[Columns 791 - 792]
by Shmuel Shaffer
Translated by Yael Chaver
On December 16, 1935, I left my home town Hrubieszow for a land called Peru. To tell the truth, I didn't even know where that land was. My friend Eliezer Givertz greeted me. He had come to Peru a year earlier; he died in 1941.
I came to Peru penniless. My friend welcomed me joyously and invited me to his home. He was living in one room with his wife and a small child. His furniture consisted of a bed, a table, and a chair. For many weeks, all four of us slept in that bed, until I began earning money.
My business consisted of lugging two heavy valises filled with merchandise and knocking on doors; in other words, peddling.
I suffered like this for more than a year, and later left to go to a province. The province was a desert, a wilderness, with high mountains. I had to ride donkeys for 10-12 hours. Those were three bitter, bloody years.
Here in Peru in other words, in Lima there are 3-4 thousand Jews, all of whom had a similar experience.
Our suffering did come to an end. Now, almost everyone is doing well and making a good living. Jewish women do community work, and Jewish children are in school. We have Jewish physicians and lawyers. In short, we hope it will continue
Unfortunately, I underwent the great calamity of losing my entire family.
When I left my home, I left behind parents, sisters, brothers, brothers- and sisters-in-law, their children, friends, uncles, aunts in short, a large family. And, in general, a town full of Jews and friends. Now all that is left is to honor their memory.
I remember my small alley off Bath Street that ended at the butchers' street. Panska Street - our guys and girls would stroll along it in the evenings of Shabbes and holidays. We did not consider, or understand, what lay in store for us.
Only now do we reflect on it, realize it, and mourn for it. But then, when we were constricted by laws and regulations that was when we should have understood their meaning, and begun to fight. We might not have suffered so many losses.
I remember our unhappy life in accursed Poland. Which Jew did not suffer poverty? Which Jew did not freeze in the winter, with his eight or ten children, in a tiny house? Which Jews did not start worrying on Sunday about baking bread for Shabbes? And then heaved a sigh, This, too, is for the best.
I see our past, and ask myself, So did the Jew live in Poland at all?
And yet the damned Hitler said, Even that is too much, and destroyed our town, sending our sisters, brothers, and children to the gas chambers, or burying them alive.
We dare not ever forget; we must ostracize the murderers, may their names be blotted out!
May no trace of their land remain!
[Columns 793 - 794]
Translated by Yael Chaver
Translator Note: In the original volume, these lists of names and addresses are arranged according to the Hebrew alphabet.
I have followed this order, as the names are not vowelized, and it is impossible to tell whether a name includes an a or an ei.
|Abramant, David||33 HeChayal, Ramat Gan|
|Adar, Dora||8/138 Kiryat Eliezer, Haifa|
|Adar, Hirsh||11 Shlomtzion HaMalka, Tel Aviv|
|Aharoni, Dov||98 Achad HaAm, Tel Aviv|
|Uffler (Shinzinger), Ida||12 Mem-Daled St., Lod|
|Atlas (Rozmarin), Sylvia||15 Shikun Amidar, Magdiel|
|Eydelman, Yosef||Shikun Amidar, Bat Yam|
|Eydlshteyn, Ya'akov||55 Ganei Tikva, Petach Tikva|
|Eydlshteyn, Tzvi||6 Shderot Weizmann, Netanya|
|Ayz (Huber), Gita||80 HaYovel St., Petach Tikva|
|Ayzen (Zafran), Malka||11 Shikun Sela, Mifdeh, Ramat Gan|
|Ayzen, Yitzchak||11 Mifdeh Ezrachi Alef, Ramat Gan Bet|
|Ayzen, Shaul||168 Amidar, Ramat Gan Bet|
|Ayzenberg (Fogel), Dvora||Bet HaChayal, Golomb St., Ramat Gan|
|Ayzenkrantz, Matityahu||36 Bin-Nun St., Tel Aviv|
|Aychenboym (Komarovsky), Frida||4 Remez St., Ramat Gan|
|Eyal, Mordechai||Bat Yam|
|Aynhorn, Avraham||36 Bitzaron St., Tel Aviv|
|Aynhorn, Elkana||6 HaTzanchanim St., Giv'atayim|
|Elburt (Kirshenfeld), Dora||Ramat Gan|
|Almogi, Yosef||34 Arlozorov, Haifa|
|Elster (Nisil), Necha||10 Nordau St., Rechovot|
|Elitzur (Holtzer), Zelig||7 Golomb St., Bat Yam|
|Alushar, Yechezkel||39 Be'eri St., Tel Aviv|
|Almog (Yanover), Chana||31 HaParsa St., Tzahala, Tel Aviv|
|Amper, Shlomo-Ber||Apak St., Giv'atayim|
|Engelsberg, Chaim and Nechama||15 Salomon St., Petach-Tikva|
|Engelshteyn, Tzvi||13 Nun-Alef St., Kfar Shalem|
|Antchik, Ya'akov||Shlomo HaMelech St., Tel Aviv|
|Efrat (Fayer), Dvora||258 HaYarkon St., Tel Aviv|
|Epshteyn, Shoshana and Yosef||6 Aharonovitch St., Rishon LeTziyon|
|Akerman, Yosef||200 Tel Hanan, Haifa|
|Akerman, Michael||250 Tel Hanan, Haifa|
|Ekshteyn, Ya'akov||187 Ibn Gvirol St., Tel Aviv|
|Aryeh (Dikler), Chana||52 Shderot Umm, Haifa|
