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[Columns 791 - 792]

Letter from Peru

by Shmuel Shaffer

Translated by Yael Chaver

 

Shmuel Shaffer

 

Hrubieszow natives in New Jersey

 

On December 16, 1935, I left my home town Hrubieszow for a land called Peru. To tell the truth, I didn't even know where that land was. My friend Eliezer Givertz greeted me. He had come to Peru a year earlier; he died in 1941.

I came to Peru penniless. My friend welcomed me joyously and invited me to his home. He was living in one room with his wife and a small child. His furniture consisted of a bed, a table, and a chair. For many weeks, all four of us slept in that bed, until I began earning money.

My business consisted of lugging two heavy valises filled with merchandise and knocking on doors; in other words, peddling.

I suffered like this for more than a year, and later left to go to a province. The province was a desert, a wilderness, with high mountains. I had to ride donkeys for 10-12 hours. Those were three bitter, bloody years.

Here in Peru – in other words, in Lima – there are 3-4 thousand Jews, all of whom had a similar experience.

Our suffering did come to an end. Now, almost everyone is doing well and making a good living. Jewish women do community work, and Jewish children are in school. We have Jewish physicians and lawyers. In short, we hope it will continue

Unfortunately, I underwent the great calamity of losing my entire family.

When I left my home, I left behind parents, sisters, brothers, brothers- and sisters-in-law, their children, friends, uncles, aunts – in short, a large family. And, in general, a town full of Jews and friends. Now all that is left is to honor their memory.

I remember my small alley off Bath Street that ended at the butchers' street. Panska Street - our guys and girls would stroll along it in the evenings of Shabbes and holidays. We did not consider, or understand, what lay in store for us.

Only now do we reflect on it, realize it, and mourn for it. But then, when we were constricted by laws and regulations – that was when we should have understood their meaning, and begun to fight. We might not have suffered so many losses.

I remember our unhappy life in accursed Poland. Which Jew did not suffer poverty? Which Jew did not freeze in the winter, with his eight or ten children, in a tiny house? Which Jews did not start worrying on Sunday about baking bread for Shabbes? And then heaved a sigh, “This, too, is for the best.”

I see our past, and ask myself, “So did the Jew live in Poland at all?”

And yet the damned Hitler said, “Even that is too much,” and destroyed our town, sending our sisters, brothers, and children to the gas chambers, or burying them alive.

We dare not ever forget; we must ostracize the murderers, may their names be blotted out!

May no trace of their land remain!


[Columns 793 - 794]

Hrubieszow Natives in Israel

Translated by Yael Chaver

Translator Note: In the original volume, these lists of names and addresses are arranged according to the Hebrew alphabet.
I have followed this order, as the names are not vowelized, and it is impossible to tell whether a name includes an a or an ei.

 

Alef
 
Abramant, David 33 HeChayal, Ramat Gan
Adar, Dora 8/138 Kiryat Eliezer, Haifa
Adar, Hirsh 11 Shlomtzion HaMalka, Tel Aviv
Aharoni, Dov 98 Achad HaAm, Tel Aviv
Uffler (Shinzinger), Ida 12 Mem-Daled St., Lod
Atlas (Rozmarin), Sylvia 15 Shikun Amidar, Magdiel
Eydelman, Yosef Shikun Amidar, Bat Yam
Eydlshteyn, Ya'akov 55 Ganei Tikva, Petach Tikva
Eydlshteyn, Tzvi 6 Shderot Weizmann, Netanya
Ayz (Huber), Gita 80 HaYovel St., Petach Tikva
Ayzen (Zafran), Malka 11 Shikun Sela, Mifdeh, Ramat Gan
Ayzen, Yitzchak 11 Mifdeh Ezrachi Alef, Ramat Gan Bet
Ayzen, Shaul 168 Amidar, Ramat Gan Bet
Ayzenberg (Fogel), Dvora Bet HaChayal, Golomb St., Ramat Gan
Ayzenkrantz, Matityahu 36 Bin-Nun St., Tel Aviv
Aychenboym (Komarovsky), Frida 4 Remez St., Ramat Gan
Eyal, Mordechai Bat Yam
Aynhorn, Avraham 36 Bitzaron St., Tel Aviv
Aynhorn, Elkana 6 HaTzanchanim St., Giv'atayim
Elburt (Kirshenfeld), Dora Ramat Gan
Almogi, Yosef 34 Arlozorov, Haifa
Elster (Nisil), Necha 10 Nordau St., Rechovot
Elitzur (Holtzer), Zelig 7 Golomb St., Bat Yam
Alushar, Yechezkel 39 Be'eri St., Tel Aviv
Almog (Yanover), Chana 31 HaParsa St., Tzahala, Tel Aviv
Amper, Shlomo-Ber Apak St., Giv'atayim
Engelsberg, Chaim and Nechama 15 Salomon St., Petach-Tikva
Engelshteyn, Tzvi 13 Nun-Alef St., Kfar Shalem
Antchik, Ya'akov Shlomo HaMelech St., Tel Aviv
Efrat (Fayer), Dvora 258 HaYarkon St., Tel Aviv
Epshteyn, Shoshana and Yosef 6 Aharonovitch St., Rishon LeTziyon
Akerman, Yosef 200 Tel Hanan, Haifa
Akerman, Michael 250 Tel Hanan, Haifa
Ekshteyn, Ya'akov 187 Ibn Gvirol St., Tel Aviv
Aryeh (Dikler), Chana 52 Shderot Umm, Haifa
Erlich, Yechezkel Be'eri St., Tel Aviv
Arfin, Chayim 82 Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv
Ashkenazi (Zinger), Dvora 56 Balfour St., Bat Yam
 
Bet
 
Babtchiuk (Griner), Roza 219/6 St., Jaffa
Bodenshteyn, Yaakov Lod
Bodenshteyn (Fuks), Roza 60/82 St., Jaffa
Buchtreger, Avraham Krinitzi House, Yahalom St.
Buchshtab (Oberland), Miriam 18 King George St., Tel Aviv
Boskovitch, Ya'akov-Yitzchak 30 Zevulun St., Tel Aviv
Burshteyn, M. 57 Shderot Hen, Tel Aviv
Bornshteyn (Katz), Beila 8 Patai St., Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv
Bzhozha, Yitzchak 223 Amidar, Bat Yam
Bezem, Moshe 7006 Hassan Bek, Jaffa
Bezem, Tzvi 11 Tzirlson, Tel Aviv
Bigler, Eliyahu 14 Shivat-Tziyon St., Haifa
Bigler, Yona 43 Shprintzak St., Shikun Vatikim, Netanya
Bidler (Miller), Tcharna Shikun Amidar, Ramla
Bizan (Varman), Leah 17 Trumpeldor St., Acre
Biterman, Shmuel Kfar Bitzaron
Bill, Golda 8 HaGefen St., Haifa
Bitchman, (Kam), Moshe 269/1 St., Jaffa
Birnboym (Bart), Tzipora Kfar Chayim
Bechar (Alter), Bina 142, Nesher, near Haifa
Balbunek (Oberlander), Gitl 31 Horkanos St., Tel Aviv
Blitz (Zafran), Paula 6 Arnon St., Mifdeh Ezrachi, Ramat Gan Bet
Blechman, Yitzchak 12 Ibn Gvirol St., Tel Aviv
Blender, Avraham 18B Rassco, Afula Illit
Blender, Gitl Old Age Home, 98 Derech HaShalom, Tel Aviv
Blender (Klayner), Matla 8B Rassco, Afula Illit
Benari (Knop), Mendl 188 Ibn Gvirol, Tel Aviv
Ben-Moshe (Gayer), Shechora 4 Dreyfus St., Kiryat Shalom, Tel Aviv
Becker, Aryeh Shikun Amidar, Hadar Yosef
Becker, Dov 10 Tzahal St., Kfar Saba
Becker, Reuven 315/7 St., Jaffa
Berger, Yehoshua Haifa
Berger, Azriel Yosef Kfar Hess
Berger (Kugel), Leah 10 Tzahal St., Bat Galim, Haifa
Bar-David (Kayzman), Batya 106/9 Kiryat Eliezer, Haifa
Bart, Simcha 22 Batei HaSefer, Giv'at Aliya, Tel Aviv
Brand, David 25 Melchett St., Tel Aviv
Brand, Ruzhka HaShachar St., Herzliya
Brand, Shlomo 39 HaKeshet St., Ramat Gan
Brandil, David Kibbutz Dafna
Bernhart, Ya'akov 20 Binyamin St., Sheikh Munis, Tel Aviv
Barnur (Brandil), David Kibbutz Bnei Atarot, Doar Atarot
Brenner, Aharon 77 Ein HaTchelet St., Netaniya
 
