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[Page 614-619]

List of the Jewish Members of the Town Council of Sanok
Over the 70 Year Period 1868 – 1939*

* From the lists, one can conclude that since the year 1900, the members of the Town Council who were identified as no.1 were the Deputy City mayors. Those that were listed as no.1 and no.2 were also members of the Town Council. Special attention should be given to the name Natan Dym, a member of the Council since 1902. He was the chief rabbi of the town at the time he was chosen and participated very actively as a rabbi and as a member of the Town Council. Additionally, it says a lot about him that he was chosen without reference to who he was.

The Years 1868-1872
  1. Dr. Ignatz Kahana
  2. Mischel Herzig
  3. Shaul Pineles
  4. Shlomo Strenger
  5. Hirsch Rothenberg
  6. Isaac Herzig
  7. Yacov Fink
  8. Wulf Meier
  9. Wulf Weiss
  10. Heinrich Alsher
  11. Shmuel Scheinbach
  12. Yacov Beer
  13. Shaul Roemer
  14. Hirsch-Yitzchok Hochdorf

The Years 1872-1876

  1. Dr. Ignatz Kahana
  2. Robert Bart
  3. Isaac Herzig
  4. Aischel Herzig
  5. Eliezer Rozner
  6. Wulf Meier
  7. Hirsch Rothenberg
  8. Marcus Scheinbach
  9. Yacov Fink


  1. Yisrael-David Herzig
  2. Yacov Fink
  3. Wulf Meier
  4. Eliezer Rosner
  5. Shaul Roemer
  6. Marcus Scheinbach
  7. Hirsch Rothenberg
  8. Isaac Herzig
  9. Robert Bart


  1. Mischel Herzig
  2. Wulf Meier
  3. Yacov Fink
  4. Eliezer Rosner
  5. Marcus Scheinbach
  6. Hirsch-Leib Rosenberg
  7. Yisrael-David Herzig
  8. Robert Bart


  1. Robert Bart
  2. Aischel Herzig
  3. Isaac Herzig
  4. Eliezer Rozner
  5. Wulf Meier
  6. Hirsch Hochdorf
  7. Shaul Roemer
  8. Yisrael-David Herzig
  9. Marcus Scheinbach
  10. Mendel Voneg (or Wenig)
  11. Moshe-Aharon Reis
  12. Yacov Fink
  13. Mendel Englard
  14. Feivel Nebenzahl
  15. Dr. Bernard Grinhaut
  16. Yitzchok Osterring
  17. Michal Lieber
  18. Hirsch Reich


  1. Dr. Artur Goldhamer
  2. Yacov Fink
  3. Eliezer Rosner
  4. Shaul Roemer
  5. Yitzchok Osterring
  6. Hirsch Meier
  7. Feivel Nebenzahl
  8. Leib Roth
  9. Aharon-Meier Reis
  10. Hirsch Hochdorf
  11. Alter Ament
  12. Yacov Alster
  13. Yisrael-David Herzig
  14. Reuven Bernfeld
  15. Natan Dym


  1. Leib Roth
  2. Shaul Roemer
  3. Feivel Nebenzahl
  4. Yisrael-David Herzig
  5. Mendel Voneg (or Wenig)
  6. Marcus Scheinbach
  7. Yitzchok Osterring
  8. Aharon-Moshe Reis
  9. Hirsch Meier
  10. Eliezer Rosner
  11. Avraham Viner
  12. Yitzchok Hirsch Hochdorf
  13. Artur Goldhamer
  14. Issac Herzig
  15. Yacov Fink


  1. Reuven Bernfeld
  2. Obidiah Zilber
  3. Avraham-Alter Ament
  4. Hirsch Reich
  5. Yacov Alter
  6. Shmuel Langsam
  7. Yisrael Meier


  1. Dr. Artur Goldhamer
  2. Yacov Fink
  3. Feivel Nebenzahl
  4. Eliezer Rosner
  5. Leib Roth
  6. Aharon-Moshe Reis
  7. Hirsch Meier
  8. Yitzchok Osterring
  9. Marcus Scheinbach
  10. Shaul Roemer
  11. Avraham Weiner
  12. Mendel Voneg (or Wenig)
  13. Yisrael-David Herzig
  14. Yacov Alter
  15. Reuven Bernfeld
  16. Isaac Herzig
  17. Yacov Alter
  18. Mendel Feivusch
  19. Alter Ament