|Erlich, Yechezkel||Be'eri St., Tel Aviv|
|Arfin, Chayim||82 Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv|
|Ashkenazi (Zinger), Dvora||56 Balfour St., Bat Yam|
|Babtchiuk (Griner), Roza||219/6 St., Jaffa|
|Bodenshteyn (Fuks), Roza||60/82 St., Jaffa|
|Buchtreger, Avraham||Krinitzi House, Yahalom St.|
|Buchshtab (Oberland), Miriam||18 King George St., Tel Aviv|
|Boskovitch, Ya'akov-Yitzchak||30 Zevulun St., Tel Aviv|
|Burshteyn, M.||57 Shderot Hen, Tel Aviv|
|Bornshteyn (Katz), Beila||8 Patai St., Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv|
|Bzhozha, Yitzchak||223 Amidar, Bat Yam|
|Bezem, Moshe||7006 Hassan Bek, Jaffa|
|Bezem, Tzvi||11 Tzirlson, Tel Aviv|
|Bigler, Eliyahu||14 Shivat-Tziyon St., Haifa|
|Bigler, Yona||43 Shprintzak St., Shikun Vatikim, Netanya|
|Bidler (Miller), Tcharna||Shikun Amidar, Ramla|
|Bizan (Varman), Leah||17 Trumpeldor St., Acre|
|Biterman, Shmuel||Kfar Bitzaron|
|Bill, Golda||8 HaGefen St., Haifa|
|Bitchman, (Kam), Moshe||269/1 St., Jaffa|
|Birnboym (Bart), Tzipora||Kfar Chayim|
|Bechar (Alter), Bina||142, Nesher, near Haifa|
|Balbunek (Oberlander), Gitl||31 Horkanos St., Tel Aviv|
|Blitz (Zafran), Paula||6 Arnon St., Mifdeh Ezrachi, Ramat Gan Bet|
|Blechman, Yitzchak||12 Ibn Gvirol St., Tel Aviv|
|Blender, Avraham||18B Rassco, Afula Illit|
|Blender, Gitl||Old Age Home, 98 Derech HaShalom, Tel Aviv|
|Blender (Klayner), Matla||8B Rassco, Afula Illit|
|Benari (Knop), Mendl||188 Ibn Gvirol, Tel Aviv|
|Ben-Moshe (Gayer), Shechora||4 Dreyfus St., Kiryat Shalom, Tel Aviv|
|Becker, Aryeh||Shikun Amidar, Hadar Yosef|
|Becker, Dov||10 Tzahal St., Kfar Saba|
|Becker, Reuven||315/7 St., Jaffa|
|Berger, Azriel Yosef||Kfar Hess|
|Berger (Kugel), Leah||10 Tzahal St., Bat Galim, Haifa|
|Bar-David (Kayzman), Batya||106/9 Kiryat Eliezer, Haifa|
|Bart, Simcha||22 Batei HaSefer, Giv'at Aliya, Tel Aviv|
|Brand, David||25 Melchett St., Tel Aviv|
|Brand, Ruzhka||HaShachar St., Herzliya|
|Brand, Shlomo||39 HaKeshet St., Ramat Gan|
|Brandil, David||Kibbutz Dafna|
|Bernhart, Ya'akov||20 Binyamin St., Sheikh Munis, Tel Aviv|
|Barnur (Brandil), David||Kibbutz Bnei Atarot, Doar Atarot|
|Brenner, Aharon||77 Ein HaTchelet St., Netaniya|
|Gevirtz, Yehuda||18 Sdeh Boker St., Giv'atayim|
|Gevirtz, Yisra'el||69 Shikun Neve Oved, Ramla|
|Geduldig, Avraham||191/B Giv'at Olga, Hadera|
|Goldberg (Kam), Yona||Kibbutz Alonim|
|Goldberg, Yosef||Kfar Hess|
|Goldberg, Pinchas||2 Gur Aryeh St., Ramat Gan|
|Goldberg, Tzvi||47 Herzl St., Netanya|
[Columns 795 - 796]
|Goldberg, Yitzchak||17/80 St., Jaffa|
|Goldorin (Luxenburg), Malka||51 Abba Hillel St., Ramat Gan|
|Goldzam (Esig), Dvora||6 Shikun Amami, Ramla|
|Goldman (Bechar), Dvora||33 Sheinkin St., Giv'atayim|
|Goldfarb, Avraham and Sheyndl||127 Kehillat Varsha St., Hadar Yosef, Tel Aviv|
|Goldshteyn, Baruch and Yenta||3 Nordau St., Netanya|
|Goldshteyn, Chayim||97 Ramat Amidar, Ramat Gan|
|Goldshteyn, Chana||27 HaMa'ayan, Giv'atayim|
|Goldshteyn, Mendl||3 Golomb St., Giv'atayim|
|Gur-Aryeh (Pakhter), Mordechai||22 Shderot HaChayal, Tel Aviv|
|Gurevitch, (Garber), Sheyndl||Kibbutz Negba, Doar Na Ashkelon|
|Gorstman, Ya'akov||76 Wolfsohn St. Petach Tikva|
|Gorfinkel, Bernard||85 Shechuna Bet, Be'er Sheva|
|Gayst, David||Nir David, Doar Na Gilboa|
|Gayst, Sender||19 Shikun Rassco, Afula|
|Gayst, Zvi||11 Yehoshua St., Haifa|
|Gal, Yosef||20 Ayin-Gimel St., Kiryat Chayim|
|Gelber, Ya'akov||11 Chulda HaNevi'a St., Bnei Brak|
|Glazberg, Aba||5/b Kiryat Chayim|
|Glazberg, Sha'ul||31 Ben Yehuda, Haifa|
|Glazberg, Shim'on||6 Simtat HaShachar, Haifa|
|Glazer, Aharon||4 Hadari St., Jaffa|
|Glinshpan (Kenol), Sarah||Kfar Kish|
|Gliksberg, Chayim||6 Bruria St., Ramat Gan|
|Gliksberg, No'ach||16 Gordon St., Netanya|
|Gil'ad (Geduldig), Sha'ul||56 HaRo'eh St., Ramat Gan|
|Gendel (Tzimerman), Pnina||Shikun Akerman, Kfar Saba|
|Groh, Pinchas||110/4 Sha'ar Menashe, Haifa|
|Gruber, Yitzchak||7 Gush Etzion, Giv'atayim|
|Gruber, Simcha||Shikun Vatikim, Giv'atayim|
|Gruman, Ya'akov||406 Kiryat Shalom, Tel Aviv|
|Gertl, Eliyahu||Kibbutz Ramat Yochanan|
|Gertl, Hinda||6 Eybeshitz St., Tel Aviv|
|Gertl, Chayim||13 Remez St., Kiryat-Tiv'on|
|Gertl||24 Alexander Yanai St., Tel Aviv|
|Gertl, Ya'akov||3 Vermayza St., Tel Aviv|
|Gertl, No'ach||4 HaKnesset St., Giv'atayim|
|Gertl (Shtaynfeld), Sarah||6 Shderot David HaMelech, Tel Aviv|
|Grinvald, Binyamin||24 Bet Hillel St., Tel Aviv|
|Grinvald, Zvi||7007/143, Chassan Bek, Jaffa|
|Grinberg, Shalom||Kiryat Amal, near Haifa|
|Doytsh (Halbershteyn), Varda||10 Jean Jaures St., Tel Aviv|
|Diamant, Ya'akov||111 Chankin St, Holon|
|Diamant, Mordechai||5 Rassco, Apt. 2, Holon|
|Dimentshteyn, Yisra'el||Ramat Yochanan|
|Diza (Varman), Shoshana||2 Johannesberg St., Afridar, Migdal, Ashkelon|
