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[Pages 131 - 143]

[Page 131]

Appendix I

The Statute of “Hevra Kedosa” Funeral Fraternity from Bacau

From the register (Pincas) dated in the year [5] 531 (1771)


b. The members of the fraternity have to comply with all their duties and avoid conflicts among them.

1. In case of death, the chief will personally go to show the place of the grave.

2. All the members of the fraternity have to obey the chief. Those who do not, are fined and they will apologize to the chief. An “usher” who uses the tools of the fraternity for other pirposes will be punished with “Malcut”, 39 whips.

3. The chief will have a double vote.

4. Admission of new members is only made in (Hol Hamoed) Pesah, Savuot, Sucot. Those who want to be replaced at their duties can pay a “samas” to replace them. The new emtries will pay “barbanta” (the admission fee) of three coins and he will offer a guardian to the entire fraternity. 6. Every year, only one member of the fraternity will be admitted. Ushers can be admitted in any number.

5. A member of the fraternity cannot enter (the premises) during the funeral ritual, not even to give help. Those who violate the rule will be fined.

6. If a member gets sick, two people will be sent, and they will take turns in sleeping in the room of the sick person. The Samas (the candidate) who is still a child has someone else to replace him. The chief cannot be contradicted.

7. The chief will start the funeral ritual. Those members who refuse to perform the ritual will pay a fine of three coins.

8. Those who begin the ritual before the chief does, either at washing, or at digging the grave, will be fined with 15 coins.

9. The fraternity tools are kept in the synagogue. Their use without the chief's approval is fined with 15 coins. The chief can borrow them in exchange of a guarantee. Any broken tool will be repaired with the fraternity funds.

10. Those who enter the premises without a coat will be fined with 10 coins, as the fraternity must be respected.

11. Before starting to dig the grave, the relatives will deposit the object of guarantee, which will be kept by the chief. It will not be returned before “slosim” (30 days from the funeral). The chief and the fraternity can postpone paying for the piece of land. When payment is not made, the guaranteed object cannot be sold within one year. The chief will pay the damage if it is stolen.

12. On Simhat Tora, the chief will give candles to all the members of the fraternity.

13. The fraternity will organize a common feast for Pesat, Savuot, Sucot. If the chief doesn't want to do this from the fraternity funds, expenses will be made out of the “Charity box”. If there are no funds, the members will contribute with 20 coins. If the chief does not agree to the feast, especially to the one on Simhat Tora, he can be dismissed.

14. All the members of the fraternity will be called to the Tora by the chief, in the order of the signatures as recorded in the register, three times a year: on Iom Kipur, “Col habhor” and “Ase taase”.

15. All the events of the year will be recorded in the register: minor offences, admission of new members, violations of the statutes. Every Hol Hamoed (Sucot) the register will be handed to the new chief.

16. All the collected amounts, including the ones from Iom Kipur' Eve will be deposited to the chief. He can give money to the street beggars or in other ways.

17. Elections will be made on Hol Hamoed Pesah. If they don't take place within a few days, the old chief maintains his position for another year.

18. An important man can be admitted with no probation (3 years as an usher). He will give a feast where he serves personally.

19. Ushers must listen to any member of the fraternity. They cannot sit on the same bench with the members and they have to greet first. Ushers will wear modest clothes (at meetings) and will wait on the members, bringing the wine, etc. At the feasts, they eat after the members have finished.

20. They announce the proposals, which are accepted only with a majority of votes.

21. Statutes cannot be modified.

22. At meetings, the members are seated in the order of their signatures in the register, one at the right of the chief, another at his left. Any member can give up his seat to another member.

23. An important man can be admitted with no probation.

24. Before being recorded in the register, the new member gives wine to all the members of the fraternity, 10 coins to the ushers, and 15 coins to the secretary.

25. The chief has priority in the funeral ritual; he can give up this role to another member.

26. Those who speak about other issues during the meetings will be fined with 10 coins.

27. Those who want to eat or drink during a funeral have to do this outside the cemetery.

28. The grave cannot be marked with wood, stone, etc., without prior consent of the chief. Offenders will be fined.

29. Ushers will get 3 coins at a relative's death and 15 coins from others.

30. “Matieva” (tombstone) cannot be put up within one year of mourning.

