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[Page 245]

El Maleh HaRachamim

Translated by Marshall Grant

© by Roberta Paula Books

Creator of the heavens and the earth, hearer of the cries of the desolate, judge for widows and fathers of orphans, do not let the blood of your people, the people of Israel, spill like water. Provide safe rest on the wings of the Divine Presence, amongst the holy, pure and glorious, who shine like the sky, for the souls of six million Jewish souls, among them the members of our Przedecz community and the surrounding areas; hundreds of men, women and children, who were killed and slaughtered and asphyxiated and drowned and burnt and buried alive by the despicable, wicked and horrific German Nazis in the gas chambers, in Chelmno, Auschwitz, Maidanik, Treblinka and other places; and in countries occupied by the Nazis. All were holy and pure, among them spiritual leaders, scholars and righteous, innocent and honest, rabbis and their followers and scholars and students of Torah. May the Merciful One remember them and provide them eternal rest in heaven; may he protect them forever in the folds of his wings, and will bind their soul in the bonds of life. God is their salvation and he will revenge their revenge, and will remember their sacrifice. And may you provide their rights to the people of Israel. Earth, do not cover their blood, and let their cry have no resting place! It is due to them the remnants of Israel have returned to their homes, and these holy souls will be eternally remembered for their innocence, and let them rest in peace, and let the days until their resurrection come to an end, and let us say amen.


The Organization of Former Przedecz Residents

[Page 247]

There Follows a Section
from the Martyrs of Przedecz

Translated by Janie Respitz

© by Roberta Paula Books


Rabbi Yosef Alexander Zemelman
His wife: Bilha
Their sons: Yehoshua Elimelekh, Yoel, Nekhemia, Yakov
Their daughters: Nekhama, Adel.


Our rabbi, Rabbi Zemelman, was a great personality. Besides being the rabbi in town and a Torah scholar, he was also proficient in general classic secular literature and politics. Even the Christian population held him in high esteem and respected him. He was a handsome man who earned respect. He was kind and was always smiling. The rabbi's wife was the mother of eight children. Small and thin, she was always hard at work. However, she always managed to find time to help those in need and listen to the problems of the women in town. There was not a family in town which she did not visit and help. Her heart was open to all who suffered, always with a smile and a kind word.


Vayden Itche
His wife: Esther


Itche Vayden and his wife Esther were a family without children. He found comfort in community and philanthropic work. He was an honest, pious Jew who served as the manager (gabe) of the House of Study for many years, guardian of the hostel, active in the Society to Care for the Sick, repaired holy books and other community functions. His profession was a women's tailor. Every girl who apprenticed with him was treated as if she was his very own child, taking care of all her needs.

[Page 248]

Klar Yakov Wolf
His wife: Lola
Their daughters: Yadza, Khana, Mina


Yakov Wolf Klar, who lived in the same house as his family, owned a haberdashery. He was an intellectual and one of the founders of the Public Library.


Taranchik Aharon
His wife: Feyge
Their sons: Avrom Khaim, Rafael, Tuvia, Yoel, Itche


Reb Aharon Taranchik and his wife had six sons. He operated a shoemaker workshop together with his own children and sold his goods in the market. His sons were intelligent boys who were active in the Sholem Aleichem Library. One of his sons, Yakov Meir lives in Argentina.


Bialogluvsky Yosef
His wife: Khaya
Their sons: Avrom, Daniel
Daughter: Yokheved.


Yosef Bialogluvsky and his family. Actually no one knew them as Bialogluvsky. They were know as blind Yosef and lame Khaya. They were village peddlers. All day long, they carried their goods in baskets and sold them to wholesalers. They had three children. Their eldest son Gutman died at age 18 of tuberculosis.

[Page 249]

Abramovitch Shmuel Abba
His wife: Rivka
Their sons: Tuvia, Yosef, Mordkhai
Their daughter: Esther


The Abramovitch family was pious and well off. They lived in their own house where he also had a leather business and other shoemaker accessories. He was the manager of the Burial Society. His children ran a boot stitching workshop. They were all active in the Betar organization. When the last Jews of Przedecz were being liquidated, he decided to hide at his former client's house, the shoemaker Ostrushka. However this non–Jew delivered him into the hands of an S.A man, Henkl, who shot him. His daughter Yiskha Fuder lives in Israel.


