· History of Mauthausen, Austria
· Subcamps of Mathausen
· Searching the Database
This death book, with 38,206 names, is not a complete list, since several thousand prisoners, particularly Russian prisoners of war, were never entered into the records, but simply murdered. There were relatively few Jewish prisoners in Mauthausen in the early years, but near the end of WWII this changed and thousands of Jewish forced laborers, particularly Hungarian, were sent to Gusen. The death book includes the names of 10,517 persons identified as Jews.
Nearly 68,000 prisoners were held in Gusen before liberation on May 5, 1945. While not a death camp in the strict sense of that term, conditions were so bad that a majority of the prisoners died there.
Mauthausen, located 20 km from Linz, Austria, was set up in 1938, after the "Anschluss of Austria. On August 8, 1938 prisoners from Dachau were transferred to the "Wiener Graben" quarry to build the Mauthausen concentration camp. It became the central camp for Austria, from which forty-nine permanent sub-camps were administered.
Between August 8, 1938 and liberation on May 5, 1945, approximately 195,000 prisoners were in Mauthausen. Estimates are that 150,000 perished.
Initially German and Austrian criminals, "asocials," political prisoners, homosexuals, and Jehovah's Witnesses were sent there. Later Poles, Spanish republican refugees transferred by Vichy France, Soviet and other POWs, as well as Jews, were sent there. For example, between 1942 and 1944, political prisoners from France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Austria, Greece, Albania, Poland, the Soviet Union, Italy, Hungary, and Germany, and thousands of unregistered Soviet POWs were sent to Mauthausen. And in 1945, more than 20,000 prisoners from other concentration camps in countries given up by the Nazis were transferred to Mauthausen -- Lublin, Auschwitz, Bergen-Belsen, Sachsenhausen, Ravensbrück, Natzweiler, and Gross-Rosen.
About the same time, thousands of Hungarians, mostly Jews, were sent to Mauthausen. On May 3, 1945, 64,800 men and 1,734 women were listed as prisoners in Mauthausen, including 18,015 Hungarians, 15,803 Poles, and 15,581 Romanians. (Source: Mauthausen, Osterreichische Lagergemeinschaft Mauthausen).
There is some evidence to suggest that the Nazis had planned to move the Auschwitz gas chambers to Mauthausen, and that some of the equipment had been transferred to Mauthausen.
Most of the guards at Mauthausen and its subcamps were SS members. In 1939 there were 1,500; in 1944-45, there were 9,000. Incredibly, only 818 of them were identified. A couple hundred were captured by the Americans. In the trial at Dachau on March 7, 1946, 58 were sentenced to death and three to life imprisonment. All pled not guilty. The commandant, Franz Ziereis, was shot by American soldiers in the camp hiding in civilian clothes. His "deathbed" confession is online -- a chilling account of the inhuman treatment of the prisoners, ordered by Himmler and carried out by Zereis, who characterizes himself as "not a wicked man." He estimated that 65,000 inmates were murdered in Mauthausen, and he confessed that he took part in the executions.
Fred Friendly wrote in May 19, 1945: "Mauthausen was built with a half-million rocks which 150,000 prisoners - 18,000 was the capacity - carried up on their backs from a quarry 800 feet below. They carried it up steps so steep that a Captain and I walked it once and were winded, without a load. They carried granite and made 8 trips a day... and if they stumbled, the S.S. men pushed them into the quarry. There are 285 steps, covered with blood. They called it the steps of death."
|Subcamp||Purpose for Subcamp||Maximum # of Prisoners|
|Amstetten (women)||Railroad construction||500|
|Bretstein||SS Farm||Approx. 80|
|Dippoldsau||Power plant construction||Approx. 130|
|Ebensee||Underground tunneling, armaments plant||18,437|
|Eisenerz||Iron ore mining||400|
|Enns||Shelter construction||Approx. 2,000|
|Grossraming||Power plant construction||1,013|
|Gusen I||Quarries and armaments plant||11,480|
|Gusen II||Underground tunneling, armaments plant||12,537|
|Hinterbrühl||Aircraft factory||Approx. 1,800|
|Hirtenberg (women)||Cartridge factory||459|
|Klagenfurt||SS barrack building||130|
|Lenzing (women)||Textile factory||565|
|Linz I||Armaments plant||790|
|Linz II||Air-raid shelter construction||285|
|Linz III||Armaments plant||5,615|
|Loiblpass||Two camps, road tunnel construction||1,294|
|Melk||Underground tunneling, armaments factories||10,314|
|Passau II||Armaments plant||333|
|Schiff||Reception camp||Approx. 700|
|Schlier Redl-Zipf||Production of V-weapons and money forgery||1,488|
|Schloss Lind||SS Farm||20|
|Schloss Mittersill (women)||SS research institute||15|
|St. Agyd a. Neuwalde||Armaments plant||303|
|St. Lambrecht||SS Farm||80|
|St. Lambrecht (women)||SS Farm||20|
|St. Valentin||Tank production||1,480|
|Ternberg||Power plant construction||406|
|Wels I||Armaments plant||397|
|Wiener Neudorf||Aircraft engine work||2,954|
|Wiener Neustadt||Armaments plantApprox.||1,000|
Source: Mauthausen, Osterreichische Lagergemeinschaft Mauthausen http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/copyright.html
The KZ Gusen I, II, III concentration camp,complex was the biggest and most brutal of all the Mauthausen subcamps. More people died at the KZ Gusen I, II & III camps than at the related Mauthausen Central Camp. All in all, the 40,000 KZ Gusen victims were approximately one-third of all the concentration camp victims on "Austrian" territory.