31. The right to vote is obtained after 3 years of probation.

32. It is forbidden to take off the hat inside the premises and at the cemetery. Fine - 10 coins.

33. There will be silence and appropriate behavior during the meetings.

34. When a child is registered, the admission fee will be paid. He will sign in the register only after his marriage.

35. If a member, who is more than 12, dies, the shops will be closed till after the funeral. Fine - 15 coins.

36. At the commemorations of the dead, at first the chief's dead relatives will be mentioned, then the members', in the order of the register.

37. A Cohen can also be admitted as a member of the fraternity.

38. The tailors and the other handicraftsmen, who are members of the fraternity, will not work till the funeral of a member. Fine - 10 coins.

39. At meetings, the right to speak will be asked from the chief. People will speak standing. Only the old and the ill can speak while sitting down.

40. If the chief is not in town, he can designate a deputy, who will have the same authority like him.

41. The electors (borerim) elect the chief for 3 years. If they elect one of them, a new consultation takes place (notes with the names of all the members are put in an urn, and 3 names are extracted, becoming “electors”).

42. If a member of the fraternity dies, he is asked for forgiveness after he has been lowered in the grave, and “his farewell from the living” has been proclaimed. His name is erased from the register.

[Page 133]

Appendix II

Register of “Poalei Tedek” Jewish Tailors' Guild, Bacau, 1832

A. D. Birnberg sent a copy of this register to 'Dr. Iuliu Barasch' Historical Society from Bucharest, in 1887. The text was translated in Romanian by Lazar (Eliezer) Casvan, and then revised by M. Goldenkron. The translation is clumsy. We reproduce the translation, modernizing the orthography.

(Preamble). The great merit of the handicraft is explained by the words of our scholars in many places. Here is what we find in Talmud: “Braver is the one who earns a living with their hands than the one who fears God, as it is written about the one fearing God: 'Happy is the one fearing God' etc., while, about the one who earns a living with their hands, it is written: 'If you eat from the work of your hands, you will be happy and well'. And our scholars also said: 'Man should always learn a handicraft, which is easy and clean'. What does it mean an easy and clean handicraft? Rabbi Iehuda says: 'The sewer's needle', and by 'clean' they mean 'clean from theft and concurrence', as our scholars noticed related to the verse: 'And Bileam raised his eyes and saw Israel doing his activities'. And what did he see? He saw that the entries of the tents are not placed one in front of the other, so that they cannot look into each other's tent. What the scholars wanted to show by this was that no man should crave for his neighbor's belongings, he should not harm him, he should not cheat and make concurrence to him, as they explained the verse: 'Everyone from his work', they emphasized the words FROM HIS WORK and not from his neighbor's work, as no one touched what had been decided as belonging to the other. Then they said: 'There is no handicraftsman who disappears from this world without people needing him. Happy is the one with a noble handicraft, pity the one with a degraded handicraft. However, there is no handicraft without poverty and richness, as everything is depending on men's merits. Man should pray the one who has richness and wealth, to give him luck in what he does with his hands. Amen.”

The statutes begin at page 4.

And these are the statutes and the regulations of the POALEI TEDEK society.

Art. I. All members, on the eves of Saturdays and holidays, must add to the holiness of the day, by ceasing their work, from lunch time.

Art. II. No member must work during the days of Hol Hamoed (semi-holidays) and those who violate this rule will be punished for the community use as the chief (gabai) considers suitable. And will pay a ducat to the Austrian consul, and his signature will be marked in the register, with no forgiveness.

Art. III. Every member must give the chief as tedaka the amount of 5 coins every week, and Heaven will give more to those who give more.

Art. IV. Any journeyman tailor who works at a member of the society will give tedaka (charity) too, no less than 2 coins per week.

Art. V. The chief must go with the box every Friday, to collect money the money from the members.

Art. VI. Every Iom Kipur's eve, the chief and two other people from the society must sit with the pot in the synagogue and collect the tedaka from the members of the society.

Art. VII. A member of the society whose parents have died, or who will be a godfather, must pay 18 coins.

Art. VIII. When someone from the society has a wedding or a baptism, he must pay 18 coins to the society.

Art. IX. When a journeyman tailor gets married, he must pay 18 coins 4 times.