The Abramovitch Family

[Page 250]

Bilbasky Moishe
His wife: Malka Soreh
Their son: Shimon
Their daughters: Yetta Khaya, Rokhl


Moishe Bilbasky was the son of Lipman Bilbasky. He and his family were traditional Jews. The children were raised in a nationalist spirit. He owned a food store and also dealt with fish and burn materials. With all of this, he was not a wealthy man, but he had a good heart and loved to do a favor for those in need.


Rozen Soreh – a widow
Her daughter: Ita
Her son: Henekh and family


Soreh Rozen (whom we called “Kupkete” “Little Hat”), a widow who raised two children, worked very hard and travelled with her haberdashery goods to fairs and villages, and managed to earn a living. Her son Henekh married and moved to Izvitz, where he was a teacher in the Kheder.


Yakhimovitch Aharon Dovid
His wife: Trayna
Their son: Yitzkhak Leyb and his family
Their daughters: Tashe, Krusa.


Aharon Dovid Yakhimovitch and his family. He was a shoemaker. He read from the Torah in the House of Study. He and his wife were very fine people. All of his children were active in the cultural life in town. His eldest son, Moishe, passed away in Israel.

[Page 251]

Buks Arye
His wife: Ruta
Their daughter: Hella


There were five people in the Buks family. They had a butcher shop and also dealt with livestock. Their house and shop belonged to them. He was a traditional Jew. He allowed his children, like most people in town, to receive public education. He subscribed to a daily Yiddish newspaper, as he had the means and time for this. Arye Buks, his wife and daughter were killed during the Holocaust. Their two sons, Yuzek and Yitzkhak live in America.


Liek Mendl
His wife: Brayne
Sons: Mordkhai, Dovid
Daughter: Leah.


Mendl Liek and his family. A village peddler who, during the summer, together with his wife rented an orchard. Their eldest son Rafael ha been a tailor. He caught a cold travelling to a fair and died at the young age of 18. Their daughter Leah was an intelligent girl who read a lot. Besides helping her mother with housework, she also did tailoring to supplement the family income. Their son Mordkhai Dovid was a quiet boy who also worked as a tailor. The youngest son Eliyahu helped his father with peddling. No one from the family has remained.

[Page 252]

Toronchik Yosef Zelig
His wife: Eta
Their sons: Aharon, Tuvia


The young Toronchik couple and their two sons lived in their own home, which they received from their parents as a wedding gift. It was common in Poland that family members would marry each other. Yosef Zelig and Eta were not only husband and wife but cousins. We rarely see such a harmonious life as this couple led. They were very cultured people and spent a lot of time reading. He was a supporter of the left-wing worker's movement. He was a shoemaker by profession and worked at home. No one from the family was among the Jews of Przedecz who survived the Holocaust.


Yosef Zelig Toronchik

[Page 253]

Zielinsky Shimshon
His wife Rokhl


Shimshon Zielinsky and his wife did not have any children. He was a tailor. They raised their nephew Hersh Zingerman in their home. One of the rabbi's best students, and a member of the Young Mizrachi Organization. He strove to go to the Land of Israel but did not achieve this goal. He was killed in Poznan. Shimshon Zielinsky was a Jew with a permanent smile. He was always ready to help another, although he was not wealthy. He was religious and a supporter of the Mizrachi movement.


Fisher Avrom
His wife:
Their sons: Yakov, Moishe
Their daughters: Esther, Ronia, Masha, Pesa and her family.


Avrom Fisher was a tanner. He had a large family and a food store. He was a Khasid. It was a nice, observant family. He provided all his children with a very religious education. His eldest son Mendl studied in the Yeshiva, his second son Yakov was very obsrvant and knew the entire Book of Psalms by heart. He was active in Young Mizrachi. Reb Avrom Fisher was the manager of the Reb Meir Baal Nes Fund and collected money for the holy goal of settlement in the Land of Israel. His married daughter Pesa lived in Kolo.

[Page 254]

Zielinsky Esther
Her sons: Yankl, Ruven, Nakhman
Her daughters: Khava Hindl, Gitl.