  1. Dr. Artur Goldhamer
  2. Yisrael-David Herzig
  3. Yacov Fink
  4. Feivel Nebenzahl
  5. Eliezer Rosner
  6. Yitzchok Osterrring
  7. Mendel Voneg (or Wenig)
  8. Avraham Weiner
  9. Aharon-Moshe Reis
  10. Leib Roth
  11. Hirsch Meier
  12. Marcus Scheinbach
  13. Isaac Herzig
  14. Shaul Roemer
  15. Natan Dym


  1. Yitzchok-Hirsch Hochdorf
  2. Alter-Chaim Ament
  3. Hirsch Reich
  4. Yacov Alter
  5. Yisrael Meier
  6. Shmuel Langsam
  7. Reuven Bernfeld
  8. Obidiah Zilber


  1. Dr. Artur Goldhamer
  2. Dr. Natan Nebenzahl
  3. Yacov Fink
  4. Hirsch Weiner
  5. Yisrael-David Herzig
  6. Yitzchok Osterring
  7. Feivel Nebenzahl
  8. Hirsch Meier
  9. Moshe-Aharon Reis
  10. Yisrael Meier
  11. Natan Dym
  12. Eliezer Rosner
  13. Leib Roth
  14. Shaul Feivusch
  15. Emanuel Herzig
  16. Shaul Roemer
  17. Hirsch Hochdorf
  18. Alter Ament


  1. Dr. Artur Goldhamer
  2. Dr. Natan Nebenzahl
  3. Yacov Fink
  4. Feivel Nebenzahl
  5. Yisrael-David Herzig
  6. Aharon-Moshe Reis
  7. Eliezer Rosner
  8. Leib Roth
  9. Yitzchok-Hirsch Hochdorf
  10. Yitzchok Osterrring
  11. Emanuel Herzig
  12. Hirsch Weiner
  13. Hirsch Meier
  14. Natan Dym
  15. David Tovim
  16. Ascher Rosler
  17. Nechamia Ginzberg
  18. Dr. Shlomo Roemer
  19. Yisrael Meier
  20. Leon Grinhaut
  21. Mendel Kanner


  1. Dr. Natan Nebenzahl
  2. Eliezer Rosner
  3. David Tovim
  4. Natan Dym
  5. Yisrael-David Herzig
  6. Hirsch Meier
  7. Yisrael Meier
  8. Emanuel Herzig
  9. Mendel Kanner
  10. Yitzchok Osterring
  11. Hirsch Weiner
  12. Moshe-Aharon Reis
  13. Dr. Shlomo Roemer
  14. Dr. Artur Goldhamer
  15. Asher Rosler
  16. Leon Grinhaut
  17. Nechamia Ginzberg


  1. Dr. Artur Goldhamer
  2. Eliezer Rosner
  3. Yitzchok Osterring
  4. Dr. Shlomo Roemer
  5. Yisrael-David Herzig
  6. Leib Roth
  7. Moshe-Aharon Reis
  8. Hirsch Meier
  9. Yisrael Meier
  10. Hirsch Weiner
  11. Natan Dym
  12. Ascher Rosler
  13. Dr. Natan Nebenzahl
  14. Adolf-Mendel Kanner
  15. Dr. Adolf Bandel
  16. Simcha-Shalom Sobel
  17. Nechamia Ginzberg

1910-1911 (Temporary Managers)

  1. Dr. Shlomo Roemer
  2. Dr. Adolf Bandel
  3. Yisrael-David Herzig
  4. Simcha-Shalom Sobel
  5. Yacov Turkel (Jewish?)