Before the first Gusen camp was built (there were three), prisoners of Mauthausen had to march 4 km every day to reach the stone quarries at Gusen. More than 150 prisoners died in the winter of 1938/39 due to that march; therefore, it was decided to build a sub-camp at Gusen, using 400 German and Austrian prisoners from Mauthausen.
The first inmates were German and Austrian political dissidents and priests. Due to the severity of the work in the quarries and the unspeakable cruelty of the guards, the first group died after only a few weeks. After the Nazis invasion of Poland, hundreds of Polish intellectuals and civilians were sent to Gusen and murdered in the stone quarry.
Gusen was noted for atrocities committed by the guards, and some of the torture methods were named Parachute Troops and Todebadeaktionen (death bath action). See http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/gusen_cruelties.html for a detailed list of the atrocities committed at Gusen.
The conditions at Gusen II (St Georgen) and Gusen III (Lungitz) were incredible. The inmates called Gusen II "The hell of the hells." The Gusen complex was considered to be worse than Mauthausen.
There is a wealth of detailed information on the Internet about Mauthausen and Gusen. It should also be noted that medical experiments were conducted at Gusen and extensive information about these is on the Internet. In addition, the database notes deaths at Hartheim. Hartheim Castle (Schloss Hartheim), located near Linz, was a euthanasia killing center where physically and mentally challenged were killed by gassing and lethal injection.
The database includes 38,207 names of prisoners that were imprisoned and died at Mauthausen and/or other nearby sub-camps. The fields in the database are as follows (In English and German):
|Numerical Control #||ID|
|Prisoner Number- Mauthausen||Häftlingsnummer MH|
|Prisoner Number- Gusen||H-Nummer Gusen|
|Prisoner Number- Other Camps||H-Nummer anderes KZ|
|Reason for Arrest||Haftgrund|
|"Night and Fog" decrees (Note A)||NN (Nacht und Nebel)|
|Date of Birth||Geburtsdatum|
|Date of Death||Todesdatum|
|Cause of Death||Todesursache|
|Place of Death||Todesort|
|Transfer 1||1 Überstellung|
|Transfer 2||2 Überstellung|
|Transfer 3||3 Überstellung|
|Transfer 4||4 Überstellung|
|Transfer 5||5 Überstellung|
Note A: Prisoners who were under the "nacht und nebel" decrees (night and fog), were said to have disappeared mysteriously and were not allowed outside contacts nor was their location disclosed to relatives or friends.
To assist the researcher, below are some helpful tables and references to translations.
|§ 175 Jude||Jewish Homosexual||Polizeihäftling||Police custody|
|AZR (Asozialer/Reichsbehörde)||Asocial prisoner delivered by Reich authorities||Rotspanier||Literally Red Spaniard, fought in the Spanish Republican Army|
|AZR / Zigeuner||Asocial Gypsy prisoner delivered by Reich authorities||RZA (Russicher Zivilarbeiter)||Soviet civilian conscript laborer|
|Bifo (Bibelforscher)||Jehovah's Witness||Schutz||Protective custody|
|BV (Berufsverbrecher)||Professional criminal||Schutz/Polizeihäftling||Protective custody / Police custody|
|BV (Befristete Vorbeugungshaft)||Prisoner under temporary preventive custody||SV (Sicherheitsverwahrung)||Security detention|
|Emigrant||Emigrant / refugee||Unbekannt||Unknown|
|Halbjude||Part Jew||WA (Wehrmachtsangehöriger)||Member of the German military|
|Jude||Jew||Wehrmachtsangehöriger||Member of the German military|
|Kriegsgefangener (Kgf.)||Prisoner of war||Zigeuner||Gypsy|
|Mischling||Mixed religious parentage||Zivilarbeiter||Civilian conscript laborer|
Please see the JewishGen InfoFile for translations of occupations from German to English at: http://www.jewishgen.org/InfoFiles/GermanOccs.htm.