Art. X. A member must be stopped from creating concurrence to his neighbor, that is when someone has made marks on a material, no matter its quality, the other must not take this material in his hands. And the one who violates, this payment for the performed work will be given to the one who started it; beside all this, he will be punished as the chief considers appropriate.

Art. XI. If a member hires a journeyman tailor for a year, then another one cannot hire him too. The journeyman tailor must work at the initial master or leave the town.

Art. XII. He who is not in the society is not entitled for anything belonging to the society, and someone from another town cannot work inside this city, but only to sign as members in Pinkas, with the consent of all the society members, and even if he is a member of the society, he must give the chief 10 coins, as tedaka, every week before the first year, and then he will be equal with the other members.

Art. XIII. A citizen from here who is not allowed to enter the society cannot work inside this city, not even alone, without a journeyman tailor, as it is the rule in this country.

Art. XIV. Elections must be made on Hol-Hamoed Pesah, and three electors (borerim) must be chosen, who will name the chief. If they want to name the chief without the electors, and the chief would be the one whose name is taken out from the urn, they can do this as well. The money of the society is given to the one who will be the chief.

Art. XV. When elections take place, the previous chief will present the records of the society.

Art. XVI. Those who want to be accepted in the society will pay the sum required by the chief and the majority of the society, and give a feast.

Art. XVII. If someone from the society is trialed, the issue is judged by the chief, and no other person; he, together with the chief of the Sacred Society (Hevra Kedosa) will analyze the matter, and nobody but them is allowed to say his opinion related to the society.

Art. XVIII. When someone wants to introduce his son in the society, the consent of the chief and the members is needed, he must pay a karbovetz and give a feast.

Art. XIX. When elections are due, and the members do not come to the meeting, then the old chief keeps his position for another year.

Art. XX. The chief must supervise all these provisions, and if he violates them, he will be fined with 18 ROL, and he will be dismissed from his position.

Art. XXI. Every Simhat Tora, the chief gives a feast, and all the members go to the synagogue with lit candles, following the Sacred Society.

Art. XXII. When the chief gives the feast, everyone must contribute with 20 coins for the feast expenses, even those who don't want to come to the feast.

Art. XXIII. When the society is gathered, and they are all together, no one will raise their voice and argue, and the one who starts the dispute will be fined with one ducat for the Sacred Society and one ducat for our society, as they must sit in love, union and peace

Art. XXIV. Those who make “gensca” (this is the name for women clothes), are not allowed to make “nemtesc” (men clothes) too, and those who work men clothes should not work women clothes, either by themselves or by some of their tenants, and those who violate this rule will pay a fine, as imposed by the chief of the Sacred Society, the chief of our society and one of the community leaders.

Art. XXV. If a tailor comes from another town, making clothes either for men or for women, no one in the society can take him to work in association, but only in pieces (stuckarbeturer) can he work with him; and it is also forbidden to go to that person whenever necessary and give him any order, either for men or women clothes; and when this provision is violated, he will be fined as the chief of the Sacred Society, our chief and a community leader consider appropriate, and their decision will be accepted without objections, and without any other trial before our law court or the authorities'.

The entire statute above is written in Rasi; and now I get to the other writings and signatures in the Pinkas (translator's note).

May God's grace be on the hands that undersign here, in order to sustain the statutes provided in the Pinkas of the “Poalei Tedek” society, pledging to support and strengthen them by our word and powers.

[Page 135]

Appendix III

The Register of the “Ghemilat Hasadim” Association of Mutual Help Located in Bacau - Year [5] 596


The title sheet : Pure pinkas(register) of the Association “Ghemilat Hasadim” who gathered together and associated with the purpose of a very good deed, the one of helping, here, in the holy community of Bacau. Hereinafter are explained the statutes and indications which were made with enforcement. All members of the association established and accepted both for their own use and for their descendents' use that these statutes should be preserved and accomplished in their whole validity. The statutes that are exposed in the above mentioned register and also their memory should be never forgotten. Help us God in favouring us to return in Sion in songs and glory.

I, the writer and ornamentation making person, the humble Aser David, the son of the deceased Mordehal from the holly community Hotin. In the year of {....) {5}596.

The year is indicated by a biblical quotation. Three points having a triangle shape mark some letters. The ciphered value of these letters indicates “596” (the “5” - th millennium is understood by itself). Up, on the left side, all letters are bearing a signature “David, the son of Ierahmiel”.