|Dikler, Yosef||33 Chibat Tziyon St., Ramat Gan|
|Dikler, Nachman||55 Bar-Giora St., Haifa|
|Dikler, Yosef||72 Shderot HaNassi, Haifa|
|Dikler, Zvi||Kibbutz Eyn-Shemer|
|Daka, Dov||Kfar Saba|
|Drut (Fenik), Tzila||345 Shikun Vatikim, Netanya|
|Hadas, Natan||Moshe Hess St., Herzliya|
|Hudis (Shlechter), Feyge||8 Shderot Weizmann, c/o Sukenik|
|Huberman (Zilbermintz), Henya||32 Tverya St., Bnei Brak.|
|Huzman, Refa'el||Tel Aviv|
|Hochman, Leyzer||3 Frankfurter St., Petach Tikva|
|Honigsfeld (Kluger), Miriam||51 Ovadia St., Haifa|
|Hofman, Yehuda||Kibbutz Shefayim|
|Hofman, Yehoshua||Bnei Brak|
|Hofman, Meytche||Kibbutz Shefayim|
|Hurvitz, Mordechai||6 HaMalben St., Giv'atayim|
|Hort (Fayntuch), Chaviva||Moshav Segula, Dor Na Chof Ashkelon|
|Hey, Eliezer||7 Tsaytlin St., Tel Aviv|
|Hey, Baruch||6 Nuzha St., Jaffa|
|Hay, Ya'akov||9 Mem-Daled St., Kfar Shalem Alef, Tel Aviv|
|Hay, Shlomo||43 Shechunat Montefiore, Tel Aviv|
|Halbershteyn, Yosef||19 Derech Haifa, Tel Aviv|
|Halbershteyn, Fradl||234 Ben Yehuda St., Tel Aviv|
|Halbershteyn, Tzvi||Tel Aviv|
|Halevi (Faynglis), Ada||Shikun Tseva HaKeva, Tel Aviv|
|Halperin, Tzvi||29 Jabotinsky St., Kiryat Ono|
|Hartman (Lichtenshteyn), Esther||33 Shderot Washington, Tel Aviv|
|Hershkovitz (Vayner), Tova||3 Mosenzon St., Tel Aviv|
|Vasser (Kirshenfeld), Bluma||19 Mikveh Yisra'el St., Tel Aviv|
|Vidavski (Bernfait), Feyge||24 Daled St., Acre|
|Vitzer (Bechar), Esther||13 Deganim St., Giv'atayim|
|Vidler (Miller), Tcharna||19 Shikun Chadash, Ramla|
|Viderman (Gertner), Shoshana||Palmach St., Shikun Amami, Giv'atayim|
|Vaynberg, Volf||13 Rogovin St., Herzliya|
|Vaynberg (Gertl), Malka||Shechunat Shapira, Tel Aviv|
|Vaynberg (Shroyt), Frida||20 Rogovin St., Apt. 3, Herzliya|
|Vinda (Vaynberg), Tsina||14 Shikun Zayin, Bnei Brak|
|Vinderboym, David||10 HaBoneh St., Afula|
|Vayntroyb, Avraham||18 HaMelitz St., Tel Aviv|
|Vishker, Hillel||241/4 Sokolov St., Tel Aviv|
|Vayner, Tuvia||38 Bar-Giora, Haifa|
|Vayner, Ya'akov||6 Dafna St., Tel Aviv|
|Vays, Yisra'el and Esther||38 Masada St., Haifa|
|Vaysburg, Yosef||3 E-Salt St., Haifa|
|Vaysburg, Micha||18 HaGanim St., Haifa|
|Vaysman (Shtayn), Chana||30 Tabu St., Haifa|
|Vaysputer (Zafran) Sonya||11 Neve Yehoshua, Ramat Gan Bet|
|Valdman (Dimenshteyn), Gitl and Shlomo||Kibbutz Ramat Yochanan|
|Valdman, David||13 Chazal St., Shikun Bet, Be'er Sheva|
|Vilensky (Rubinshteyn), Nechama||21 Golomb St., Giv'atayim|
|Malf (Bernhalt), Chana||12 76th St., Jaffa|
[Columns 797 - 798]
|Vilfenfeld (Fikelshteyn), Hella||Tel Mond|
|Vaksman, Zuzi||24 Jabotinsky St., Holon|
|Vaksman, Yehuda||25 Yalag St., Haifa|
|Vexner (Griner), Shifra||Shikun Amal, Herzliya|
|Vart, Avraham||2 Hazamir St., Shikun Neve-Oz, Petach-Tikva|
|Vart (Vartman), Shim'on||13 Kaf-Zayin St., Kiryat Chayim|
|Varthaym, Pinchas||Rashi St., Tel Aviv|
|Zhvuletsky (Gliksberg), Manya||Bet-Eliezer, Hadera|
|Zusman, Dov||36 Shikun Naveh Bet, Pardess-Hanna|
|Zusman (Kraft), Golda||23 HaGevulot, Tel Aviv|
|Zilber (Goldshteyn), Hinda||97 Ramat Amidar, Ramat Gan|
|Zilber, Michael||62 Shderot Yerushalayim, Jaffa|
|Zilberman (Lindenboym), Bat-Sheva||17 HaHar St., Haifa|
|Zayd, Avraham||2 Ge'ula St., Kfar Saba|
|Zayd, Yitzchak||29 Granados St., Ramat Gan|
|Zayd, Natan||23 Dubnow|
|Zidan, Moshe||41 Chankin St., Holon|
|Zidan (Flayshman), Rivka||23 HaKishon St., Tel Aviv|
|Zilberfeld (Presayzn), Dora||244B, Ma'abara, Bat Yam|
|Zilberblech, Yechiel||246, Ma'abara, Bat Yam|
|Zilberberg, Perla||Giv'at Olga, Hadera|
|Zilbermintz, Etl||Mazeh St., Tel Aviv|
|Zilbermintz, Roza||Batey Avot, 28 Shderot HaMa'apilim, Tel Aviv|
|Zilberman, Bat-Sheva||17 Shderot Umm, Haifa|
|Zilberfetz, Shmuel||Shikun Amami, Holon|
|Zilbershteyn, Avraham||HaTe'ena St., Neve-David, Tel Aviv|
|Zilbershteyn, Mordechai||14 Nitzana St., Bat Yam|
|Zilbershteyn, Chayim||HaTe'ena St.. Neve David, Tel Aviv|
|Zaydman, Yisra'el||23 HaGevul St., Tel Aviv|
|Zinger, Bunem||190 Ibn Gvirol St., Tel Aviv|
|Zisman, Yisra'el||23 Gevulot St., Tel Aviv|
|Zisman, Mordechai||163 Shderot Yerushalayim, Jaffa|
|Zeltzer, Chayim||26 Talpiyot St., Ramat Gan|
|Zamir Ya'akov||7 En Gev St, Tel Aviv|
|Zafran, Mordechai||13 Neve Yisra'el St., Mifdeh, Ramat Gan Bet|
|Zaken (Alter), Max||Zecharya St., Tel Aviv|
|Tibi (Kaner), Ventka||Kibbutz Manara, Doar Na Galil Elyon|
|Todeskini (Manikov), Rachel||Shikun Neve Amal, Herzliya|
|Taytlboym (Royter), Bella||61 Frishman St., Tel Aviv|
|Teller (Morgenshtern), Gisha||40 Nun-Bet St., Kiryat Chayim|
|Tenenboym, Chana||Ramat Gan|
|Tenenboym, Chayim||157 Modi'in St., Ramat Gan|
|Tener, Eliyahu||234/7 Modi'in St., Giv'at Aliyah, Jaffa|
|Tener, Dov||88 Mifdeh Ezrachi, Nes Tziona|