  1. Dr. Shlomo Roemer
  2. Simcha-Shalom Sobel
  3. Dr. Adolf Bindel
  4. Yisrael-David Herzig
  5. Mendel Kanner
  6. Eliezer Regenbogen
  7. Dr. Arnold Reich
  8. Dr. Yona Spiegel
  9. HirschWeiner
  10. Ascher Rosler
  11. Obidiah Zilber
  12. Yisrael Meier


  1. Dr. Shlomo Roemer
  2. Dr. Adolf Bandel
  3. Yisrael-David Herzig
  4. Adolf Kanner
  5. Yisrael Meier
  6. Herman Sobel
  7. Hirsch Weiner
  8. Eliezer Regenbogen
  9. Obidiah Zilber
  10. Dr. Yona Speigel
  11. Yitzchok Herzig
  12. Avraham Hochdorf
  13. Dr. Adolf Reich


  1. Yitzchok Herzig
  2. Mendel Kanner
  3. Obidiah Zilber
  4. Dr. Yona Spiegel
  5. Yisrael-David Herzig
  6. Avraham Hochdorf
  7. Menasche Arm
  8. Yisrael Meier
  9. Eliezer Regenbogen
  10. Dr. Arnold Reich
  11. Zalman Reis
  12. Yitzchok Weiner


  1. Yitzchok Yisrael
  2. Yisrael-David Herzig
  3. Avraham Hochdorf
  4. Menasche Arm
  5. Mendel Kanner
  6. Yisrael Meier
  7. Shlome Roemer
  8. Eliezer Regenbogen
  9. Dr. Arnold Reich
  10. Zalman Reis
  11. Obidiah Zilber
  12. Dr. Yona Spiegel
  13. Yitzchok Weiner
  14. Herman Sobel


  1. Yitzchok Herzig
  2. Avraham Herzig
  3. Menasche Arm
  4. Mendel Kanner
  5. Yisrael Meier
  6. Herman Sobel
  7. Dr. Yona Spiegel
  8. Obidiah Zilber
  9. Dr. Adolf Bandel
  10. Eliezer Regenbogen
  11. Zalman Reis
  12. Yitzchok Weiner


  1. Yitzchok Herzig
  2. Avraham Hochdorf
  3. Mendel Kanner
  4. Yisrael Meier
  5. Eliezer Regenbogen
  6. Zalman Reis
  7. Obidiah Zilber
  8. Herman Sobel
  9. Dr. Yona Speigel
  10. Yitzchok Weiner
  11. Dr. Adolf Bandel


  1. Dr. Shlomo Roemer
  2. Dr. Yona Spiegel
  3. Herman Sobel
  4. Chaim Epstein
  5. Dr. Oyzleb Fell
  6. Leon Hasenlauf
  7. Dr. Shmuel Herzig
  8. Yonas Herman
  9. Hirsch Kampf
  10. Mendel Kanner
  11. Shlomo Kormer
  12. Zalman Leffelstiel
  13. Dr. Yitzchok Nemer
  14. Eliezer Regenbogen
  15. Zeinvel Tiger
  16. Yitzchok Weiner


  1. Chaim Epstein
  2. Elmer Schweibel-Einhandler
  3. Leon Hasenlauf
  4. Shmuel Herzig
  5. Avraham Hochdorf
  6. Herman Jonas
  7. Hirsch Kampf
  8. Mendel Kanner
  9. Shlomo Kormer
  10. Zalman Leffelstiel
  11. Dr. Yitzchok Nemer
  12. Dr. Shlomo Roemer
  13. Avraham Roemer
  14. Eliezer Regenbogen
  15. Herman Sobel
  16. Dr. Yona Spiegel
  17. Zeinvel Teiger
  18. Yitzchok Weiner
The above group was disbanded at the end March and then a new temporary council was chosen and these were their names:
  1. Dr. Shlomo Roemer
  2. Dr. Arnold Reich
  3. Dr. Yona Spiegel
  4. Mendel Kanner


  1. Dr. Shlomo Roemer
  2. Dr. Yona Spiegel
  3. Mordechai Ascher
  4. Leon Hasenlauf
  5. Shmuel Herzig
  6. Avraham Hochdorf
  7. Herman Jonas
  8. Mendel Kanner
  9. Shlomo Kormer
  10. Zalman Leffelstiel
  11. Yitzchok Nemer
  12. Avraham Roemer
  13. Eliezer Regenbogen
  14. Chaim Weiner
  15. Mattisyahu Weinryb


  1. Shmuel Herzig
  2. Dr. Yitzchok Nemer
  3. Leon Hasenlauf
  4. Dr. Mattisyahu Weinryb
  5. Dr. Shlomo Roemer
  6. Dr. Yona Spiegel
  7. Oyzleb Fell