The calligrapher of this register is also the author of the register of the “Talmuda Tora” Association in Bacau, 1837 (I.K.)

The Statutes

0. These are the statutes (tekandt) made with the whole “Ghemilat Hasadim” Association consent.

1. Each member of the association is obliged to give at least three pennies, each week. The one giving more than that will be rewarded by Holiness.

2. The member, who does not pay his due within 6 months, will be excluded from the association and his signature will be cut from the register without any mercy.

3. All association members are obliged to gather for elections each year, specifically in the second day of the Hol-Hamad Pesah.

4. Each week, the chief will go with the box in order to gather the dues from the association's members.

5. The chief is enabled to give loans up to 10 ROL without any approval from the association. He can not lend more than 10 ROL without the association's approval. In case he lends a bigger amount, he will pay from his own money, without any objection.

6. The chief will lend money only in exchange of a good pawn (deposit) and versus a good mortgage.The lending period will not exceed 6 months. After this period passes, the pawn will be sold, The will be three arbiters, elected among the members of the association. The pawn should bear a double value compared to the lent amount.

7. When elections are held, the chief will respond in front of the members.

8. Each eve of Iom Kipur, the chief will be present at the synagogue, when incomes from the members are encashed and donations are collected.

9. Each member of the association, at the circumcision ceremony of his boy or at the marriage of one of his children will make a donation of 60 pennies.

10. Each member of the brotherhood who will be “sandik” (co-officiator) or God father at a circumcision ceremony will make a deposit of 18 pennies at the association's pay office.

11. The donations from the Saturday before pericope's “Mispatim” as well as from the second day of the Hol-Hamond Pasah, belong to the association.

12. The one who wants to become a member of the association will pay an admission fee (barbânta- I.K) and will offer a party.

13. In the first three years, the new member will not have the right to vote. After this period, he will be equal to the other members of the association.

14. The chief will organize a party each Simhat Torah. Each member will make a donation of 20 pennies and no money are taken from the association founds. In the same time, the members will go with the lighted candles to the synagogue, following the funeral association “Hevra Kedosa”.

15. If no elections are held at the established time, the chief will be in his position one more year.

16. Even though the association is informed, the chief can not lend more than 50 ROL to the same person and the lending period will not exceed 30 days.

17. Illegible.

18. It is forbidden to tear sheets from the register. In case the register is finished, it will be preserved carefully, and a new register is made,

19. Even though there are funds amounting more than 1000 ROL in the pay office, no bigger amounts will be lent, except when buying Sefer Torah or Talmud.

20. There will be elected for the committee only reliable persons (Anasim betuhim al haemet).

21. In case the chief leaves for travel, he will inform the censor (”roe hesbon”).

22. The pinkas will be held at the chief's residence. The one who takes it out will be penalized

23. ...........................................................................excluded from the Torah call.

24. The chief may receive new members having the consent of 4 important members of the association.

25. The chief must know the statute very well.

26. When receiving cash, the chief will have the debtor's list and will not let any penny from the debt.

I translated the first 15 articles towards the incomplete copy that was obtained in conformity with the original that can be found now at the Institute “Yivo New-York”. The next ones were resumed in 1947, in Bucharest, when I had the copy sent in 1887 by Bimberg from Bacau to the “Historical Society “Iuliu Barasch”(I.K.)

[Page 137]

Appendix IV

The Statutes from the “Talmud Tora “Association, Bacau, 1837

1. Each member of the association will pay a due of 5 pennies each week.

2. The person who does not pay the due within a 6 months period will be excluded from the association.

3. Each Hol - Hamed of Pesah (semi-celebration of Pesah) the chief (gabal) will be elected. The chief will take over the association's money immediately.

4. Each Thursday, the chief will go personally to the members' houses in order to encash the due.

5. At the general meetings for elections, the chief will report the financial statements of accounts.

6. The chief will daily control the education in heider (the confessional school) and at the Talmud Torah (the same for the poor children).The chief will control if the children wear titit [fimbre}on Saturdays, as well.

7. At meetings, the chief will report about the educational situation in schools.

8. On Iom Kipur eve, the chief and 2 members will sit at the donation table and will encash donations for Talmud Torah.

9. Each new employed melamed [teacher] will give to the association one and a half sorcovat, and each belfer [teacher's assistant] will give one sorcovat.