Gimel
 
Gevirtz, Yehuda 18 Sdeh Boker St., Giv'atayim
Gevirtz, Yisra'el 69 Shikun Neve Oved, Ramla
Geduldig, Avraham 191/B Giv'at Olga, Hadera
Geduldig, Pinchas Magdiel
Goldberg (Kam), Yona Kibbutz Alonim
Goldberg, Yosef Kfar Hess
Goldberg, Pinchas 2 Gur Aryeh St., Ramat Gan
Goldberg, Tzvi 47 Herzl St., Netanya

[Columns 795 - 796]

Goldberg, Yitzchak 17/80 St., Jaffa
Goldorin (Luxenburg), Malka 51 Abba Hillel St., Ramat Gan
Goldzam (Esig), Dvora 6 Shikun Amami, Ramla
Goldman (Bechar), Dvora 33 Sheinkin St., Giv'atayim
Goldfarb, Avraham and Sheyndl 127 Kehillat Varsha St., Hadar Yosef, Tel Aviv
Goldshteyn, Baruch and Yenta 3 Nordau St., Netanya
Goldshteyn, Chayim 97 Ramat Amidar, Ramat Gan
Goldshteyn, Chana 27 HaMa'ayan, Giv'atayim
Goldshteyn, Mendl 3 Golomb St., Giv'atayim
Gur-Aryeh (Pakhter), Mordechai 22 Shderot HaChayal, Tel Aviv
Gurevitch, (Garber), Sheyndl Kibbutz Negba, Doar Na Ashkelon
Gorstman, Ya'akov 76 Wolfsohn St. Petach Tikva
Gorfinkel, Bernard 85 Shechuna Bet, Be'er Sheva
Gayst, David Nir David, Doar Na Gilboa
Gayst, Sender 19 Shikun Rassco, Afula
Gayst, Zvi 11 Yehoshua St., Haifa
Gal, Yosef 20 Ayin-Gimel St., Kiryat Chayim
Gelber, Ya'akov 11 Chulda HaNevi'a St., Bnei Brak
Glazberg, Aba 5/b Kiryat Chayim
Glazberg, Sha'ul 31 Ben Yehuda, Haifa
Glazberg, Shim'on 6 Simtat HaShachar, Haifa
Glazer, Aharon 4 Hadari St., Jaffa
Glinshpan (Kenol), Sarah Kfar Kish
Gliksberg, Chayim 6 Bruria St., Ramat Gan
Gliksberg, No'ach 16 Gordon St., Netanya
Gil'ad (Geduldig), Sha'ul 56 HaRo'eh St., Ramat Gan
Gendel (Tzimerman), Pnina Shikun Akerman, Kfar Saba
Groh, Pinchas 110/4 Sha'ar Menashe, Haifa
Gruber, Yitzchak 7 Gush Etzion, Giv'atayim
Gruber, Simcha Shikun Vatikim, Giv'atayim
Gruman, Ya'akov 406 Kiryat Shalom, Tel Aviv
Gertl, Eliyahu Kibbutz Ramat Yochanan
Gertl, Hinda 6 Eybeshitz St., Tel Aviv
Gertl, Chayim 13 Remez St., Kiryat-Tiv'on
Gertl 24 Alexander Yanai St., Tel Aviv
Gertl, Ya'akov 3 Vermayza St., Tel Aviv
Gertl, Yisha'ayahu Binyamina
Gertl, No'ach 4 HaKnesset St., Giv'atayim
Gertl (Shtaynfeld), Sarah 6 Shderot David HaMelech, Tel Aviv
Grinberg, Chayim Netanya
Grinvald, Binyamin 24 Bet Hillel St., Tel Aviv
Grinvald, Zvi 7007/143, Chassan Bek, Jaffa
Grinberg, Shalom Kiryat Amal, near Haifa
 
Dalet
 
Doytsh (Halbershteyn), Varda 10 Jean Jaures St., Tel Aviv
Diamant, Ya'akov 111 Chankin St, Holon
Diamant, Mordechai 5 Rassco, Apt. 2, Holon
Dimentshteyn, Yisra'el Ramat Yochanan
Diza (Varman), Shoshana 2 Johannesberg St., Afridar, Migdal, Ashkelon
Dikler, Yosef 33 Chibat Tziyon St., Ramat Gan
Dikler, Nachman 55 Bar-Giora St., Haifa
Dikler, Yosef 72 Shderot HaNassi, Haifa
Dikler, Zvi Kibbutz Eyn-Shemer
Daka, Dov Kfar Saba
Drut (Fenik), Tzila 345 Shikun Vatikim, Netanya
 
Heh
 
Hadas, Natan Moshe Hess St., Herzliya
Hudis (Shlechter), Feyge 8 Shderot Weizmann, c/o Sukenik
Huberman (Zilbermintz), Henya 32 Tverya St., Bnei Brak.
Huzman, Refa'el Tel Aviv
Hochman, Leyzer 3 Frankfurter St., Petach Tikva
Honigsfeld (Kluger), Miriam 51 Ovadia St., Haifa
Hofman, Yehuda Kibbutz Shefayim
Hofman, Yehoshua Bnei Brak
Hofman, Meytche Kibbutz Shefayim
Hurvitz, Mordechai 6 HaMalben St., Giv'atayim
Hort (Fayntuch), Chaviva Moshav Segula, Dor Na Chof Ashkelon
Hey, Eliezer 7 Tsaytlin St., Tel Aviv
Hey, Baruch 6 Nuzha St., Jaffa
Hay, Ya'akov 9 Mem-Daled St., Kfar Shalem Alef, Tel Aviv
Hay, Shlomo 43 Shechunat Montefiore, Tel Aviv
Halbershteyn, Yosef 19 Derech Haifa, Tel Aviv
Halbershteyn, Fradl 234 Ben Yehuda St., Tel Aviv
Halbershteyn, Tzvi Tel Aviv
Halevi (Faynglis), Ada Shikun Tseva HaKeva, Tel Aviv
Halperin, Tzvi 29 Jabotinsky St., Kiryat Ono
Hartman (Lichtenshteyn), Esther 33 Shderot Washington, Tel Aviv
Hershkovitz (Vayner), Tova 3 Mosenzon St., Tel Aviv
 