Esther Zielinsky was the wife of Khaim Zielinsky who lives in America. She was a passionate Jewish mother and together with her eight children lived in great poverty. They were all killed in the camps.


Zielinsky Yisroel Khaim
His wife: Shifra
Their sons: Ozer, Dovid, Sholem Aron
Their daughter: Ytke


Yisroel Khaim Zielinsky lived in the same house where he had his sheet metal workshop with his two sons. They sold their product at the market. They were very nice people and loved to do favors for others. His children were intelligent people and were all active in the Zionist movement.


Zielinsky Khaim Yosef
His wife: Esther
Their daughter: Soreh


Khaim Yosef Zielinsky was a saddle maker. He had a large, well-established family and was an active member of the Psalm Society. His children were intelligent people. On of his daughters was active in the workers' movement. The youngest daughter Khava lives in America.

[Page 255]

Ekert Avrom
His wife: Rivka
Their daughters: Bayle, Khana, Frimet, Bronia


Avrom Ekert with his family. He was a tinsmith. Like the majority of the Jews in Przedecz we were also observant and supported Mizrachi. His daughters helped him in his tin business. The whole family were singers. Friday nights, you could hear the family singing beautiful Shabbat melodies.


Kovalsky Itche the Shammash (Gabbai)
His wife: Hinda Dvoyre
Their sons: Nokhem, his wife and family.


Itche Kovalsky was the town's Shammash (Rabbi's assistant). He was an old, religious Jew with a white beard. He ran all the town's functions and without him no one would have known what to do. He directed all religious life in town. His wife Hinda Dvoyre was practically a doctor. When a child sprained a hand, they knew to go straight to Hinda Dvoyre. She would take some fat, rub it in and wrap it with a kerchief and all was good. She also made her own ointments. She was always in a good mood. She received everyone with a smile and a kind word.

Their son Nokhem lived with his wife and children in Sampolno. He was a hat maker. He was an observant man and one of the most esteemed in town. He raised his children in the spirit of traditional nationalism.

[Page 256]

Valter Eliyahu
His wife: Yekhet
His son: Avrom
Their daughters: Hinda Dvoyre, Khana


His son in law Elye Valter lived in the same house. He was a young man, a Khasid, a learned man in all secular subjects. He was a good prayer leader and had a beautiful voice that pleased not only the Jews from Przedecz, but those who heard him when he travelled to fairs selling his dry goods, where he used to be the distinguished emissary, especially with his prayers honoring the new month (rosh khodesh). In the Psalm Society, Reb Eliyahu would give a lecture every Sabbath before the evening service based on the weekly portion of Torah or from Ethics of the Fathers.


Vishnivsky Ruven
His wife: Gitl
His mother: Khana Rivka
His son: Hersh Meir
His daughters: Feygl, Khava, Khaya Soreh


Ruven Vishnivsky, a hat maker. He was one of the choir boys under the old cantor Shabtai Kotek, of blessed memory, during the Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur services. Later he was a choir boy with the ritual slaughterer Yamnik Shmuel. He was one of the rebuilders of the Psalm Society. He was an intelligent Jew and passionate supporter of the worker's movement in town.


Vishnivsky Khaya
Her son: Shmuel Zalman
Her daughters: Khana Gitl, Rodah, Khava Tova.


Khaya Vishnivsky was the wife of Hershl who lives in America. She was a devoted Jewish mother who was killed with her five children in the camps.

[Page 257]

Zikhlinsky Dakhe – widow
Her son: Davinsky Yitzkhak
His wife: Genia
His son: Shloime


Dakhe Zikhlinsky (Davinsky) was a grain dealer together with her son Yitzkhak Davinsky, whom they called Yitzkhak the Lame. He was a very nice person. All his free time was dedicated to literature. He was a board member of the Public Library and a supporter of the Zionist movement. He also gave evening classes, without pay, teaching the Polish language to Jewish youth.


Vishnivsky Yisroel Khaim - widower
Zikhlinsky Yakov
His wife: Hella
Their daughter: Malka


Yisroel Khaim Vishnivsky had a food store. In his free time, he sat in the House of Study and studied Eyn Yakov, often with others. His son in law Yakov Zikhlinsky and his wife Hella lived with him were well educated and liked to discuss world politics.