  1. Leon Hasenlauf
  2. Dr. Shmuel Herzig
  3. Dr. Yitzchok Nemer
  4. Dr. Mattisyahu Weinryb
  5. Dr. Oyzleb Fell

(From the 22nd of April) 1939

  1. Dr. Oyzleb Fell
  2. Dr. Shmuel Herzig
  3. Herman Sobel
  4. Adolf Atlas

[Page 620]

{Photo page 620 top: Members of the city council.}

{Photo page 620 bottom: The Weiner building “Weinerowka”}

[Page 621]

The History of Hassidism and the Sanz-Sadagora Feud in Sanok

Translated by Jerrold Landau

For pages 27, 56, 87[1]

If there is a need to know about the basis of the existence of the Hassidic movement in Sanok, one could discover this through the fact of the existence of the Hassidic dispute (and to be more precise, we will state in the language of today, the inter-Hassidic dispute, that is: the dispute between the dynasty of Sanz and the dynasty of Rizhin). For it is indeed a historical fact that this dispute existed in Sanok, just as it is a historical fact that this dispute existed in general. It has been mentioned by the Hassidim of our town, as well as in the writings of the Hassidic writers, as a historical fact.

We will first note the story that is brought down by Buber (Or Haganuz, page 358) and repeated by Rabbi Sh. Y. Zevin in Sipurei Hassidim (Tales of Hassidim) and Eliezer Steinman in Yalkut Laam VeLanoar (A Collection for the People and the Youth) (page 255), regarding the visit of Rabbi Yisrael of Rizhin to Sanik, and the negotiations with the misnagdim of the city. Here, we will mention the known trial that took place in the courts of Sanok with respect to the serious false accusations against one of the Admorim of the Rizhiner dynasty, the foundation of which - as was explained in the verdict - was the incitement by the Hassidim of the opposing side in Sanok and its surrounding towns (N. Shemen, Di Gezang fun Hassidut, Volume 2, page 66). We will also use here that which the writer of these lines has heard from several elders of Sanok, and that became a widespread folk story, regarding the Admor who visited Sanok in order to collect money for charitable purposes. When he did not succeed due to the fault of the misnagdim in the city, he declared a paraphrase of the incantation mentioned in the Talmud “Gad Gdi Vesanok Lo” (tractate Shabbat, 67, 2). With his Yiddish interpretation” Got (G-d), Gi (b) di (Gdi) = do, whereas Sanok lo - G-d gives but Sanok does not give…”[2].

We will cite a section from a letter that was written about sixty years ago by a native of Sanok, Rabbi Yitzchok David Kanner, the son of Reb Moshele Kanner and grandson of Reb Avishel Kanner - both of them leaders of Hassidic Jewry in Sanok. The letter was written in Chernobyl, where he lived at the time of writing, but the city that he was talking about was our city of Sanok, where the writer lived his life during his youth - a life of the practical realities of the city.

Dr. Shmuel Abba Horodetzki, the well-known historian of Hassidism and the great popularizer of Hassidic doctrine, to whom the letter was addressed, uses the details and facts gleaned from this letter in his book “Hassidim and Hassidism” (published by Dvir, Tel Aviv, 5711), and cites them in his bibliography as “based on manuscripts”. (See pages 134 and onward in his book Hassidim and Hassidism.).

Blessed be G-d, August 17, 1909, here in Chernobyl

To my dear friend Shmuel Abba, may his light shine Expressing a desire for life and peace, so may it be

I received your papers and your complaint to me that I have not been able to find material about the dispute between Sanz and Sadagora. Believe me that my silence was not deliberate. It is only that there are no books to purchase here, and my head is spinning due to my business which had suffered setbacks. Nevertheless, I will let you know what I know from my youth. The great dispute started

[Page 622]