Vav
 
Vasser (Kirshenfeld), Bluma 19 Mikveh Yisra'el St., Tel Aviv
Vidavski (Bernfait), Feyge 24 Daled St., Acre
Vitzer (Bechar), Esther 13 Deganim St., Giv'atayim
Vidler (Miller), Tcharna 19 Shikun Chadash, Ramla
Viderman (Gertner), Shoshana Palmach St., Shikun Amami, Giv'atayim
Vaynberg, Volf 13 Rogovin St., Herzliya
Vaynberg (Gertl), Malka Shechunat Shapira, Tel Aviv
Vaynberg (Shroyt), Frida 20 Rogovin St., Apt. 3, Herzliya
Vinda (Vaynberg), Tsina 14 Shikun Zayin, Bnei Brak
Vinderboym, David 10 HaBoneh St., Afula
Vayntroyb, Avraham 18 HaMelitz St., Tel Aviv
Vishker, Hillel 241/4 Sokolov St., Tel Aviv
Vayner, Tuvia 38 Bar-Giora, Haifa
Vayner, Ya'akov 6 Dafna St., Tel Aviv
Vays, Yisra'el and Esther 38 Masada St., Haifa
Vaysburg, Yosef 3 E-Salt St., Haifa
Vaysburg, Micha 18 HaGanim St., Haifa
Vaysman (Shtayn), Chana 30 Tabu St., Haifa
Vaysputer (Zafran) Sonya 11 Neve Yehoshua, Ramat Gan Bet
Valdman (Dimenshteyn), Gitl and Shlomo Kibbutz Ramat Yochanan
Valdman, David 13 Chazal St., Shikun Bet, Be'er Sheva
Valdman, Matityahu Haifa
Vilensky (Rubinshteyn), Nechama 21 Golomb St., Giv'atayim
Malf (Bernhalt), Chana 12 76th St., Jaffa

[Columns 797 - 798]

Vilfenfeld (Fikelshteyn), Hella Tel Mond
Vaksman, Zuzi 24 Jabotinsky St., Holon
Vaksman, Yehuda 25 Yalag St., Haifa
Vexner (Griner), Shifra Shikun Amal, Herzliya
Vart, Avraham 2 Hazamir St., Shikun Neve-Oz, Petach-Tikva
Vart (Vartman), Shim'on 13 Kaf-Zayin St., Kiryat Chayim
Varthaym, Pinchas Rashi St., Tel Aviv
 
Zayin
 
Zhvuletsky (Gliksberg), Manya Bet-Eliezer, Hadera
Zusman, Dov 36 Shikun Naveh Bet, Pardess-Hanna
Zusman (Kraft), Golda 23 HaGevulot, Tel Aviv
Zilber (Goldshteyn), Hinda 97 Ramat Amidar, Ramat Gan
Zilber, Michael 62 Shderot Yerushalayim, Jaffa
Zilberman (Lindenboym), Bat-Sheva 17 HaHar St., Haifa
Zayd, Avraham 2 Ge'ula St., Kfar Saba
Zayd, Yitzchak 29 Granados St., Ramat Gan
Zayd, Natan 23 Dubnow
Zidan, Moshe 41 Chankin St., Holon
Zidan (Flayshman), Rivka 23 HaKishon St., Tel Aviv
Zilberfeld (Presayzn), Dora 244B, Ma'abara, Bat Yam
Zilberblech, Yechiel 246, Ma'abara, Bat Yam
Zilberberg, Perla Giv'at Olga, Hadera
Zilbermintz, Etl Mazeh St., Tel Aviv
Zilbermintz, Roza Batey Avot, 28 Shderot HaMa'apilim, Tel Aviv
Zilberman, Bat-Sheva 17 Shderot Umm, Haifa
Zilberfetz, Shmuel Shikun Amami, Holon
Zilbershteyn, Avraham HaTe'ena St., Neve-David, Tel Aviv
Zilbershteyn, Mordechai 14 Nitzana St., Bat Yam
Zilbershteyn, Chayim HaTe'ena St.. Neve David, Tel Aviv
Zaydman, Yisra'el 23 HaGevul St., Tel Aviv
Zinger, Bunem 190 Ibn Gvirol St., Tel Aviv
Zisman, Yisra'el 23 Gevulot St., Tel Aviv
Zisman, Mordechai 163 Shderot Yerushalayim, Jaffa
Zeltzer, Chayim 26 Talpiyot St., Ramat Gan
Zamir Ya'akov 7 En Gev St, Tel Aviv
Zafran, Mordechai 13 Neve Yisra'el St., Mifdeh, Ramat Gan Bet
Zaken (Alter), Max Zecharya St., Tel Aviv
 
Tet
 
Tibi (Kaner), Ventka Kibbutz Manara, Doar Na Galil Elyon
Todeskini (Manikov), Rachel Shikun Neve Amal, Herzliya
Taytlboym (Royter), Bella 61 Frishman St., Tel Aviv
Teller (Morgenshtern), Gisha 40 Nun-Bet St., Kiryat Chayim
Tenenboym, Chana Ramat Gan
Tenenboym, Chayim 157 Modi'in St., Ramat Gan
Tener, Eliyahu 234/7 Modi'in St., Giv'at Aliyah, Jaffa
Tener, Dov 88 Mifdeh Ezrachi, Nes Tziona
Tefler, Shmuel 160 Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv
Trum, Avraham 32 Chayim Ozer St., Jerusalem
Trust, David 19 Daniel St., Bat Yam
Truch, Avraham 21 Nun-Alef St., Kiryat Chayim
Tesher, Avraham 191 Ma'abara, Bat Yam
Tesher (Zayd), Bella 197 Ma'abara, Bat Yam
Tesher (Varman), Chana 11 Trumpeldor St., Bat Yam
Tesher, Yerachmi'el 197 Ma'abara, Bat Yam
Tesher, Me'ir 29 Halperin St., Bat Yam
Tesher, Malka 197 Ma'abara, Bat Yam
 
Yod
 
Yudkevitch (Shlager), Ida 237 Giv'at Aliyah, Jaffa
Yung, Moshe 78, Giv'at Ata, Kiryat Ata
Yanover, Binyamin 20 Tsaytlin St., Tel Aviv
Yanover, Baruch 6 Afek St., Giv'atayim
Yanover, Tzvi 13 Afek St., Giv'atayim
Ya'akobovitch (Vartman), Tsipora 4 Shikun Lamed-Heh, Ramla
 
Kaf
 
Cohen, Gila 5 Vitkin St., Tel Aviv
Cohen (Cahn), Ze'ev 9 Yehudit St., Bnei Brak
Cohen, Ya'akov and Shoshana 205 Ben Yehuda St., Tel Aviv
Cohen, Shmuel 224 Modi'in St., Giv'atayim
Kahana, Yisra'el 26 Nordau St., Tel Aviv
Katz, Avraham Ma'abara, Bat Yam
Katz (Shteynbaum), Chana 17 HaNesi'im St., Bat Yam
Katz, Yehoshua 11 Meyerbeer St., Kiryat Shalom, Tel Aviv
Katz, Yochanan 17 HaNesi'im St., Bat Yam
 