|Akute Kreislaufschwäche||Acute cardiovascular adynamia|
|Allgemeine Sepsis, Phlegmone der linker Hand||Generalized blood poisoning, inflammation of the left hand|
|Arteriosclerose Gehirnschlag||Arteriosclerosis, cerebral apoplexy|
|Auf Befehl des RF( Referent).SS erschossen||On order of the SS officer - shot|
|Auf Befehl des RF( Referent).SS erhängt||On order of the SS officer - hung|
|bei Entschärfung von Zeitzünderbomben||when deactivating time-fused bombs|
|Bluthochdruck, Gehirnschlag||High blood pressure, apoplexy|
|Bombenschlag||Bomb blast, strike|
|Dickdarm Katarrh||Colon catarrh, colitis|
|Elektrozaun||Electrocuted (by hitting electrical fence)|
|Ertrinken (selbstmord)||Drowned (suicide)|
|Flucht erschossen||Shot when escaping|
|Freitod Absturz||Suicide by crash, fall|
|Freitod durch Elektrozaun||Suicide on the electrical fence|
|Freitod durch erhängen||Suicide by hanging|
|Freitod durch Sprung von fahrendem Zug||Suicide by jumping off a train|
|Freitod durch Starkstrom||Suicide by high-voltage current|
|Freitod durch Überfahren||Suicide by run over|
|Freitod durch Überfahrenlassen||Suicide by run over|
|Herz und Kreislaufschwäche, Ruhr||Cardiac and cardiovascular adynamia, dysentery|
|Halsverletzung mit Verblutung durch Selbstmord||Throat injury with exsanguination due to suicide|
|Herz und Kreislaufschwäche auf Fluchtversuch||Cardiac and cardiovascular adynamia while attempting to escape|
|Herzmuskelentzündung, Akute Herzschwäche||Myocarditis, acute cardiac adynamia|
|Herzmuskelschwäche||Cardiac adynamia, myocardial weakness|
|Herzschuß beim Fluchtversuch||Shot in the heart while attempting to escape|
|In Notwehr erschossen||Shot in self-defense act|
|Infizierte Wunde linker Fuß, allgemeine Sepsis||Infected wound on left foot, generalized blood disease|
|Infizierte Wunden beider Fußen, allgemeine Sepsis||Infected wounds on both feet, generalized blood disease|
|Lungenembolie ( Schuß im rechter Oberschenkel) auf Flucht||Pulmonary embolism ( shot in the right thigh) while escaping|
|Lungen TBC||Pulmonary tuberculosis|
|Schädelbasisbruch infolge Verschüttung, Erdmassen?||Sub-cranial fracture as a result of burying; earth mass?|
|Schußverletzung - Fluchtversuch||Gunshot wound while escaping|
|Schußverletzung auf Flucht / Steinbruch Kastenhofen||Gunshot wound while escaping / Quarry Kastenhofen|
|Schußverletzung auf Flucht / Steinbruch Wiener Graben||Gunshot wound while escaping / Quarry Wiener Graben|
|Schwerer Magen und Darmkatarrh, Herz und Kreizlaufschwäche||Serious gastric and intestinal catarrh , cardiac adynamia|
|Sepsis Phlegmone, Herz und Kreislaufschwäche||Blood disease, inflammation, Cardiac and cardiovascular adynamia|
|Tod durch erhängen||Death by hanging|
|Tödlich verunglückt beim Ausgraben einer LE Bomb||Deadly casualty while digging out a bomb|
|Verstorben durch Bombenschlag||Died by a bomb blast|
|Vom Wachposten erschoßen||Shot by a sentry|
|Zwischenhaft||Temporary arrest, detention|
Persons seeking to obtain copies of individual pages from the death books where a particular name of interest appears should write to the Mauthausen Gedenkstätte at firstname.lastname@example.org. Alternatively, one can write to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, which has an incomplete copy of the death book (RG 17.002M, reel 1), as well as information on other Mauthausen prisoners. Unfortunately, there is no complete list of all Mauthausen prisoners.
This database, which appears with the permission of the Mauthausen Gedenkstätte (memorial site), was donated to JewishGen by HFPJC (Heritage Foundation for the Preservation of Jewish Cemeteries). Special thanks to Edward Mitelsbach for translation assistance with German occupations and causes of death.
Joyce Field and Nolan Altman
This database is searchable via JewishGen's Holocaust Database.
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Last Update: 28 Feb 2005 by WSB