10. During the semester, one melamed is not allowed to register the pupil of another melemed.

11. It is not permitted for a melamed to accept a child whose parents did not pay the previous melamed.

12. When a melamed gets the payment, he will give 10 % from the amount for theTalmud Torah.

13. The chief will judge the eventual misunderstandings between melamed and belfer.

14. When a circumcision or a wedding takes place, every association member will give 60 pennies for the association.

15. Each God father will make a donation of 18 pennies.

16. When a new member is accepted in the association, he will give barbânta [acceptance tax] and will offer a feast for the association's members.

17. The donations made with the occasion of pericope's “Vaicra” reading belong to the association.

18. The chief who is not obeying the statutes will be penalized with 18 lei [18 is a ciphered value of the letters Het and Iod that are equal to 18].

19. If no elections take place, the old chief will keep his position for another year.

20. When Simhat Torah takes place, the association will organize a feast. Each member will give 20 pennies .At the procession, the associates will walk with lighted candles after “Hevra Kedosa” funeral brotherhood.

21. When a child starts to learn humas [Pentateuch] with translation in Yidish, his father, even though he is an association member will make a donation of 18 pennies.

22. When a member has iurtat [commemoration of a deceased person in the family] he will give the association 18 pennies.

23. The statutes will be read daily in the synagogue.

24. Each sandek [coofficiator at the circumcision ceremony] will make a donation of one sorcovat to the association.

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Appendix V

Books Printed in Bacau

1. In 1882 Lipales Verk [...] (idish) “Contains 18 songs that were sung and applauded everywhere in the theatres...” Bacau, Iehezkiel Margulies printing house (V).

2. 1882. Der practiser araber [Lessons for Arab language for those who will dwell in Eretz Israel- I.K.] by Isaac Naistain, Bacau, 40 p.

3. 1895. Teater in folcslider” [Songs for the theater and folksongs - I.K.], Bacau, printed by Eliahu Margulies (V).

4. Der Album[Yidish] “ a beautiful work for the families” composed by Lipa M. Radescu, Bacau, “ Progresul” printing house , 1896, 64 p in 16.

5. 1896. Hespad Mar [ebr.] Necrology in the memory of the Hasidic Rabin Ithak ben Salom Fridman. Author: Iaacoov Mordehai, Bacau, “ Progresul” printing house, 16 pages.

6. 1896. Sefer Divrei Haemet [The book of the words of the truth - I.K] by M. Braunstein Mibasan, Bacau, 1896 (V).

7. 1897. Sefer Musar Ivrit (ebr.)[The Book of the Hebraic Moral- I.K) by Mose Orenstein, Bacau, “Progresul” printing house, 40 pages with translation in Romanian (V).

8. 1898. Statute [.....] (idish) 'The statute of the first philanthropic association of different Jewish craftsmen 'Agudas Haboinim” for curing the sick people and for participation at the funeral of the deceased members”. Established in Bacau in April the 12-th 1891, the second edition, Bacau. Iehezhiel Margulies printing house, 1898, 62 pages, type 200x 165 mm.

9. 1900. Teuda Eliahu (Jewish).

Periodical printings

I.HAHOLEH (ebr) paper of Mose Orenstein, Bacau. 1900.

II. LUAH [Calendar] for the year of 5654(1893-1894) Bacau. Eliahu Margulies printing house .

III. LUAH [.....] for the year 5655 (1894-95), ibid.

IV. LUAH [.....] for the year 5656 ( 1895-96), ibid.

V. LUAH [.....] for the year 5657 (1896-97), ibid.

This luah appeared subsequently, as well.

* I.Kara, Hebraic Printer in Romania until 1900, in “Kyriat Sefer” vol. 41, no.2/1987, page 339 -340

[Page 139]

Appendix VI

Temple of Cereal Dealers in Bacau

This modern temple located on Stefan cel Mare str. No. 29, was built on a piece of land bought by parishioners in 1899.The buying document is signed by Zisu, son of Hers Zalmanovici, Isaac Avram, Leon Davidovici and Josef Marcus. In 1937 another piece of land was bought with 31,361 lei. After the fire from 1927, it was rebuilt and enlarged. Other repairs were made in 1974 and 1986.