|Tefler, Shmuel||160 Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv|
|Trum, Avraham||32 Chayim Ozer St., Jerusalem|
|Trust, David||19 Daniel St., Bat Yam|
|Truch, Avraham||21 Nun-Alef St., Kiryat Chayim|
|Tesher, Avraham||191 Ma'abara, Bat Yam|
|Tesher (Zayd), Bella||197 Ma'abara, Bat Yam|
|Tesher (Varman), Chana||11 Trumpeldor St., Bat Yam|
|Tesher, Yerachmi'el||197 Ma'abara, Bat Yam|
|Tesher, Me'ir||29 Halperin St., Bat Yam|
|Tesher, Malka||197 Ma'abara, Bat Yam|
|Yudkevitch (Shlager), Ida||237 Giv'at Aliyah, Jaffa|
|Yung, Moshe||78, Giv'at Ata, Kiryat Ata|
|Yanover, Binyamin||20 Tsaytlin St., Tel Aviv|
|Yanover, Baruch||6 Afek St., Giv'atayim|
|Yanover, Tzvi||13 Afek St., Giv'atayim|
|Ya'akobovitch (Vartman), Tsipora||4 Shikun Lamed-Heh, Ramla|
|Cohen, Gila||5 Vitkin St., Tel Aviv|
|Cohen (Cahn), Ze'ev||9 Yehudit St., Bnei Brak|
|Cohen, Ya'akov and Shoshana||205 Ben Yehuda St., Tel Aviv|
|Cohen, Shmuel||224 Modi'in St., Giv'atayim|
|Kahana, Yisra'el||26 Nordau St., Tel Aviv|
|Katz, Avraham||Ma'abara, Bat Yam|
|Katz (Shteynbaum), Chana||17 HaNesi'im St., Bat Yam|
|Katz, Yehoshua||11 Meyerbeer St., Kiryat Shalom, Tel Aviv|
|Katz, Yochanan||17 HaNesi'im St., Bat Yam|
|Lahav (Brenner), Aliza||Rishon LeZion|
|Liberman, Alexander||61 Shikun Bitzaron Alef, Tel Aviv|
|Lupa (Holtzer), Hinda||193 Dizengoff, Tel Aviv|
|Levy (Boden), Chana||1 Vermayza St., Tel Aviv|
|Levin (Cohen), Chana||94B Shderut Umm, Haifa|
|Levinfus, Chana||184 Gev-Yam, Haifa|
|Luxenburg, Avraham||644 Neve Amal, Herzliya|
|Luxenburg, Yosef||2 Gur St., Tel Aviv|
|Luxenburg, Mordechai||644 Neve Amal, Herzliya|
|Luxenburg, Rachel||Abu Kabir Ma'abara, Tel Aviv|
|Leterman (Shlechter), Lyuba||Shikun Meged, Ramatyim|
|Lindenboym, David||Kibbutz Glil Yam|
|Link, Mordechai||8/4 Shikun Ramat Herzl, Netanya|
|Landoy (Blushteyn), Tzvia||10 HeChayal St., Holon|
|Lastigzon (Ayzen), Rivka||224 Modi'in St., Giv'atayim|
|Laks, Moshe||Malben Hospital, Kibbutz En Shemer|
|Lerch (Adar), Golda||12 Chatzor St., Ramat Gan|
|Lerch, Yisra'el||5 Keren Kayemet St., Kiryat Amal|
|Lerner (Laks), Rachel||Jerusalem|
|Lerer, Avraham||2 Dashevski St., Kiryat Shalom, Tel Aviv|
|Lerer, Zalman||Rassco Bet, Holon|
|Lerer, Pinchas||3 Arlozorov St., Holon|
[Columns 799 - 800]
|Me'ir Pinchas (Mer)||34 Fabregat St., Ramat Gan|
|Migdal (Vilder), Perl||50 251 St., Jaffa|
|Muntsig (Zinger) Sarah||188 Arlozorov St., Tel Aviv|
|Muskal, Moshe||2 Aluf Simchoni St., Bnei Brak|
|Midens (Rozenberg), Yocheved||30 Shderot HaMa'apilim, Tel Aviv|
|Mitlpunkt, Yosef David||Tel Aviv|
|Miller, Yechiel||HaKnesset St., Tel Aviv|
|Miller, Yitzchak||c/o Epshteyn, 6 Aharonovitz St., Rishon LeTziyon|
|Mintz, Shmaryahu||6 Dafna St., Tel Aviv|
|Melerman (Asik), SHayna||10 Fayerberg St., Tel Aviv|
|Mangel, Moshe||Feja, Petach Tikva|
|Mendel (Tsipl), Miriam||18 Bitzaron St., Tel Aviv|
|Mandelboym (Shtern), Malka||22 Shlomo Miller St., Feja Ironi, Petach Tikva|
|Messer, Tzvi||13 Kaf-Bet St., Ramla|
|Markus (Oyfer), Esther||48 Efrayim St., Netanya|
|Marshalkovitz (Shteyn), Efrayim||58 Kaf-Zayin St., Kiryat Chayim|
|Navon (Kluger), Chayim||Kiryat Moshe, Jerusalem|
|Noyman, Chanan||Ganei Yehuda, Ekron, Mazkeret Batya|
|Noyman (Tzipel), Esther||Block 18, Bitzaron, Tel Aviv|
|Nostiger (Zilberman), Leah||2 257 St., Jaffa|
|Nisl, Michael||28 8 St., Ashkelon|
|Nusil, Michael||2 Shimon HaTarsi St., Tel Aviv|
|Nusinzon (Zherk), Tzipora||32 Shoshanat HaCarmel St., Haifa|
|Nirenberg, Hirsh||Be'er Sheva|
|Nirenberg, Sha'ul||Shikun Morasha, Ramat HaSharon|
|Nalevka (Fayl), Doba||14 Nun-Heh St., Ramla|
|Netz, Chayim||Block 13, Shikun Sela, Tel Giborim|
|Sas, Tzvi||23 Barzilay St., Haifa|
|Sol, Moshe||526 Neve Amal, Herzliya|
|Solomon, Yitzchak||65B/7007 Hassan Bek, Tel Aviv|
|Atzmon, Bat-Sheva||18 Motzkin St., Tel Aviv|
|Fogel, Avraham and Penina||5 Chanita St., Tel Aviv|
|Fogel, Ya'akov||118 HaTichon St., Ramat Gan|
|Fogel, Tzvi||Sheinkin St., Giv'atayim|
|Fogel, Moshe||Ramat Yitzchak|
|Fogel, Sarah||Sheinkin St., Giv'atayim|
|Futerman (Huber), Rachel||85 Ganei Tikva, Petach Tikva|
|Polak, Eliyahu||24 Syrkin St., Haifa|
|Polak, Yosef||132 HaAtzma'ut St., Haifa|
|Polak, Ya'akov||Simtat HaRakevet, Haifa|
|Fulshtern, Tanchum||Kibbutz Shefayim|
|Pomp, Tuvya||486 Shikun Vatikim, Netanya|
|Pomp (Sol), Frida||Ma'abara Mazar, Acre|
|Pomerantz, Avraham||322 Shikun Amidar, Bat Yam|
|Fuks, Rachel||46 Yod-Chet St., Kiryat Chayim|
|Porpens (Visman), Chaya||26B Amidar, Pardes Chana|
|Pyapsh (Rayz), Chaya||191 Bet HaLevi, Hadera|
|Pietrushka (Katz), Chaya and Natan||Block 6, Shikun Amami, Jaffa|
|Tayar, Klara||13 Shtriker St., Tel Aviv|
|Fider (Boymgard), Shoshana||2 195 St., Jaffa|
|Fayl, Shlomo||7 Be'eri St., Tel Aviv|
|Finger, Menachem||382 Shikun Chadash|