Lamed
 
Lahav (Brenner), Aliza Rishon LeZion
Liberman, Alexander 61 Shikun Bitzaron Alef, Tel Aviv
Lupa (Holtzer), Hinda 193 Dizengoff, Tel Aviv
Levy (Boden), Chana 1 Vermayza St., Tel Aviv
Levin (Cohen), Chana 94B Shderut Umm, Haifa
Levinfus, Chana 184 Gev-Yam, Haifa
Luxenburg, Avraham 644 Neve Amal, Herzliya
Luxenburg, Yosef 2 Gur St., Tel Aviv
Luxenburg, Mordechai 644 Neve Amal, Herzliya
Luxenburg, Rachel Abu Kabir Ma'abara, Tel Aviv
Leterman (Shlechter), Lyuba Shikun Meged, Ramatyim
Lindenboym, David Kibbutz Glil Yam
Link, Mordechai 8/4 Shikun Ramat Herzl, Netanya
Landoy (Blushteyn), Tzvia 10 HeChayal St., Holon
Lastigzon (Ayzen), Rivka 224 Modi'in St., Giv'atayim
Laks, Moshe Malben Hospital, Kibbutz En Shemer
Lerch (Adar), Golda 12 Chatzor St., Ramat Gan
Lerch, Yisra'el 5 Keren Kayemet St., Kiryat Amal
Lerner (Laks), Rachel Jerusalem
Lerer, Avraham 2 Dashevski St., Kiryat Shalom, Tel Aviv
Lerer, Zalman Rassco Bet, Holon
Lerer, Pinchas 3 Arlozorov St., Holon

[Columns 799 - 800]

Mem
 
Me'ir Pinchas (Mer) 34 Fabregat St., Ramat Gan
Migdal (Vilder), Perl 50 251 St., Jaffa
Muntsig (Zinger) Sarah 188 Arlozorov St., Tel Aviv
Muskal, Moshe 2 Aluf Simchoni St., Bnei Brak
Midens (Rozenberg), Yocheved 30 Shderot HaMa'apilim, Tel Aviv
Mitlpunkt, Henya Jaffa
Mitlpunkt, Yosef David Tel Aviv
Miller, Yechiel HaKnesset St., Tel Aviv
Miller, Yitzchak c/o Epshteyn, 6 Aharonovitz St., Rishon LeTziyon
Mintz, Shmaryahu 6 Dafna St., Tel Aviv
Melerman (Asik), SHayna 10 Fayerberg St., Tel Aviv
Mangel, Moshe Feja, Petach Tikva
Mendel (Tsipl), Miriam 18 Bitzaron St., Tel Aviv
Mandelboym (Shtern), Malka 22 Shlomo Miller St., Feja Ironi, Petach Tikva
Messer, Tzvi 13 Kaf-Bet St., Ramla
Markus (Oyfer), Esther 48 Efrayim St., Netanya
Marshalkovitz (Shteyn), Efrayim 58 Kaf-Zayin St., Kiryat Chayim
 
Nun
 
Navon (Kluger), Chayim Kiryat Moshe, Jerusalem
Noyman, Chanan Ganei Yehuda, Ekron, Mazkeret Batya
Noyman (Tzipel), Esther Block 18, Bitzaron, Tel Aviv
Nostiger (Zilberman), Leah 2 257 St., Jaffa
Nisl, Michael 28 8 St., Ashkelon
Nusil, Michael 2 Shimon HaTarsi St., Tel Aviv
Nusinzon (Zherk), Tzipora 32 Shoshanat HaCarmel St., Haifa
Nirenberg, Hirsh Be'er Sheva
Nirenberg, Sha'ul Shikun Morasha, Ramat HaSharon
Nalevka (Fayl), Doba 14 Nun-Heh St., Ramla
Netz, Chayim Block 13, Shikun Sela, Tel Giborim
 
Samech
 
Sas, Tzvi 23 Barzilay St., Haifa
Sol, Moshe 526 Neve Amal, Herzliya
Solomon, Yitzchak 65B/7007 Hassan Bek, Tel Aviv
Sofer, Avraham Herzliya
 
Ayin
 
Atzmon, Bat-Sheva 18 Motzkin St., Tel Aviv
 
Peh/Feh
 
Fogel, Avraham and Penina 5 Chanita St., Tel Aviv
Fogel, Ya'akov 118 HaTichon St., Ramat Gan
Fogel, Tzvi Sheinkin St., Giv'atayim
Fogel, Moshe Ramat Yitzchak
Fogel, Sarah Sheinkin St., Giv'atayim
Futerman (Huber), Rachel 85 Ganei Tikva, Petach Tikva
Polak, Eliyahu 24 Syrkin St., Haifa
Polak, Yosef 132 HaAtzma'ut St., Haifa
Polak, Ya'akov Simtat HaRakevet, Haifa
Fulshtern, Tanchum Kibbutz Shefayim
Pomp, Tuvya 486 Shikun Vatikim, Netanya
Pomp (Sol), Frida Ma'abara Mazar, Acre
Pomerantz, Avraham 322 Shikun Amidar, Bat Yam
Fuks, Rachel 46 Yod-Chet St., Kiryat Chayim
Porpens (Visman), Chaya 26B Amidar, Pardes Chana
Pyapsh (Rayz), Chaya 191 Bet HaLevi, Hadera
Pietrushka (Katz), Chaya and Natan Block 6, Shikun Amami, Jaffa
Tayar, Klara 13 Shtriker St., Tel Aviv
Fider (Boymgard), Shoshana 2 195 St., Jaffa
Fayl, Shlomo 7 Be'eri St., Tel Aviv
Finger, Menachem 382 Shikun Chadash
Finkelshteyn, Ze'ev Kfar Cherut
Fayfer, Efrayim Hanassi St., Hadera
Fisher (Shiler), Leah 96 Akiva St., Bnei Brak
Fayfer, Shraga and Gitl 12 HaShlosha St.m Bat Yam
Fayfer, Pesha Near Donolo Hospital Jaffa
Fayfer, Tzvi 5 153 St., Jaffa
Pachter, Yisra'el Ramla
Pachter, Michael 4 Pinsker St., Tel Aviv
Pachter, Zvi 185 Shikun Meged, Neve Oved, Ramatayim
Plut, Yehoshua 44 Shekhunat Nordiya, Tel Aviv\
Plut, Me'ir Kibbutz Yagur
Plut, Tzvi 22 Pinsker St., Haifa
Feldman, Refa'el 4 Mikve-Yisra'el, Holon
Flaks, Yosef Kibbutz Giv'at HaShlosha, HaKibbutz HaMe'uchad
Fluskin, Tzipora 7 Yavneh St., Tel Aviv
Flaks, Shmuel Bialik St., Kfar Saba
Feller, Tzvi Shikun HaPo'alim, Netanya
Ferder (Bernhayt), Chaya 106 Giv'at HaMoreh
Frumer, Yosef Kibbutz Lochamei HaGeta'ot
Froynd, Shmuel 15 Yod-Chet St., Mifratz Haifa
Fruchttsvayg (Valdman), Dvora 5 Ruppin St., Kfar Saba
Frust, Leybush 293 Shikun Amidar, Bat Yam
Frust, Shim'on 4 Kikar Hill, Tel Aviv
Privner, Yosef Shikun Amidar, Bat Yam
Frid, Mendl 6 Yiftach St., Petach Tikva
Frid (Frind), Rivka 7a Neve Oved, Ramla
Fruda (Esig), Shoshana 36 Shechunat Milim, Bet Mazmil, Jerusalem
Fridman, Yitzchak 90 Shoftim St., Gev Yam
Fridman (Frust), Rachel and Moshe 231 Shikun Amidar, Bat Yam
Friman, Shmuel 89 Sokolov St., Holon
Frimer, Moshe Kibbutz Ramat HaKovesh
Fraynd (Bezem), Sonya 234 Shikun Amidar, Bat Yam
Ferman (Zinger), Sara 41 Meskin St., Kfar Saba
Peretz, Aryeh 33 Brandes St., Tel Aviv
 