According to the documentary materials, the temple's activity, the committee elections and the budget can be observed. Once, the number of parishioners was 310. In 1935, there were given 186 pews or arm chairs. The committee was elected in a democratic way. In 1920, the committee was composed of the following persons: Hers Calmanovici, Josef Aronovici, Isaac Avram.In 1937, the leaders were as follows: Rabin Vacsman, Moise Mendel and Iancu Volf. The incomes were provided by selling pews, dues, rents, donations. In 1925, the Rabin S. Hoerer was employed for 10 years. In 1929, on the temple's land a new poultry abattoirs was built. During the persecution, 50 prisoners were housed in there. The poorest of them were fed from the temple's founds. The decrease of the Jewish population has the effect of transforming the temple into a museum.

[Page 140]

Appendix VII

Images of Former Bacau

In the work “The town laying on Bistrita Bacau” belonging to the well known Bacau's writer, who left for Israel, I. Voledi- Vardi (Tel- Aviv, 1989, vol 2, page 187-195), Marius Micu, the infamous writer, journalist, easiest, published a list of the inhabitants dwelling on the two main streets of Bacau in the period between the World's Wars: Bacau - Piatra str., down-town and the Main Street.The information, even though it is not quite complete, has real value because it helps the social-cultural knowledge of the Jewish people living in Bacau. It starts from Sf. Nicolae market from the house of dr. O.Brucar and passes the public garden. It follows: 1. Hotel “Europa” director Golf. 2. Modiste Tauber 3. Jewish teahouse. 4. The shoemaker Vasile Baciu (former socialist with doctor Aroneanu). 5. The office of iron casting Blasca brothers. 6. Furniture Caufman. 7. Gherman Lady's tailor shop. 8. Bookshop Solomon Kitner. 9. Photo Adele. 10. Dye house DUCO of Idelovici. 11. Ghidale Mendelsohn.Taphouse 12. Empty land for Circus. 13. Hotel Central, transformed into the Main Post Office. 14. Special food Kalusian. 15. Grocer's shop Marian. 16. Bookshop and printing house M.Haber. 17. Barber's shop Tunaru. 18. Newspaper shop. 19. The tailor's shop Iancu Schwartz. 20. “La consum” pub restaurant, luxury restaurant Herman Isac. 21. The apothecia Marin Malhasovici. 22. Tailor shop haberdashers Schwartz. 23. Miclescu's Sweet shop, and then, 24. Ionescu's Sweet shop. 25. Lottery. 26. “Lux Cinema. 27. Goldschmidt Printing house. 28.” Viennese Tailor shop”, Herman Schwartz. 29. “Bursa” Café, Tiperman. 30. D. Pascal Salami shop.. 31. Autotechnics Al. Bramovici. 32. “Regal” Hotel. 33. Town Hall . 34. Administrative Palace. 35. Jean Singer house. 36. Lawyer Mircea Cancicov (finance minister). These were the buildings on the right side. On the left side, starting from St. Nicolas Cathedral: 1. Steinbock Pub. 2.Saler son Lady's tailor shop. 3. Jean Avram printing house. 4. I. Cretu shoemaker. 5. Ruckenstein, modiste. 6. The shoemaker of Moise de Bubes (bearded). 7. Church singer Alter Hais. 8. “Mode's progress” tailorshop and cloth manufactory, Alter Ghersen Marcus. 9. Carolina Marcovici, modiste. 10. Dentist I. Ordnung. 11. Lawyer Mititelu. 12. Barber's shop Frantz Buzatescu. 13. Watch shop Zegherman. 14. Furniture Vigder. 15. Cohnts pub. 16. The Bank of Bacau. 17. Bookshop Margulies. 18. Tailor shop Gutman Haim Bercu. 19. Zeller, musical devices. 20. Itic Mendel Café. 21. “New life “pub, Sorin Cunea. 22. Aron Grinberg tailor shop. 23. Print shop and bookshop “Gutenberg”, D. Rosenberg. 24. Moritz barber's shop, ping glasses and leeches. 25. Andrei Vrasti Bookbindery. 26. Bachman's bookshop. 27. The branch of Marmorosch- Blank Bank. 28. Goldring - jewelleries. 29. Hazu - bookshop. 30. “Oituzul” Bank 31. Alexandru Gheorghiu sweet shop, luxurious. 32. Vogel apothecia. 33. Constantin Dragan Pub. 34. Max photo. 35. Dr. Cervinschi 36. Dentist Ehrlich. 37. “ Nationala “ Insurance , Kendler. 38. Osias Herscovici Bank. 39. Hamugea, café. 40. C. Dragan pub. 41. Weinberg photo. 42. Office for documents copying. 43. Tobacconist's shop. 44. Central Bank, Filderman. 45. Rabin Landman Synagogue. 46. Lawyer Mihai Vagaunescu. 47. Lawyer Grigore Mârza 48. Doctor Sapira. 49. “Ateneu “Hall. 50. Police. 51. Firemen headquarters.

