunst [Yiddish, Jewish printing and book-design], New-York 1938.
Chaim Dov Friedberg, Toldot hadfus ha'ivri bePolania [Hebrew, History of Jewish printing in Poland], Tel Aviv, 5710 [1950].
Menashe Ungar, Di Mayses vegen BESHT [Yiddish, Stories about the Baal Shem Tov].
Rav David Halachmi, Chachmei Israel [Hebrew, Jewish scholars], Tel Aviv 5718 [1958].
Rav A. I. Bromberg, The Admor R'Henich of Aleksander [Hebrew], Jerusalem, 5718 [1958].
Dr. A. S. Horodetzki, Hahasidut Vehahasidim [Hebrew, Hassidism and Hassidim]. Dvir publ., Tel Aviv 5711 [1951].
Refael Mahler, Hahasidut Vehahaskala [Hebrew, Hassidism and Enlightenment], Sifriyat Poalim, 1961.
Shimon Dubnov, Toldot Hahasidut [Hebrew, History of Hassidism], Dvir publ. Tel Aviv.
Yitzhak Alfassi, Gur [Hebrew, Gerer Hassidism], Sinai publ., Tel Aviv, 5714 [1954].
Avraham Yissachar Alter, Me'ir Einei Hagola [Hebrew, Lighting the eyes of the Diaspora], Alter Bergman publ., Tel aviv 5714 [1954].
M. G. Geshuri, Hahasidut Veniguneha [Hebrew, Hassidism and its songs], Encyclopedia of the Diaspora, Vol. 1, Jerusalem – Tel Aviv.
Dr. Refael Mahler, Divrei Yemei Israel, Dorot Acharonim [Hebrew, History of the Jewish people, recent generations], Vol. 1 (Book 2), Sifriyat Poalim publ.
Rav Yosef Levinstein, Dor Dor Vedorshav [Hebrew, Every generation has its scholars]. Netzach publ., Tel Aviv 5709 [1949).
Shmuel Noah Gottlieb, Oholei Shem [Hebrew, The tent of Shem], Globerman publ., Pinsk 5642 [1882].
Aharon ben Yeshaya Nathan Walden, Shem Hagdolim Hechadash [Hebrew, Names of great people], Warsaw 1864.
Yitzhak Werfel, Sefer Hachasidut [Hebrew, The book of Hassidism], Z. Leinman publ., Tel Aviv 5707 [1947].
Avraham Levinsohn, Toldot Yehudei Varsha [Hebrew, History of the Jews of Warsaw], Am-Oved publ., Tel Aviv 5714 [1954].
Rachel Auerbach, Bechutzot Varsha [Hebrew, through the streets of Warsaw], Am Oved publ., Tel Aviv, 5714 [1954].
N. Shemen, Dos gezang fun Chasidus [Yiddish, The song of Hassidism], Buenos Aires, 1959.
Rav Avraham Yitzhak Bromberg, The ADMORIM of Aleksander, Jerusalem, 5712 [1952].
Yizkor Book for the Ciechanow Community, Tel Aviv, 1962.
Bet Israel BePolin [The Jewish People in Poland], Vol. II, Jerusalem 5714 [1954].
Encyclopedia of the Diaspora, Warsaw, Part II, Jerusalem – Tel Aviv.
Dr. Yehuda Rosenthal, Rabbis in Mlawa, Pinkas Mlawa, New-York, 1950.
Eliezer Tibon, The book, the Newspaper and the Printing Press, [Hebrew], Sifriyat Poalim, 1960.
The Jews in Poland, Vol. I [Yiddish], New-York 1946.
Nachum Nir Rafalks, Pirkei Chaim [Hebrew, Chapters of Life], Hakibutz Hame'uchad publ., 5718 [1958].
Nir, Der onhoib in Poiln [Yiddish, The beginning in Poland], Yiddisher Arbeiter Pinkas [Register of the Jewish workers], Vol.I, Neie Kultur publ., Warsaw 1927.
Efraim Kupfer, Ber Meisels, Jewish Historical Institute in Poland, Warsaw 1952.

[Page 44]


Reprint of cover page in “Kav Hayoshor” with Johann Anthon Kruger's insignia.


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