Tzadi
 
Tzederboym, Yechiel Petach Tikva
Tzederboym, Mordechai 27 Shikun Mapam, Petach Tikva
Tzuker, Gretl 33 Yehoshua Bin-Nun St., Tel Aviv

[Columns 801 - 802]

Tzuker (Kupershteyn), Hinde 148 Jessie Cohen, Holon
Tzuker, Tsirl Bet Avot, Jerusalem
Tzukerman (Kirshenfeld), Dora 16 HaChashmona'im St., Ramat Gan
Tzigel, Yehoshua 17 196 St., Jaffa
Tszigel (Dimant), Shoshana and Moshe 39 Uziel St., Ramat Yitzchak
Tzimerman, Avraham 3 Yitzchak Sadeh St., Giv'atayim
Tzimerman, David 31 Dafna St., Giv'atayim
Tzimerman, David 10 HaGra St., Bnei Brak
Tzimerman, Chana 252 Amidar, Bat Yam
Tzimerman, Yehuda 7 Menachem St., Kiryat Borochov, Ramat Gan
Tzimerman, Yitzchak Block 60, Camp 1, Pardesiya
Tzimerman, Tzvi Kfar Malal
Tzipel, Aryeh (Leybl)
Tzipel, Shmuel Shikun HaPo'el HaMizrachi, Raanana
 
Kof
 
Kos, Miriam 628 Shikun Amami, Ramat HaSharon
Kosovitzer, Avraham Rassco, Ramat HaSharon
Kosovitzer, Kehat Galil, Herzliya
Kovalski (Vizer), Chana 30 HaTavor St., Haifa
Koza (Shleifer), Shalom 64 Yitzchak Sadeh Alef, Afula Illit
Kutcher, Ya'akov 23 Ein Ya'akov St., Tel Aviv
Kolton (Rotfeld), Chaya 56 Gush Etzion St., Kiryat Yisra'el
Kuper (Hering), Chaya and Yochanan 99 Shikun Amami, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv
Kuper, Yochanan and Chaya 19 Kfar Yona St., Tel Aviv
Kuper (Brener), Leah 128 Weizmann St., Holon
Koptzyuk (Shinzinger), Genya 15 Mem-Bet St., Lod
Kupershtok, Dvora 148/3 Jessie Cohen, Holon
Kupershtok, Ya'akov 10 Shechunat HaProgresivim, Ramat Yitzhak
Kupershtok, Yisra'el 27 Aliyah St., Rishon LeTziyon
Kizel, Chayim 22 Sokolov St., Tel Aviv
Kizel, Tzvi 20 Herman Struck St., Tel Aviv
Kizel, Shmuel Tel Aviv
Kirson (Kirshenzon), Mordecahi 43 Chibat Tziyon, Ramat Gan
Kirshner, Asher Shechunat Olim Bet, Kiryat Yam
Kirshner, Volf Yehud
Kitshner, Mendel 44/2 Amidar, Kfar Ata
Kornblit (Vayntroyb), Itta 5 Yod-Bet St., Ramla
Klingel, Chayim Tel Aviv
Klingel, Shmuel Shechunat Morasha, Ramat HaSharon
Klug, Chayim 26 42 St., Jaffa
Kliner, Me'ir 17/2 Alef St., Sheikh Munis, Tel Aviv
Klenberg (Lerch), Manya 40, Atzma'ut St., Bat Yam
Klex, Natan Ibn Gvirol St., Tel Aviv
Kam, Shmuel Shechunat HaPo'alim Alef
Kendl, Jessie 8 Kaplan St., Bet Dagon
Kenol, David 7 Trumpeldor St., Netanya
Katzhendler (Lev), Chana 44 Jaffa St., Haifa
Katzhendler, Moshe 21 Gush Etzyon St., Haifa
Kanner, Moshe 35 Samekh-Gimel St.. Kiryat Chayim
Krasner (Gruner), Shifra 31 Sokolov St., Herzliya
 
Resh
 
Rapp, Shalom 74 Mazeh St., Tel Aviv
Rapp 77 Achva St. (Shabazi), Tel Aviv
Rabinovitz, Kopel (Esteron) 47 Golomb St., Holon
Rubinshteyn, Yitzchak 86 HaTishbi St., Haifa
Rozmarin, Pesya 15 Shechunat Amidar, Magdiel
Rozen, Avraham 32 Alef Giv'at Olga, Hadera
Rozen, Yechezkel 12 220 St., Jaffa
Rozenblum, Moshe 187 Dizengoff St., Tel Aviv
Rozenberg, Hans 16 Cherut St., Ramat Gan
Rozenberg, Yocheved 30 Shderot HaMa'apilim, Tel Aviv
Rozenberg, Leah 6/3 Pinsker St., Kfar Saba
Rozenberg, Sarah 41 Shim'on HaTarsi St., Tel Aviv
Rol, Yitzchak 145 Neve Amal, Herzliya
Royter, Avigdor 39 Dizengoff St., Tel Aviv
Retig, Tzvi Magdiel
Riber, Ya'akov 188 Ibn Gvirol St., Tel Aviv
Riz, Bat-Sheva Giv'at Olga, Hadera
Ris, Binyamin 308/4 Shikun Amidar, Bat Yam
Ris, Ya'akov 207/ Shikun Gimel, Kiryat Gat
Ris, Leybl 25 Holot, Yavneh, Doar Rechovot
Ris, Moshe 16 Shechunat Montefiore
Rapoport, Hinda 14 Buki Ben Yogli St., Tel Aviv
Rapoport, Yosef Kfar Saba
 
Shin
 
Shuchman, Yisra'el 20 Ussishkin St., Jerusalem
Shulman (Tsimerman), Mia 29/3 Shikun Kiryat Eliezer, Haifa
Shu'ali, Shimshon 2 195 St., Giv'at Aliya, Jaffa
Shufel, Tuvya 269/5 Shikun Amidar, Kiryat Gat
Shvartz, Yona 113 Shikun Bet, Be'er Sheva
Shvartz, Yosef 65 Katznelson St., Giv'atayim
Shvartz, Melech 15 HaParsa St., Tsahala, Tel Aviv
Shvartz, Shalom Block 1, Chet St., Ramat HaChayal, Tel Aviv
Shvartz, Rachel No. 2, 195 St., Giv'at Aliya
Shvartz (Barngot), Rachel 113 Shikun Bet, Be'er Sheva
Shoshana (Rozenfeld), Ge'ula Kibbutz Ashdot Ya'akov, Ichud
Shtokhammer, Yosef 19 Pinkas St., Tel Aviv
Shtokhammer, Yisra'el Kfar Shalem Bet
Shtokman (Gelernter), Dina 23 Bet Borovski, Haifa
Shturm, Binyamin Hayarkon St., Tel Aviv
Shtich, Efrayim 19 Montefiore St., Tel Aviv
Shtich, Yosef Dizengoff St., Tel Aviv
Shtich, Matitiyahu 17 Tsaytlin St., Tel Aviv
Shayn (Rayter), Vita Tel Aviv
Shteynboyn, Ze'ev 16 Alexander Yannai St., Tel Aviv
Shteynboym, Shabtai 7 Lefin St., Tel Aviv
Shteynboym, Leon 22 Yavnieli St., Tel Aviv
Shteynberg, Natan 2 HaTzanchanim St., Giv'atayim
Shtingel, Tzvi Block 8, Shikun Amami Tel Amal, Haifa
Shtecher (Shturm), Miriam 186 Hayarkon St., Tel Aviv
Shiller, Yisra'el 6 Mertsia St.[1]
Shaunberg (Shnol), Tova Sheikh Munis, Tel Aviv
Shtingl (Shlechter), Ra'ya 11 Remez St., Bet Dagon