in the year 5629 (1869). There is a sign for me regarding this because in our city (Sanok - A. Sh.) the Hassidim of Sanz and Sadagora used to worship together. It was only in that year that the story of the Rabbi Malewi became known. A brother of mine was born that year, and my dear parents did not want to have the circumcision take place in the Kloiz, so they made it in the synagogue. At that point, a great chasm occurred, that was almost unprecedented. They immediately banned each other's ritually slaughtered meat as non-kosher. I recall that when my father, who was a mohel [ritual circumciser], went to a circumcision, he would not eat the food of the host if he knew that he was not careful about refraining from utilizing the shochet of Sadagora. My grandfather of blessed memory (Reb Avishel Kanner - A. Sh.) did not want to worship in the Great Synagogue in the morning of days when the Torah was to be read, where he did usually worship when he was in a hurry to travel, for there was a Torah there that was written by a Hassid of Sadagora. He was sure that they would call him up to the reading of the Torah[3]. He preferred to worship on his own than to be called up to the reading of a Torah scroll that had been written by a Hassid of Sadagora. Anyone who married one of them was considered as a great sinner. In my opinion, and in the opinion of many others who knew the Gaon of Sanz and his hot temperament, who dedicated all his days to Torah, public Divine service, and charitable acts; the reason for the great dispute was as follows: Suddenly, when the Admor of Rizhin appeared in our country with service of the heart, this was a contradiction to the type of service that was the custom in Galicia, where they were used to Torah oriented services in a loud fashion that exhausts the entire body - such as is the custom of the Hassidim of Strelisk, Zydyczow, Ropszyce, with extra measures of ritual immersion and the like. The Hassidism of Rizhin had all of their service in their hearts. However, he found no strength in his heart to fight against the Admor of Rizhin, for he too travelled to him. It was only the rest of the rabbis in Galicia in particular that did so, for at that time the Rabbi of Sanz was young, and was only a rabbi but not a rebbe. When the Admor of Rizhin died the rabbis slowly began to split apart from each other. The secret slanderers of that time egged this process along, for they testified, truly or falsely, that they saw some women from their riding on horses with cigarettes in their mouths, as was the custom of the landowners. Whoever is familiar with the custom in Galicia at that time knows that any behavior that was not known among their fathers was considered a capital crime. The dispute broke out at that time, but until the deed of Rabbi Malewi, there was insufficient evidence to accuse them, for all of their ways were holy in the eyes of the nation. When this evil deed became known that this rabbi professed love for the daughters of the doctor from Chernovits and behaved toward them as daughters of that type, the dispute came out into the open. This shows that none of them were any good. He found many supporters of his opinion, and then a very great breach was made every day. It was like there was an iron wall between Galicia and Bukovina. When the great rabbi[4] became the Rabbi of Sanz, and his disputants put a ban of excommunications upon the Rabbi of Sanz, and a ban was placed on them in Galicia, this great dispute broke out. There are many books about it, but I am unable to obtain those books from the son of Rabbi Moshe Guterman in Kiev, for he is the son-in-law of the Tzadik of Anastopoli, the grandson of the Tzadik of Sanz. His aforementioned son was an enlightened man who had already studied in Berlin. I will write you his address below. You can approach the secretary of my father's house, for he is also an intelligent man. I talked to him about you many times, and he would consider it an honor if you turn to him to request the books that you require. Regarding the books of the Rabbi of Sanz, his books include the Divrei Chaim responsa book on all sections of the Shulchan Aruch, as well as Divrei Chaim on the names of men and women, and mikvas. There is also Divrei Chaim on the Torah and the festivals. In that Divrei Chaim, he quotes the words of the Guide to the Perplexed[5] several times. I have heard several times from my father, may his light shine, that he does not understand - one does not become a heretic from the Guide to the Perplexed, for it is full of moral teaching. Rather, in his opinion, heretics have no knowledge of the Guide to the Perplexed, for were they to know it well; they would find thoughts of morality and the service of G-d in it.

He was a great sage, and unparalleled doer of charitable deeds. He never hoarded his money. Rather, he would immediately donate a portion of what he received each day to charity. He would give weekly stipends to several hundred people. He had more than 100,000 Reinush[6] per year, and his Chanuka menora as well as his Kiddush coup would be pawned if he did not have something to give to a poor person. He would spend several hours each day at his table for his meals, along with many people, a hundred or more, discussing issues, and questions regarding what was going on in the world, disputes between a shochet and the rabbi, or any issue that came to the fore at his table with the rabbis who sat with him. I heard from my father, that once somebody knocked on the door while he was busy with some question with the rabbis who dined with him. When the door opened, a man from Bukovina entered. After the exchanged customary greetings, the man responded to the Rabbi of Sanz as follows: “Blessed be G-d, I am