MAIN STREET. Starting from St. Nicolas Market , on the right side : 1. Steinbock pub. 2. Furnishings for tailing work Max Blitz. 3. Gheorghiu barber's shop. 5. Dye house “ At the Carpathians mountains”, Heinrich Avram. 6. “ Sorbona” pub. 7. Dye house “ At the camel” , Sigler. 8. Bank of Small Credits of Jewish craftsmen. 9. Factory and shoe shop Constantin Iordanescu. 10. Wool, Alterson sisters. 11. Furniture and tapestry work, Zeidel Loewensohn. 12. „ Traian „Hotel and restaurant. 13. Workshop for priests clothes Rosental. 14. Chemical cleaning Rosenberg. 15. S. Craus Tailor shop. 16. Bernard Goldring watches shop. 17. Moise Kraus tailor shop.18. Furrier's shop Zeidman. 19. Skin dressing shop Hers Abramovici. 20. Mos Grinberg, yeast. 21. Copel printing house. 22. Valeria D. Ionescu, lady' s tailor shop. 23. Saddler's shop Hausfather, named Haim Aron Rimer. 24. Grocery „ At the little wolf, Hari Solomon (Haim Aron) . 25. Passmanterie „ At Rusu” , Goldberg. 26. „ At the golden globe” , wools, silks, Gloter. 27. I. Gherman tailor shop. 28. Gutman's grocery. 29. Silks „ At the ant' , Fritz Lupovici. 30. Silks and wools at Suler. 31. Shirts “ At Ancora', Leibovici. 32. Brand's watch shop. 33. Shoe shop “At the country's brand” , Zeilicovici. 34. Haberdasher's, parfumes, Haim Loebel. 35. Ready made clothes “ At Luna Park” , Goldenberg. 36. Leon Solomon jewelry and watch shop.37. Furnishings for shoe making Stopler. 38. “At Mona Lisa” , manufacturer, haberdasher's , David Leventer. 39. A. Iacubovici tailor shop. 40. Brul, furnishing for tailor shops. 41. Woven texture “ At the Mascote” , Rubinstein. 42. Woven texture Bernard Lazarovici . 43. Shoe shop “At the Romanian crown” , Mrs. Weissman. 44. Manufacturer “Galia” , Pascal Lazarovici. 45. Woven texture, Sache Moscovici. 46. Whole house of the factory “Gaina Brothers” . 47. Woven texture, Pincu Gloter. 48. Ready made clothes, Grunberg and sons. 49. Smith's shop. B. Iakerkaner. 50. Clothes “At the Prince Ferdinand” , Solomon Leizer. 51. “At Luvru's”, silks , Sami Kaufman. 52. Hunting arms, Lazarovici. 53. Hats, Heinrich Aroneanu. 54. Brasovenie, Solomon Posmantirer. 55. Shoe shop , Meir Weissman. 56. Woven texture, Bernstein. 57. Snapic. 58. Small ware shop “At the golden mill”, Medelovici and Bercovici. 59. Grocery, Fighel brothers. 60. Cohn bakery. 61. Gh. Forescu's drugstore. On the left side : 62. Aron Krauter grocery. 63. Furrier's shop Ghelman. 64. Alter Ghersin tailorshop. 65. Glass shop Beinglass. 66. Mihailescu bakery. 67. H. L. Herscovici tailor shop. 68. Smithts shop “At the bell”, Faivis Rothenberg. 69. Glass shop Silberstein . 70. Glass shop Zeiden. 72. Apothecia Iliescu. 72. Smith's shop , Zisman. 73. „At the socks' spring” , Leibovici brothers. 74. „At Fortuna” , Rabinovici. 75. „Au Bon Gout”, Rabinovici. 76. The shop of the sock's factory Nachmansohn. 77. , “Czech- Romanian” ready made clothes, Grunberg. 78. “Bacau's veil”, Milica Marcusohn. 79. Galantery Akerman. 80. The representation of the „ Hercules” factory. 81. The shop of the waving factory, Iticson brothers. 82. “Elita” woven texture, Herman Leventer. 83. “Manufacturer's spring” , I. Leventer. 84. Cottonery Leia Moscovici. 85. Dye shop “Amphora” .86. The shop of the Factory of casinci “Gloria”,Leon Grad. 87. Branch of the shop Luca P. Niculescu, Bucharest. 88. Brasovenie, Ion Jaliu. 89. The cottonery of Bigman brothers. 90. Fine hats.Finkelstein. 91.Cotton Yarn Brul. 92. “At the elegant bride”, Grunberg. 93. Cottonery “At the white lamb”, Weinberg. 94. Ready made clothes “At Napoleon” ,Zisman 95. Kleinerman cottonery. 96. Cotton “At the golden star”, Leia [....] 97. Cottonery “At the peacock”, Itic Aron. 98. Linen, Zalman Svab. 99. Small ware shop, passmanterie, Abramovici and Iasir. 100. Skin dressing shop articles. 101. Linen „At the Rose”. 102. Linen Grunberg. 103. “At Vidra” , Horn brothers, hats and furs. 104. Furnishing for the tailor shop, Nuham Cleper. 105. Cotton yarns, mos Lazarie. 106. Small ware shop Saie Grunberg. 107. “Coltei” watch shop , Arthur Solomon. 108. Apothecia Stânca (Stein).