|Finkelshteyn, Ze'ev||Kfar Cherut|
|Fayfer, Efrayim||Hanassi St., Hadera|
|Fisher (Shiler), Leah||96 Akiva St., Bnei Brak|
|Fayfer, Shraga and Gitl||12 HaShlosha St.m Bat Yam|
|Fayfer, Pesha||Near Donolo Hospital Jaffa|
|Fayfer, Tzvi||5 153 St., Jaffa|
|Pachter, Michael||4 Pinsker St., Tel Aviv|
|Pachter, Zvi||185 Shikun Meged, Neve Oved, Ramatayim|
|Plut, Yehoshua||44 Shekhunat Nordiya, Tel Aviv\|
|Plut, Me'ir||Kibbutz Yagur|
|Plut, Tzvi||22 Pinsker St., Haifa|
|Feldman, Refa'el||4 Mikve-Yisra'el, Holon|
|Flaks, Yosef||Kibbutz Giv'at HaShlosha, HaKibbutz HaMe'uchad|
|Fluskin, Tzipora||7 Yavneh St., Tel Aviv|
|Flaks, Shmuel||Bialik St., Kfar Saba|
|Feller, Tzvi||Shikun HaPo'alim, Netanya|
|Ferder (Bernhayt), Chaya||106 Giv'at HaMoreh|
|Frumer, Yosef||Kibbutz Lochamei HaGeta'ot|
|Froynd, Shmuel||15 Yod-Chet St., Mifratz Haifa|
|Fruchttsvayg (Valdman), Dvora||5 Ruppin St., Kfar Saba|
|Frust, Leybush||293 Shikun Amidar, Bat Yam|
|Frust, Shim'on||4 Kikar Hill, Tel Aviv|
|Privner, Yosef||Shikun Amidar, Bat Yam|
|Frid, Mendl||6 Yiftach St., Petach Tikva|
|Frid (Frind), Rivka||7a Neve Oved, Ramla|
|Fruda (Esig), Shoshana||36 Shechunat Milim, Bet Mazmil, Jerusalem|
|Fridman, Yitzchak||90 Shoftim St., Gev Yam|
|Fridman (Frust), Rachel and Moshe||231 Shikun Amidar, Bat Yam|
|Friman, Shmuel||89 Sokolov St., Holon|
|Frimer, Moshe||Kibbutz Ramat HaKovesh|
|Fraynd (Bezem), Sonya||234 Shikun Amidar, Bat Yam|
|Ferman (Zinger), Sara||41 Meskin St., Kfar Saba|
|Peretz, Aryeh||33 Brandes St., Tel Aviv|
|Tzederboym, Yechiel||Petach Tikva|
|Tzederboym, Mordechai||27 Shikun Mapam, Petach Tikva|
|Tzuker, Gretl||33 Yehoshua Bin-Nun St., Tel Aviv|
[Columns 801 - 802]
|Tzuker (Kupershteyn), Hinde||148 Jessie Cohen, Holon|
|Tzuker, Tsirl||Bet Avot, Jerusalem|
|Tzukerman (Kirshenfeld), Dora||16 HaChashmona'im St., Ramat Gan|
|Tzigel, Yehoshua||17 196 St., Jaffa|
|Tszigel (Dimant), Shoshana and Moshe||39 Uziel St., Ramat Yitzchak|
|Tzimerman, Avraham||3 Yitzchak Sadeh St., Giv'atayim|
|Tzimerman, David||31 Dafna St., Giv'atayim|
|Tzimerman, David||10 HaGra St., Bnei Brak|
|Tzimerman, Chana||252 Amidar, Bat Yam|
|Tzimerman, Yehuda||7 Menachem St., Kiryat Borochov, Ramat Gan|
|Tzimerman, Yitzchak||Block 60, Camp 1, Pardesiya|
|Tzimerman, Tzvi||Kfar Malal|
|Tzipel, Aryeh (Leybl)|
|Tzipel, Shmuel||Shikun HaPo'el HaMizrachi, Raanana|
|Kos, Miriam||628 Shikun Amami, Ramat HaSharon|
|Kosovitzer, Avraham||Rassco, Ramat HaSharon|
|Kosovitzer, Kehat||Galil, Herzliya|
|Kovalski (Vizer), Chana||30 HaTavor St., Haifa|
|Koza (Shleifer), Shalom||64 Yitzchak Sadeh Alef, Afula Illit|
|Kutcher, Ya'akov||23 Ein Ya'akov St., Tel Aviv|
|Kolton (Rotfeld), Chaya||56 Gush Etzion St., Kiryat Yisra'el|
|Kuper (Hering), Chaya and Yochanan||99 Shikun Amami, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv|
|Kuper, Yochanan and Chaya||19 Kfar Yona St., Tel Aviv|
|Kuper (Brener), Leah||128 Weizmann St., Holon|
|Koptzyuk (Shinzinger), Genya||15 Mem-Bet St., Lod|
|Kupershtok, Dvora||148/3 Jessie Cohen, Holon|
|Kupershtok, Ya'akov||10 Shechunat HaProgresivim, Ramat Yitzhak|
|Kupershtok, Yisra'el||27 Aliyah St., Rishon LeTziyon|
|Kizel, Chayim||22 Sokolov St., Tel Aviv|
|Kizel, Tzvi||20 Herman Struck St., Tel Aviv|
|Kizel, Shmuel||Tel Aviv|
|Kirson (Kirshenzon), Mordecahi||43 Chibat Tziyon, Ramat Gan|
|Kirshner, Asher||Shechunat Olim Bet, Kiryat Yam|
|Kitshner, Mendel||44/2 Amidar, Kfar Ata|
|Kornblit (Vayntroyb), Itta||5 Yod-Bet St., Ramla|
|Klingel, Chayim||Tel Aviv|
|Klingel, Shmuel||Shechunat Morasha, Ramat HaSharon|
|Klug, Chayim||26 42 St., Jaffa|
|Kliner, Me'ir||17/2 Alef St., Sheikh Munis, Tel Aviv|
|Klenberg (Lerch), Manya||40, Atzma'ut St., Bat Yam|
|Klex, Natan||Ibn Gvirol St., Tel Aviv|
|Kam, Shmuel||Shechunat HaPo'alim Alef|
|Kendl, Jessie||8 Kaplan St., Bet Dagon|
|Kenol, David||7 Trumpeldor St., Netanya|
|Katzhendler (Lev), Chana||44 Jaffa St., Haifa|
|Katzhendler, Moshe||21 Gush Etzyon St., Haifa|
|Kanner, Moshe||35 Samekh-Gimel St.. Kiryat Chayim|
|Krasner (Gruner), Shifra||31 Sokolov St., Herzliya|
|Rapp, Shalom||74 Mazeh St., Tel Aviv|
|Rapp||77 Achva St. (Shabazi), Tel Aviv|
|Rabinovitz, Kopel (Esteron)||47 Golomb St., Holon|
|Rubinshteyn, Yitzchak||86 HaTishbi St., Haifa|
|Rozmarin, Pesya||15 Shechunat Amidar, Magdiel|
|Rozen, Avraham||32 Alef Giv'at Olga, Hadera|
|Rozen, Yechezkel||12 220 St., Jaffa|
|Rozenblum, Moshe||187 Dizengoff St., Tel Aviv|
|Rozenberg, Hans||16 Cherut St., Ramat Gan|
|Rozenberg, Yocheved||30 Shderot HaMa'apilim, Tel Aviv|
|Rozenberg, Leah||6/3 Pinsker St., Kfar Saba|
|Rozenberg, Sarah||41 Shim'on HaTarsi St., Tel Aviv|
|Rol, Yitzchak||145 Neve Amal, Herzliya|
|Royter, Avigdor||39 Dizengoff St., Tel Aviv|
|Riber, Ya'akov||188 Ibn Gvirol St., Tel Aviv|