[Columns 803 - 804]

Shofman (Abramant), Esther 38 Montefiore St., Petach Tikva
Shifman, Chana Pardess Hanna
Shiff, Shlomo 195/2 St., Giv'at Aliya
Shechter (Fayfer) Hinda 169 Giv'at Olga, near Hadera
Shechter, Melech 149/2 Giv'at Olga, near Hadera
Shlechter, Sarah 2 HaBonim St., Tel Aviv
Shlechter, Gershon 4 Neve Yarak, Ramatayim
Shemesh (Shams), Yitzchak Block 14/3, Shikun Chisachon, Jaffa
Shnol, Eliyahu Tel Aviv
Shnol, Leyb 11 Abu Kabir, Tel Aviv
Shnaydman, Yechezkel Avoda St., Shikun, Acre
Shpiler, Yoel 71/12 Shikun Gat Rimon, near Petach Tikva
Shafir (Gal), Esther 53 Amnon ve-Tamar St., Tiv'on
Sher, Zigmund Be'er Ya'akov
Sher (Messer), Chana 27 HaRimon St., Ramat Gan
Sherer (Shroyt), Isak 24 Bet Eshel St., Tel Aviv
Sharvit, Yosef Giv'at Ada

 

When Jewish Hrubieszow was still alive
Hru803a.jpg
 
Hru803b.jpg

 

Now that Jewish Hrubieszow is no more
A memorial evening for the Martyrs of Hrubieszow, Tel Aviv, June 1960

 

Translator's Footnote:
  1. This street name is highly doubtful. Return


[Columns 805 - 806]

Only the Hrubieszow Memorial Book Remains

by Baruch Kaplinski, Tel Aviv

Translated by Yael Chaver

 

Baruch Kaplinski

 

I have never visited Hrubieszow. My eyes have never seen its streets and byways, its synagogues large and small, its bridges and its streams, its leaders and institutions.

I have never been in the Brodice forest, or on the Pobereżany road, at the sluice, or on the Paherye.[1]

I have never strolled along Pańska, or – may it not be mentioned in the same breath – Synagogue Street.[2]

And yet, as I leaf through so many materials, texts, lists, and witness statements concerning Hrubieszow, I see it all in my mind's eye: quivering, alive, and real.

 

I See Old Hrubieszow, of 30-40 Years Ago

Its long-gone Hasidic young people, in their festive Sabbath best, stroll along non-Jewish Pańska Street. They carry books under their arm, crack pumpkin seeds, and discuss Socialism, Zionism, freedom, and social justice. People say that they are close with the strikers, and never stop talking about social revolution.

They stop at Natan Zayd's store, or near Shaul Abeles, have a glass of soda, snack on a slivetshke, and hum as they go: Hulyet, hulyet, beyze vintn, or Techezakna yedei acheinu.[3]

 

The Young Folks Read HaTsfira[4]

A year ago, they were still crowding into an alcove of the Trisk or the small Hasidic synagogue of the Husyatin Hasids.

What are they doing there?

It seems that they're singing a new Hasidic melody. At first it is a quiet hum, then even less noticeable; then a sudden fervor mixed with devotion, and the singers seem to dissolve in bliss.

Before too long, the Hasidic followers will drive them out of the synagogue, threatening them with clenched fists: “Out, rascals! Out, brats! Such abomination!”

Why are the devout Hasidim so furious, why are they unleashing such wrath?

Apparently, they heard a rumor that the young guys are reading HaTsfira, or sampling HaZman, reading secular books, and claim, insolently, that Judaism was created for Jews and not vice versa.[5]

Or, perhaps the “sin” is the fact that they have shed their caps, spend less time at prayers, and do not grimace as much?

Such arrogance, such an abomination!

 

The Zionist Anthem with Hasidic Enthusiasm

Those who are expelled from the small synagogue go to Chayim Fisher's little house, or to the Brenners' inn, or to the HaShomer HaTzair club, and sing as one: “Od lo avda tikvateinu!” (“Our hope is not lost”).[6]

With the same Hasidic fervor, they go to the Brodice grove on Lag Ba'Omer and on May 1 for haflogos, and dream about a socialist Jewish home on the hills of Zion and Jerusalem.[7]

This is one Hrubieszow – that of 30 to 40 years ago.

But there were other Hrubieszows as well, others that were no less militant.

 

The Hrubieszow of the “Minyan”

Now I see the Hrubieszow of the “Minyan” and the Ba'al Shem Tov, the Hrubieszow of 200 years ago.[8]

Ten lamed-vavniks, thin to the point of emaciation, skin and bone, with burning eyes.[9] They stay in the large house of study, day and night, sitting at the large table, studying, fasting and resolved: Let salvation come now! Let the Messiah come now!

And who knows whether the ten lamed-vavniks of Hrubieszow would not have brought about salvation, had not Rabbi Yisra'el, son of Sarah, intervened and decided, “This generation is not worthy.”[10]

That was the most that was said in the Hrubieszow house of study, behind the oven.[11]

 

Hrubieszow, 500 Years Ago

Five hundred years ago, in 1400, Hrubieszow was still a village.[12] Jews may already have been living there, but they apparently had no sense of history. Our knowledge of their lives and deeds is therefore nonexistent.

 

Eliyohu, the First Historical Jew in Hrubieszow

So it is that we hear about the first Jew in Hrubieszow only in 1440. His name is Eliyohu. We know nothing about where he came from. And nothing at all about his family, his concerns, his joys,

[Columns 807 - 808]

or his needs. Had he not taken business trips from Hrubieszow to Kiev, through Lutsk, to buy horses and hides, he would certainly have been lost to history. We should thank the short notice in Akta Grodzkie i Ziemskie for our shadowy acquaintance with Eliyohu in 1440.[13]

It's possible that Eliyohu, the Jew of 1440, settled in Hrubieszow, and that his distant descendants who read these lines do not know that Eliyohu's blood runs in their veins.

 

Yitskhok Sokolovitsh

A contemporary of Eliyohu's was Yitzchok Sokolovitsh. He seems to have owned much property in Hrubieszow. The historian Yitzchok Shipper tells us that he leased the tariffs in Sambor and the salt mines in Jasnica, and mortgaged his property and ten slaves to a Polish landowner.[14]

 

Michael and Yehuda of Hrubieszow

At about the same time – the 1450s – Michael and Yehuda of Hrubieszow, father and son, rose to prominence. These residents of Hrubieszow were not ordinary people, but wine suppliers to the royal court of Kazimierz Jagiellończyk and importers of Crimean wine.

Poorer Jews may have lived in Hrubieszow as well, but history is silent about the poor. Such is its nature.

 

The Brothers Yoskeh and Shakh Shakhnevitsh

Another pair of Hrubieszow Jews became noteworthy because of their business dealings, which include them among the greatest lease-holders in Poland in the second half of the 15th century.

 

The Kernel of a Community

This is a meager look at the first Jewish Hrubieszow, of 500 years ago. It is poor in numbers; in 1555, only thirteen Jews live in the town, in four houses. Nine years later, there are as many as forty Jews, in five houses. They are not yet creating a community, but provide the kernel of one.