[Page 623]

a scholar, and I want to discuss a bit some novel ideas in Torah with the rabbi.” The Rabbi of Sanz answered him, “I do not know what to say. I was sick for seven years, and then I started to go to cheder. I got married at 13, and learnt a bit diligently. Later, I became a Hassid, and a Hassid such as this does know how to learn, so I can discuss learning with you. You probably know this.”[7] “Before I was born, my mother, may she live, had a son. He died through a mishap with the nurse, who lay atop of him. The nurse said that my mother had caused this. My mother, may she live, traveled to the Rabbi of Sanz to obtain a response. He did not want to instruct her on any acts of self-denial, but rather that she should eat, drink and regain her health so that she should give birth to sons. Thus did she do, and I was born.” The Rabbi of Sanz was a great scholar in the eyes of the world, and even gentiles turned to him for advice. To this day, there is a professor in Krakow whose name is Parejanski who, if a man named Halberstam comes, immediately orders that he be brought in gratis. The Rabbi of Sanz is from a family of rabbis and not Admorim. He traveled to Ropszyce, and a bit to Belz and Rymanow, to serve Reb Hirsch. Later, his major rabbi was Rabbi Naftali of Ropszyce. The Rabbi of Sanz was the first one to permit for a landowner having work done in the field on the Holy Sabbath via a document of sale[8], for he wrote a document of sale for the village of Potyk for the Rabbi of Rizhin, as well as a document of sale to my grandfather for his goods. However, his son Rabbi Yechezkel of Sieniawa later annulled them. For this reason, he had a dispute with his father, the Rabbi of Sanz. In general, the words of the Rabbi of Sanz in Galicia were like words of fire, and nobody, even people of a lowly level would dare go against any of his words. Anything carried out in our country was through his advice, whether with marital issues from near or far, or issues of shochtim and rabbis. He did not want to bestow special privileges on his children, for if they were to travel to some city and say that they were children of the Rabbi of Sanz, people would give to them and not to a simple poor person. He solicited a great deal of money from his Hassidim for every request. He was a great kabbalist. He would lead the services on the High Holy Days, as well as serve as the Torah reader and shofar blower. His hard work as the leader of services was a wonder beyond the comprehension of any man. He had weak eyes, and he had to be lead as he walked. Nevertheless, when he was learning, he would bring the book close to his eyes so he could see.

At this point, this is what I have found to give over to you. If you find some items that are useful in my letter, this is my reward, but I request that you do not mention my name with them.

Your friend and relative Yitzchok David.


Translator's Footnotes

  1. As this is an appendix section, the page lists indicates the pages of the articles to which this appendix entry is relevant. return
  2. This section of the Talmud lists several incantations that are not to be said, as they represent “The ways of the Amorites” (i.e. the idol worshippers). A rough translation is: “My luck has improved, and I am not tired…” Here, the rabbi twisted the words to mean something in Yiddish. return
  3. Implying that he did not want to recite a blessing on that Torah scroll. return
  4. The acronym here is: The Rabbi of all the people of the Diaspora. return
  5. One of the main works of Maimonides. return
  6. I am unsure of the meaning of this word here. return
  7. It is not clear in this letter where the quote of the visitor ends, and where the storyline continues. I surmise that it is at this point. return
  8. This seemingly refers to a document of sale of property to allow a gentile worker to guard or work on property owned by a Jews on the Sabbath. return

The Hymn of the Yeshiva

The words of Rabbi Meir Shapira[1] The tune is by the cantor Reb David Zuckerman.

Translated by Jerrold Landau

For pages 71-72

There is none as mighty as our G-d
There is none as blessed as our Lawgiver
There is no greatness as our Torah
There are none that expound on it like our society.


He who dwells in the Heavens.
Should peer out and see from the Heavens
And bless you with a blessing
And teach you the Torah of life.


Sing, make music, you dear Torah scholars
Praise and ascribe splendor to a generation that conducts itself properly.
Sing, rejoice, you faithful saplings
Rejoice and be happy, fathers and sons!

[Page 624]

{Photocopy page 624: A report card that was distributed in the Yeshiva, signed by the Rosh Yeshiva Rabbi Meir Shapira, the president of the committee (Yisrael Meir), and vice Rosh Yeshiva (Shimshon Fogelman). The bearer of the report was the lad Shimon Toder the son of Reb Yacov Sanik. He is Shimon Toder who is with us here[2].)


Translator's Footnotes

  1. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meir_Shapira return
  2. In Israel return


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