|Riz, Bat-Sheva||Giv'at Olga, Hadera|
|Ris, Binyamin||308/4 Shikun Amidar, Bat Yam|
|Ris, Ya'akov||207/ Shikun Gimel, Kiryat Gat|
|Ris, Leybl||25 Holot, Yavneh, Doar Rechovot|
|Ris, Moshe||16 Shechunat Montefiore|
|Rapoport, Hinda||14 Buki Ben Yogli St., Tel Aviv|
|Rapoport, Yosef||Kfar Saba|
|Shuchman, Yisra'el||20 Ussishkin St., Jerusalem|
|Shulman (Tsimerman), Mia||29/3 Shikun Kiryat Eliezer, Haifa|
|Shu'ali, Shimshon||2 195 St., Giv'at Aliya, Jaffa|
|Shufel, Tuvya||269/5 Shikun Amidar, Kiryat Gat|
|Shvartz, Yona||113 Shikun Bet, Be'er Sheva|
|Shvartz, Yosef||65 Katznelson St., Giv'atayim|
|Shvartz, Melech||15 HaParsa St., Tsahala, Tel Aviv|
|Shvartz, Shalom||Block 1, Chet St., Ramat HaChayal, Tel Aviv|
|Shvartz, Rachel||No. 2, 195 St., Giv'at Aliya|
|Shvartz (Barngot), Rachel||113 Shikun Bet, Be'er Sheva|
|Shoshana (Rozenfeld), Ge'ula||Kibbutz Ashdot Ya'akov, Ichud|
|Shtokhammer, Yosef||19 Pinkas St., Tel Aviv|
|Shtokhammer, Yisra'el||Kfar Shalem Bet|
|Shtokman (Gelernter), Dina||23 Bet Borovski, Haifa|
|Shturm, Binyamin||Hayarkon St., Tel Aviv|
|Shtich, Efrayim||19 Montefiore St., Tel Aviv|
|Shtich, Yosef||Dizengoff St., Tel Aviv|
|Shtich, Matitiyahu||17 Tsaytlin St., Tel Aviv|
|Shayn (Rayter), Vita||Tel Aviv|
|Shteynboyn, Ze'ev||16 Alexander Yannai St., Tel Aviv|
|Shteynboym, Shabtai||7 Lefin St., Tel Aviv|
|Shteynboym, Leon||22 Yavnieli St., Tel Aviv|
|Shteynberg, Natan||2 HaTzanchanim St., Giv'atayim|
|Shtingel, Tzvi||Block 8, Shikun Amami Tel Amal, Haifa|
|Shtecher (Shturm), Miriam||186 Hayarkon St., Tel Aviv|
|Shiller, Yisra'el||6 Mertsia St.|
|Shaunberg (Shnol), Tova||Sheikh Munis, Tel Aviv|
|Shtingl (Shlechter), Ra'ya||11 Remez St., Bet Dagon|
[Columns 803 - 804]
|Shofman (Abramant), Esther||38 Montefiore St., Petach Tikva|
|Shifman, Chana||Pardess Hanna|
|Shiff, Shlomo||195/2 St., Giv'at Aliya|
|Shechter (Fayfer) Hinda||169 Giv'at Olga, near Hadera|
|Shechter, Melech||149/2 Giv'at Olga, near Hadera|
|Shlechter, Sarah||2 HaBonim St., Tel Aviv|
|Shlechter, Gershon||4 Neve Yarak, Ramatayim|
|Shemesh (Shams), Yitzchak||Block 14/3, Shikun Chisachon, Jaffa|
|Shnol, Eliyahu||Tel Aviv|
|Shnol, Leyb||11 Abu Kabir, Tel Aviv|
|Shnaydman, Yechezkel||Avoda St., Shikun, Acre|
|Shpiler, Yoel||71/12 Shikun Gat Rimon, near Petach Tikva|
|Shafir (Gal), Esther||53 Amnon ve-Tamar St., Tiv'on|
|Sher, Zigmund||Be'er Ya'akov|
|Sher (Messer), Chana||27 HaRimon St., Ramat Gan|
|Sherer (Shroyt), Isak||24 Bet Eshel St., Tel Aviv|
|Sharvit, Yosef||Giv'at Ada|
|Now that Jewish Hrubieszow is no more|
|A memorial evening for the Martyrs of Hrubieszow, Tel Aviv, June 1960|
[Columns 805 - 806]
by Baruch Kaplinski, Tel Aviv
Translated by Yael Chaver
I have never visited Hrubieszow. My eyes have never seen its streets and byways, its synagogues large and small, its bridges and its streams, its leaders and institutions.
I have never been in the Brodice forest, or on the Pobereżany road, at the sluice, or on the Paherye.
I have never strolled along Pańska, or may it not be mentioned in the same breath Synagogue Street.
And yet, as I leaf through so many materials, texts, lists, and witness statements concerning Hrubieszow, I see it all in my mind's eye: quivering, alive, and real.
I See Old Hrubieszow, of 30-40 Years Ago
Its long-gone Hasidic young people, in their festive Sabbath best, stroll along non-Jewish Pańska Street. They carry books under their arm, crack pumpkin seeds, and discuss Socialism, Zionism, freedom, and social justice. People say that they are close with the strikers, and never stop talking about social revolution.
They stop at Natan Zayd's store, or near Shaul Abeles, have a glass of soda, snack on a slivetshke, and hum as they go: Hulyet, hulyet, beyze vintn, or Techezakna yedei acheinu.
The Young Folks Read HaTsfira
A year ago, they were still crowding into an alcove of the Trisk or the small Hasidic synagogue of the Husyatin Hasids.
What are they doing there?
It seems that they're singing a new Hasidic melody. At first it is a quiet hum, then even less noticeable; then a sudden fervor mixed with devotion, and the singers seem to dissolve in bliss.
Before too long, the Hasidic followers will drive them out of the synagogue, threatening them with clenched fists: Out, rascals! Out, brats! Such abomination!
Why are the devout Hasidim so furious, why are they unleashing such wrath?
Apparently, they heard a rumor that the young guys are reading HaTsfira, or sampling HaZman, reading secular books, and claim, insolently, that Judaism was created for Jews and not vice versa.
Or, perhaps the sin is the fact that they have shed their caps, spend less time at prayers, and do not grimace as much?
Such arrogance, such an abomination!