 

Equal Rights in 1578

It's 1578. The town of Hrubieszow is 178 years old. One hundred thirty-eight years earlier, the first historical Jew, Eliyohu, had appeared. Fourteen years earlier, 40 Jews lived in the town, and in 1578 their numbers were probably higher. The few dozen Jews envy the town's Christians, who enjoy all the rights, while they – the Jews – exist at their mercy.

They start to lobby for equal rights, and are helped by the district head Tęczyński.

He may have been friendly to Jews, or perhaps only had business ties with them.

Thanks to his help, in 1578 King Stefan Batory grants the Jews of Hrubieszow full equal rights

The equal rights led to a minor revolution in the lives of the cluster of Jews. They were officially allowed to deal in all types of commerce or handicraft, produce and sell alcoholic drinks, build houses and stores, build a synagogue as well as houses for the rabbi and the cantor, and are released from special royal taxes. In short, complete equal rights.

 

Typical Jewish Professions

And history repeats itself once again. We know little of the joys and sorrows of the small Jewish community of Hrubieszow, which – thank God – already has a synagogue, a rabbi, and a cantor; and we know a bit about some characteristic Jewish lines of work.

One Jew, Avrom, produced brandy, and pays the town 60 Polish marks annually; he is also obligated to set up a cannon to strengthen the town's defences.

Two Jews, Moyshe Shabsayevitsh and Avrom Me'irovitsh, lease properties from the Bishop of Chelm, and are in constant litigation with him. Other Jews lease the ritual slaughter tax, or become butchers. These are all typical Jewish professions.

 

The Terrible Massacres of 1648

The life and doings of the small Jewish community of Hrubieszow goes on for years, generations become part of the fabric of local life with its shadows and light, up to the dreadful day in 1648 when the murderers led by Bogdan Khmelnitski slaughtered almost all the entire Jewish community of Hrubieszow.

Of course, their lives before that time were not tranquil. In 1498, 1500, 1502, 1523, and 1526 they had suffered a bit from attacks by the Tatars, who were far from being humanists – but they cannot be compared with Khmelnitski's “Aktsiya.”[15]

The Jewish historian Shmuel Fayvish, in his book Tit Ha-Yeven, recounts that only a small number of Hrubieszow Jews managed to survive, in Lublin.[16] A few years later, they had apparently rebuilt the Jewish community of Hrubieszow, which flourished organizationally and culturally.

There is a report of the yeshiva run by Rabbi Yitskhok Kharif, founded at that time, and of the town rabbi, Khayim HaLevi Hurvits.

This is yet another Hrubieszow, different from the previous version, and certainly different from the later version.

 

On the Threshold of the 18th Century

The 18th century - a century of disaster for the Jews of Hrubieszow. One fine morning in 1736, a fire suddenly broke out. Jewish property went up in smoke: 27 houses, the synagogue, and the bathhouse.

The wars that Poland waged with Sweden and Russia ignited conflagrations that were no less destructive: need, loneliness, privations,

[Columns 809 - 810]

and destitution. Poland became impoverished. This included its Jewish community, which was ensnared in debts and legal suits in an effort to cover its fourfold taxes: to the province, the state treasury, the local priest, and the Jewish community. Anyone who could, demanded taxes of all kinds.

 

We Complain about High Taxes

These days, we complain about high taxes; but our ancestors paid much more. Examples are the unusual taxes on bridges, markets, and wars; and dozens of other taxes, besides the usual poll tax.

Who can enumerate all the taxes that Jews paid at various times, when they made their meager livings by trade, handicraft, and peddling? Only a few Jews were able to benefit from Hrubieszow's prestigious position as a way station for grain en route from Belarus to Danzig by way of the Bug and Vistula rivers.

 

The Community Becomes More Important

In spite of the poverty and financial crisis, the community gains significance in both quantity and quality. In 1765, there are 709 Jews in Hrubieszow, in 135 Jewish houses – out of a total of 375 houses in all of Hrubieszow.

Hrubieszow also becomes more important in the province of Chelm, to which it belongs organizationally, and in the Council of the Four Lands.[17] The leaders of the Jewish community, Hirsh Nakhimovitsh, Mark Rubinshteyn, Hirsh Kremenitser, and Rabbi Shmuel Margolis, played a significant role in the Council's sessions.

 

Austrian Rule

The partition of Poland in 1772 placed the Jews of Hrubieszow under Austrian authority. The old Jewish precept “And a new king arose” came true once again.[18] New edicts and new taxes inundated the Jews of Hrubieszow.

The Jews of Hrubieszow paid the Austrian Emperor every conceivable tax: tolerance tax, property tax, marriage tax, meat tax, candle tax – in addition to the old, familiar, traditional taxes.

 

A Cluster of Edicts

The tax catastrophe was accompanied by the hateful anti-Semitic tendencies: assimilating Jews,removing them from their traditional ways of making a living, colonizing them on the land and educating them in government schools. The pious Jews of Hrubieszow found these edicts too onerous and concentrated for such a short period. Luckily, the reforming Austrian regime did not endure long. In 1809, 37 years after the onset of Austrian rule, Hrubieszow came under the authority of the Warsaw principality and Congress Poland.

Once again, we witness a new Hrubieszow, which did not resemble the previous one, and certainly not the later one.

 

On the Threshold of the 19th Century

The old-new rulers of Hrubieszow were not remarkable for their affection for Jews. Actually, the Jews of Hrubieszow – like all Polish Jews of the time – did not yearn for affection. On the contrary, they were happy to be left alone to lead their distinctive, cloistered lives. “Do me no favors, do me no harm.”[19]

However, two renowned Jews of Hrubieszow completely disagreed. One was the physician Shloyme Yankev Kalmenzon, and the other an inventor who was well known in Warsaw: Avrom Yankev Shtern.

We have written at length and in detail about these two famous Hrubieszow personalities in this book. Therefore, I will not dwell on their lives, works, and battles, but will only say in brief: they brought much honor to the Jewish community of Hrubieszow.

These persons heralded winds of change among the Jews of Poland, including the Jews of Hrubieszow. These winds brought the Haskalah, progress, and productivization into homes in Hrubieszow, and a new kind of Jew appeared in town: the Maskil.[20]

 

Hrubieszow was blessed with many Maskilim

Hrubieszow was blessed with a series of Jewish Maskilim. Let us mention some of them: the writer Simkha Aryeh Leven; the writer Simkha Klayner (author of Mi Maleh); Simkha Pinsker, the father of Leo Pinsker (the famous Zionist and author of Autoemanzipation); Dr. Tzvi Goldschmid and his sons, the lawyers Yoysef and Yankev.[21]

Jewish Hrubieszow in the 19th century was distinguished not only by its personalities. It also started community initiatives. A printing press was established in 1816 and existed for eight years, during which it published 34 sacred books.

Somewhat later, in 1844, Rabbi Yoysef Katsenelenboygen established the Jewish hospital. Other traditional Jewish social institutions were created, which existed up to the beginning of the 20th century.

During this time, the Jewish population of Hrubieszow almost doubled in size: from approximately 3000 in 1827 to 5350 in 1897. However, the Hrubieszow of later years was completely different from both the earlier town and certainly unlike the later town. It was Hrubieszow.

 

On the Threshold of the 20th Century

Most of our memorial book has been devoted to the Hrubieszow of the first half of the 20th century.

[Columns 811 - 812]

At that time, Hrubieszow was still a religiously observant town. But changes were affecting its young people, who organized in two camps: one Zionist and the other Socialist. Each of these believed in, and fought for, their ideals with the same fervent Hasidic zeal of their ancestors.

The interesting developments in Hrubieszow society following World War I were cut short by the brutalities of World War II. The seven-thousand-strong Jewish community of Hrubieszow was murdered savagely.