[Page 142]


Dear reader, if you had the patience and interest to read this book up to this point, please do not close it yet....

We must share a history with you : true in its whole......

More than eight years ago, the Centre for Studying the Jews' History concluded that, besides the documents volumes ( I.M.E.R.) it would be fit to pay attention to the day by day life of Jews, belonging to the different communities living in Romania. And therefore, a monograph started.

When we presented our intentions to the country's communities, we received - among first works- a research of the professor Iosif Leibu , named “ Data regarding the Jews Community of Bacau.

Considering that this work is a precious initiative, our centre obtained, with the support of that time's president of the community, Mr. Lawyer I.Brill, the agreement of a collective potential co laboratories. Therefore we reached the conclusion that it was possible to bring additional information to Mr. Prof. I. Leibu.

This was the way the collective of persons presented on the second page of this book appeared.

This way we could make a larger work, organized on chapters having a specific theme. In order to make a solid work, we appealed to the large experience and the full energy of the historian of Jewish people from Moldavia, Mr. I.Kara, respectively.

The local archives had been seriously researched with much competence by Mr. C. Marcusohn; in the same time we got a large number of documents from the Israelian archives.

Therefore, we could gather rich material, a new organization and completeness of the work followed afterwards.

It is clear that such a work is difficult to be realized and what is important, it can be realized through a collective work.

In this respect, we hope the work will be appreciated.

A good thought for the sponsors, young people living in Israel who wanted to honor their parents, their country and their town where they can find their own roots.

Editorial staff,
Bucharest, May 1995.

[Page 143]

Other books by I. Kara

Naje Jidise Dichtung-A Collection of Modern Hebraic Poems, Crnauti, 1934

Testimonies from Centuries Ago, Bacau, 1947 (Yiddish)

The Grammar of the Yiddish Language, Bucharest, 1948 (Yiddish)

A Moldavis Ingl. - A Boy in moldavia, Bucharest, Knterion, 1976

Inghe Lum - The Youth Years, Bucharest, 1989 (Yiddish)

Lum fin hoftenung - The Hope Years. Bucharest, 1986 (Yiddish)

The Jewish Community of Podu Ilioaiei, Bucharest, 1990

Hebraic Inscriptions, Iasi, The Romanian Academy Publishing house, Iasi Branch, 1994

Numerous articles pub;ished in the national media and abroad.

Printing took place at Romcart S.A. Bucharest, by order no. 548.

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