The Zionist Anthem with Hasidic Enthusiasm
Those who are expelled from the small synagogue go to Chayim Fisher's little house, or to the Brenners' inn, or to the HaShomer HaTzair club, and sing as one: Od lo avda tikvateinu! (Our hope is not lost).
With the same Hasidic fervor, they go to the Brodice grove on Lag Ba'Omer and on May 1 for haflogos, and dream about a socialist Jewish home on the hills of Zion and Jerusalem.
This is one Hrubieszow that of 30 to 40 years ago.
But there were other Hrubieszows as well, others that were no less militant.
The Hrubieszow of the Minyan
Now I see the Hrubieszow of the Minyan and the Ba'al Shem Tov, the Hrubieszow of 200 years ago.
Ten lamed-vavniks, thin to the point of emaciation, skin and bone, with burning eyes. They stay in the large house of study, day and night, sitting at the large table, studying, fasting and resolved: Let salvation come now! Let the Messiah come now!
And who knows whether the ten lamed-vavniks of Hrubieszow would not have brought about salvation, had not Rabbi Yisra'el, son of Sarah, intervened and decided, This generation is not worthy.
That was the most that was said in the Hrubieszow house of study, behind the oven.
Hrubieszow, 500 Years Ago
Five hundred years ago, in 1400, Hrubieszow was still a village. Jews may already have been living there, but they apparently had no sense of history. Our knowledge of their lives and deeds is therefore nonexistent.
Eliyohu, the First Historical Jew in Hrubieszow
So it is that we hear about the first Jew in Hrubieszow only in 1440. His name is Eliyohu. We know nothing about where he came from. And nothing at all about his family, his concerns, his joys,
[Columns 807 - 808]
or his needs. Had he not taken business trips from Hrubieszow to Kiev, through Lutsk, to buy horses and hides, he would certainly have been lost to history. We should thank the short notice in Akta Grodzkie i Ziemskie for our shadowy acquaintance with Eliyohu in 1440.
It's possible that Eliyohu, the Jew of 1440, settled in Hrubieszow, and that his distant descendants who read these lines do not know that Eliyohu's blood runs in their veins.
A contemporary of Eliyohu's was Yitzchok Sokolovitsh. He seems to have owned much property in Hrubieszow. The historian Yitzchok Shipper tells us that he leased the tariffs in Sambor and the salt mines in Jasnica, and mortgaged his property and ten slaves to a Polish landowner.
Michael and Yehuda of Hrubieszow
At about the same time the 1450s Michael and Yehuda of Hrubieszow, father and son, rose to prominence. These residents of Hrubieszow were not ordinary people, but wine suppliers to the royal court of Kazimierz Jagiellończyk and importers of Crimean wine.
Poorer Jews may have lived in Hrubieszow as well, but history is silent about the poor. Such is its nature.
The Brothers Yoskeh and Shakh Shakhnevitsh
Another pair of Hrubieszow Jews became noteworthy because of their business dealings, which include them among the greatest lease-holders in Poland in the second half of the 15th century.
The Kernel of a Community
This is a meager look at the first Jewish Hrubieszow, of 500 years ago. It is poor in numbers; in 1555, only thirteen Jews live in the town, in four houses. Nine years later, there are as many as forty Jews, in five houses. They are not yet creating a community, but provide the kernel of one.
Equal Rights in 1578
It's 1578. The town of Hrubieszow is 178 years old. One hundred thirty-eight years earlier, the first historical Jew, Eliyohu, had appeared. Fourteen years earlier, 40 Jews lived in the town, and in 1578 their numbers were probably higher. The few dozen Jews envy the town's Christians, who enjoy all the rights, while they the Jews exist at their mercy.
They start to lobby for equal rights, and are helped by the district head Tęczyński.
He may have been friendly to Jews, or perhaps only had business ties with them.
Thanks to his help, in 1578 King Stefan Batory grants the Jews of Hrubieszow full equal rights
The equal rights led to a minor revolution in the lives of the cluster of Jews. They were officially allowed to deal in all types of commerce or handicraft, produce and sell alcoholic drinks, build houses and stores, build a synagogue as well as houses for the rabbi and the cantor, and are released from special royal taxes. In short, complete equal rights.
Typical Jewish Professions
And history repeats itself once again. We know little of the joys and sorrows of the small Jewish community of Hrubieszow, which thank God already has a synagogue, a rabbi, and a cantor; and we know a bit about some characteristic Jewish lines of work.
One Jew, Avrom, produced brandy, and pays the town 60 Polish marks annually; he is also obligated to set up a cannon to strengthen the town's defences.
Two Jews, Moyshe Shabsayevitsh and Avrom Me'irovitsh, lease properties from the Bishop of Chelm, and are in constant litigation with him. Other Jews lease the ritual slaughter tax, or become butchers. These are all typical Jewish professions.
The Terrible Massacres of 1648
The life and doings of the small Jewish community of Hrubieszow goes on for years, generations become part of the fabric of local life with its shadows and light, up to the dreadful day in 1648 when the murderers led by Bogdan Khmelnitski slaughtered almost all the entire Jewish community of Hrubieszow.
Of course, their lives before that time were not tranquil. In 1498, 1500, 1502, 1523, and 1526 they had suffered a bit from attacks by the Tatars, who were far from being humanists but they cannot be compared with Khmelnitski's Aktsiya.
The Jewish historian Shmuel Fayvish, in his book Tit Ha-Yeven, recounts that only a small number of Hrubieszow Jews managed to survive, in Lublin. A few years later, they had apparently rebuilt the Jewish community of Hrubieszow, which flourished organizationally and culturally.
There is a report of the yeshiva run by Rabbi Yitskhok Kharif, founded at that time, and of the town rabbi, Khayim HaLevi Hurvits.
This is yet another Hrubieszow, different from the previous version, and certainly different from the later version.
On the Threshold of the 18th Century
The 18th century - a century of disaster for the Jews of Hrubieszow. One fine morning in 1736, a fire suddenly broke out. Jewish property went up in smoke: 27 houses, the synagogue, and the bathhouse.
The wars that Poland waged with Sweden and Russia ignited conflagrations that were no less destructive: need, loneliness, privations,
[Columns 809 - 810]
and destitution. Poland became impoverished. This included its Jewish community, which was ensnared in debts and legal suits in an effort to cover its fourfold taxes: to the province, the state treasury, the local priest, and the Jewish community. Anyone who could, demanded taxes of all kinds.
We Complain about High Taxes
These days, we complain about high taxes; but our ancestors paid much more. Examples are the unusual taxes on bridges, markets, and wars; and dozens of other taxes, besides the usual poll tax.
Who can enumerate all the taxes that Jews paid at various times, when they made their meager livings by trade, handicraft, and peddling? Only a few Jews were able to benefit from Hrubieszow's prestigious position as a way station for grain en route from Belarus to Danzig by way of the Bug and Vistula rivers.
The Community Becomes More Important
In spite of the poverty and financial crisis, the community gains significance in both quantity and quality. In 1765, there are 709 Jews in Hrubieszow, in 135 Jewish houses out of a total of 375 houses in all of Hrubieszow.