 

Completed and Done[22]

There is no longer a Jewish Hrubieszow today. Completed and done. Ended, and so viciously.

Once again, I see Synagogue St., Lubelska, the marketplace, and Gurna St. Not a single Yiddish word to be heard. The synagogues and houses of study stand, mute; so do the houses and shops. Perhaps bearing the same signs - but with different names.

The town that was founded by Eliyohu in 1440 was cruelly slaughtered. Graves and their markers are all that is left of seven thousand souls.

 

This is the History

I wanted to set down only a few words, but instead I produced a short historical overview of many different Jewish Hrubieszows over the generations, with many sorrows, and perhaps no less joys.

Could we have silenced all those generations, and the pioneers of the Jewish community of Hrubieszow, who laid the foundations 500 years ago, and who built the lower and upper floors 200, 200, and 100 years ago?

Could we have allowed the pious Jews to be forgotten, those who came to Hrubieszow from the east, west, and south, and established an important Jewish town on the banks of the Huczwa and the Bug rivers, on the border of Volhynia and Lesser Poland?[23]

No!

 

A Memorial Marker on the Grave of Twenty Generations

We are therefore publishing the Hrubieszow Yizkor Book, a memorial marker on the grave of twenty Jewish generations in Hrubieszow. It is an attempt to summarize 500 years of Jewish life in a Jewish town in Lesser Poland.

Unfortunately, our information about much of the preceding twenty generations is meager to the point of nonexistence, fragmentary, and lacks detail. Let our few words, therefore, express much.

Let our involuntary muteness scream and recount twenty links in the chain of the Hrubieszow Jewish community, links which lived, built, and had hopes, but from which only the Hrubieszow Yizkor Book remains.[24]

 

Living with the Thought of Destruction is Difficult

Living with the thought of destruction and graves is difficult. It is therefore only natural that the mournful memories fade, and are superseded by new life, a life that has requirements and demands that we do not weep or mourn, but integrate and interweave ourselves into its living web with all our senses. Can we reject it? Can we say, “no”?!

Our children play the dominant role in this new life. They are forging the future of our people, and are the only source of joy for us, the surviving remnants. As they climb rung after rung of the ladder of success, we feel like telling them:

“Children! Don't let it go to your heads. Enjoy the new life as much as you can, but at the same time - don't forget the great tragedy of our murdered nation.

Let a small corner of your Jewish heart forever hold the Jewish Hrubieszow that was so savagely murdered. From time to time, nourish that corner with the pages of the Hrubieszow Yizkor Book.

Peek into its cracks, take a look at its pictures, read about its leaders, marvel at their deeds, and take steps to make sure that the great tragedy will never happen again.

Completed and done!

We have started a new chapter, which we hope will be one of success, individual and national.

 

Be Strong, Be Strong, And We Will Be Strong![25]

Now, as we write the last lines of the Hrubieszow Yizkor Book, I would like to say the last word.

We undertook an important mission: to immortalize generations that lived and are no more. May our guardian angel forgive us if we have not completed our task.

At the end of our task, in the margins of our memorial book, let us say – as is customary when we finish reading a book of the Torah, “Be strong, be strong, and we will be strong!”

Let our sons and daughters, our grandchildren and great-grandchildren – descendants of the Jews of Hrubieszow–be strong and multiply.

Only ashes remain of their ancestral home, but the new nation of Israel will rise thanks to their work.

And the words of the prophet will come true: “And I will rejoice in Jerusalem, and joy in my people: and the voice of weeping shall be no more heard in her, nor the voice of crying out!” (Isaiah 65:19).

 

Translator's Footnotes:
  1. I could not identify the last term. Return
  2. Pańska St. was apparently decidedly secular. Return
  3. I could not identify slivetshkes. The Yiddish poem Hulyet, hulyet, beyze vintn (“Romp around, you evil winds”) was written by the Yiddish poet Avrom Reyzen and became a popular song. The Hebrew poem Techezakna yedei kol acheinu (“Power to you, brothers”), by the Hebrew poet Chayim Nachman Bialik, became an anthem of the Zionist Labor Movement. Return
  4. HaTsfira was a pioneering Hebrew-language periodical published in Poland in 1862 and 1874-1931. Return
  5. The Hebrew daily HaZman (1903-1915), was at the time the only one of its kind in tsarist Russia. Return
  6. The quote is from HaTikvah, the 19th century Hebrew poem that was set to music and became the anthem of Zionism and of Israel. Return
  7. I was unable to translate the term haflogos. On Lag Ba'Omer (the 33rd day after the beginning of Passover), boys traditionally go out into the fields and forests to play with bows and arrows, to celebrate the end of a plague that killed thousands of Jews during the Bar Kochba revolt against the Romans (132-136 C.E.). The Zionist movement re-imagined the day as a commemoration of this revolt. Return
  8. A minyan is the quorum of ten men over the age of 13 required for traditional Jewish public worship. The Ba'al Shem Tov is the popular term for Rabbi Yisra'el Ben Eliezer, an 18th-century Jewish mystic and healer from Poland who is considered the founder of Hasidism. Return
  9. A mystical Jewish tradition holds that the world is sustained by 36 righteous people, whose identity is not known. The number 36 equals the numerical value of the Hebrew letters lamed plus vav, or lamed-vav. One of the righteous is known as a lamed-vavnik. Return
  10. The Ba'al Shem Tov is sometimes known by the matronymic as “son of Sarah.” Return
  11. The bench surrounding the large ceramic oven, common in eastern Europe synagogues, was a popular place for Jewish men to spend time. Return
  12. The text has “40 years ago,” which is obviously an error. Return
  13. The Town and Land Files register. Return
  14. The reference to “slaves” is unclear. It most likely refers to peasants or indentured workers. Return
  15. The writer uses the Yiddish version of the German Aktion, the Nazi term for a military or police operation involving the assembly, deportation and killing of Jews. The term was well known to the readers, survivors of World War II. Return
  16. Shmuel Fayvish's book Tit HaYeven (The Quicksands), on the Khmelnitski massacres, was published in 1650. Return
  17. The Council of Four Lands was the central body of Jewish authority in Poland from the second half of the 16th century to 1764. Return
  18. This biblical quote from Ex. 1:8 marks the advent of a new king in Egypt, who disregarded the relatively favorable attitude towards the Israelites that had developed during the stewardship of Joseph. It is used to signify a reversal of established favorable norms under a new regime. Return
  19. The Hebrew idiom lo mi-duvshakh lo me-uktzach originates in a midrash on the Balak episode in Num. 22-23, and literally means, “None of your honey, none of your sting.” Return
  20. The Haskalah (also known as Enlightenment) was an intellectual movement among European Jews in the 18th and 19th centuries, that strove to acquaint them with European and Hebrew languages and with secular education and culture. Adherents of the movement were termed maskilim. Return
  21. Autoemanzipation (Autoemancipation) was a pamphlet written in German in 1882 by the physician Dr. Leo Pinsker. It is considered a founding work of modern Jewish nationalism, especially Zionism. Return
  22. This formulaic Hebrew phrase (tam ve-nishlam) signals the ending of a book. Return
  23. Lesser Poland is a historical region in southern and southeastern Poland. Return
  24. The “chain” is an allusion to the “golden chain” of Yiddish tradition, which continues from one generation to the next. Return
  25. These words are said out loud in Hebrew (chazak, chazak, ve-nitchazek) in Ashkenazi communities when completing the reading of a book of the Torah. Return

 

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