Hrubieszow also becomes more important in the province of Chelm, to which it belongs organizationally, and in the Council of the Four Lands. The leaders of the Jewish community, Hirsh Nakhimovitsh, Mark Rubinshteyn, Hirsh Kremenitser, and Rabbi Shmuel Margolis, played a significant role in the Council's sessions.
The partition of Poland in 1772 placed the Jews of Hrubieszow under Austrian authority. The old Jewish precept And a new king arose came true once again. New edicts and new taxes inundated the Jews of Hrubieszow.
The Jews of Hrubieszow paid the Austrian Emperor every conceivable tax: tolerance tax, property tax, marriage tax, meat tax, candle tax in addition to the old, familiar, traditional taxes.
A Cluster of Edicts
The tax catastrophe was accompanied by the hateful anti-Semitic tendencies: assimilating Jews,removing them from their traditional ways of making a living, colonizing them on the land and educating them in government schools. The pious Jews of Hrubieszow found these edicts too onerous and concentrated for such a short period. Luckily, the reforming Austrian regime did not endure long. In 1809, 37 years after the onset of Austrian rule, Hrubieszow came under the authority of the Warsaw principality and Congress Poland.
Once again, we witness a new Hrubieszow, which did not resemble the previous one, and certainly not the later one.
On the Threshold of the 19th Century
The old-new rulers of Hrubieszow were not remarkable for their affection for Jews. Actually, the Jews of Hrubieszow like all Polish Jews of the time did not yearn for affection. On the contrary, they were happy to be left alone to lead their distinctive, cloistered lives. Do me no favors, do me no harm.
However, two renowned Jews of Hrubieszow completely disagreed. One was the physician Shloyme Yankev Kalmenzon, and the other an inventor who was well known in Warsaw: Avrom Yankev Shtern.
We have written at length and in detail about these two famous Hrubieszow personalities in this book. Therefore, I will not dwell on their lives, works, and battles, but will only say in brief: they brought much honor to the Jewish community of Hrubieszow.
These persons heralded winds of change among the Jews of Poland, including the Jews of Hrubieszow. These winds brought the Haskalah, progress, and productivization into homes in Hrubieszow, and a new kind of Jew appeared in town: the Maskil.
Hrubieszow was blessed with many Maskilim
Hrubieszow was blessed with a series of Jewish Maskilim. Let us mention some of them: the writer Simkha Aryeh Leven; the writer Simkha Klayner (author of Mi Maleh); Simkha Pinsker, the father of Leo Pinsker (the famous Zionist and author of Autoemanzipation); Dr. Tzvi Goldschmid and his sons, the lawyers Yoysef and Yankev.
Jewish Hrubieszow in the 19th century was distinguished not only by its personalities. It also started community initiatives. A printing press was established in 1816 and existed for eight years, during which it published 34 sacred books.
Somewhat later, in 1844, Rabbi Yoysef Katsenelenboygen established the Jewish hospital. Other traditional Jewish social institutions were created, which existed up to the beginning of the 20th century.
During this time, the Jewish population of Hrubieszow almost doubled in size: from approximately 3000 in 1827 to 5350 in 1897. However, the Hrubieszow of later years was completely different from both the earlier town and certainly unlike the later town. It was Hrubieszow.
On the Threshold of the 20th Century
Most of our memorial book has been devoted to the Hrubieszow of the first half of the 20th century.
[Columns 811 - 812]
At that time, Hrubieszow was still a religiously observant town. But changes were affecting its young people, who organized in two camps: one Zionist and the other Socialist. Each of these believed in, and fought for, their ideals with the same fervent Hasidic zeal of their ancestors.
The interesting developments in Hrubieszow society following World War I were cut short by the brutalities of World War II. The seven-thousand-strong Jewish community of Hrubieszow was murdered savagely.
Completed and Done
There is no longer a Jewish Hrubieszow today. Completed and done. Ended, and so viciously.
Once again, I see Synagogue St., Lubelska, the marketplace, and Gurna St. Not a single Yiddish word to be heard. The synagogues and houses of study stand, mute; so do the houses and shops. Perhaps bearing the same signs - but with different names.
The town that was founded by Eliyohu in 1440 was cruelly slaughtered. Graves and their markers are all that is left of seven thousand souls.
This is the History
I wanted to set down only a few words, but instead I produced a short historical overview of many different Jewish Hrubieszows over the generations, with many sorrows, and perhaps no less joys.
Could we have silenced all those generations, and the pioneers of the Jewish community of Hrubieszow, who laid the foundations 500 years ago, and who built the lower and upper floors 200, 200, and 100 years ago?
Could we have allowed the pious Jews to be forgotten, those who came to Hrubieszow from the east, west, and south, and established an important Jewish town on the banks of the Huczwa and the Bug rivers, on the border of Volhynia and Lesser Poland?
A Memorial Marker on the Grave of Twenty Generations
We are therefore publishing the Hrubieszow Yizkor Book, a memorial marker on the grave of twenty Jewish generations in Hrubieszow. It is an attempt to summarize 500 years of Jewish life in a Jewish town in Lesser Poland.
Unfortunately, our information about much of the preceding twenty generations is meager to the point of nonexistence, fragmentary, and lacks detail. Let our few words, therefore, express much.
Let our involuntary muteness scream and recount twenty links in the chain of the Hrubieszow Jewish community, links which lived, built, and had hopes, but from which only the Hrubieszow Yizkor Book remains.
Living with the Thought of Destruction is Difficult
Living with the thought of destruction and graves is difficult. It is therefore only natural that the mournful memories fade, and are superseded by new life, a life that has requirements and demands that we do not weep or mourn, but integrate and interweave ourselves into its living web with all our senses. Can we reject it? Can we say, no?!
Our children play the dominant role in this new life. They are forging the future of our people, and are the only source of joy for us, the surviving remnants. As they climb rung after rung of the ladder of success, we feel like telling them:
Children! Don't let it go to your heads. Enjoy the new life as much as you can, but at the same time - don't forget the great tragedy of our murdered nation.
Let a small corner of your Jewish heart forever hold the Jewish Hrubieszow that was so savagely murdered. From time to time, nourish that corner with the pages of the Hrubieszow Yizkor Book.
Peek into its cracks, take a look at its pictures, read about its leaders, marvel at their deeds, and take steps to make sure that the great tragedy will never happen again.
Completed and done!
We have started a new chapter, which we hope will be one of success, individual and national.
Be Strong, Be Strong, And We Will Be Strong!
Now, as we write the last lines of the Hrubieszow Yizkor Book, I would like to say the last word.
We undertook an important mission: to immortalize generations that lived and are no more. May our guardian angel forgive us if we have not completed our task.
At the end of our task, in the margins of our memorial book, let us say as is customary when we finish reading a book of the Torah, Be strong, be strong, and we will be strong!
Let our sons and daughters, our grandchildren and great-grandchildren descendants of the Jews of Hrubieszowbe strong and multiply.
Only ashes remain of their ancestral home, but the new nation of Israel will rise thanks to their work.
And the words of the prophet will come true: And I will rejoice in Jerusalem, and joy in my people: and the voice of weeping shall be no more heard in her, nor the voice of crying out! (Isaiah 65:19).
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