Shveitzer Rokhl - widow


Rokhl Shveitzer. Her husband died not long after they were married, and she was left with a small child and without a livelihood. She became a dairy woman. Even though she was not well off, she helped poor families who could not afford milk. She raised her son on her own. Many would have wished to have such a child. She was killed in the death camp Chelmno. Her son lives in Israel.

[Page 258]

Klar Elazar
His wife: Ella
Their daughters: Bella, Khana


Elazar Klar was a tailor and the son in law of Yosef Vishnivsky. Like the majority of artisans in town, he sold his sewn goods in the market. He was a member of the Psalm Society.


Vayden Mordkhai Ber
His wife: Khava
Their married sons: Yekhiel, Yakov Hersh and their families


Mordkhai Ber Vaydman and his wife Khava had a food store. He was an observant man. His son Yakov Hersh was one of the founders of the Public Library and the drama club. Thanks to the proceeds of performances, the library was able to purchase new books and sponsor activities. A few years before the war, Yakov Hersh moved to Konin. One of Mordkhai Ber's sons, Yekhiel, lived in Lodz. He was an observant man and kept his house strictly kosher.


Kladovsky Elye Dovid
His wife: Brayndl
Their daughter: Y'tke


Elye Dovid Klodavksky was a tailor. He would travel to fairs to sell his goods. He was an observant man and very active in the Psalm Society. The family lived in constrained material conditions. Their son Zalman lives in Israel.

[Page 259]

Yakubovsky Kasriel
His wife: Khaya
Son: Avrom
Daughters: Frayda, Mikhal


Kasriel Yakubovsky was a custom tailor. He was a religious Jew. He prayed at the House of Study. Between the afternoon and evening prayers, he would study with Reb Leyb Lentzitzky. He had fine, intelligent children. His son Dovid was one of the founders of the Public Library. He died in America in 1972. Their son Moishe Aron, who was one of the founders of the Sholem Aleichem Library, lived in Canada.


Shimonovitch Herman
His wife and four children


Herman Shimonovitch was a son in law of the old Shperke. He lived in an attic apartment in the house of the Christian Lapatkevitch. He would travel to markets selling haberdashery. Later, he became a teacher, and his wife went to the markets. They had four children. They were a quiet family who were not involved in community affairs. Because of this we do not know their names.


Avigdor Yitzkhak and his family
Son in law of Shperke


Yitzkhak Avigdor was a son in law of the Shperke family. He was a tombstone engraver. In order to provide for his family, he also did book binding. This was a quiet, traditional family and cultured educated people. Unfortunately no one from the Shperke or Avigdor family survived.

[Page 260]

Frankenshteyn Ruven
His wife: …
His son: Itzik
His daughters: Tove, Frimet, Rekhl
And family


Ruven Frankenshteyn, maker of ready to wear clothes. An observant Jew and the head of his family. Ruven, his wife and five children lived in poverty. Nevertheless, he sent all his children to Kheder and to school. It must be pointed out that all his children were intelligent. One of his sons, Mendl, survived Auschwitz and lived in Przedecz until 1964.


Grinblat Noteh
His wife: Bella
two children


Noteh Grinblat, his wife and two children lived in their own nice house. He was a grain merchant and a respected Jew. He was wealthy according to the standards of the town. He was a great supporter of Mizrachi and a member of the Board of Directors of the Public Bank.


Grinblat Dovid
His wife and family


Dovid Greenblat was Noteh Grinblat's brother. They were both grain merchants. He was an honest man from a quiet, modest family. His house was open, and he supported poor people. They fulfilled the good deed of welcoming guests. Unfortunately, no one from either brother's family survived. They were killed in Chelmno.

[Page 261]

Frankenshteyn Hersh
His wife: Shprintze
His sons: Mordkhai, Mendl
His daughters: Malka, Frimet


The Frankenshteyn family rented one room under the roof of Noteh Grinblat's house. The room was dark, and the life of this family was dark. The father Hersh and his wife Shprintze left for the village on Sunday to buy and sell village products, and often would not return until Friday afternoon. There was often nothing to eat in their home. Furniture – a table, a bed – of course not. The family slept on straw on the floor, and during the winter covered themselves with their clothes. Often on market days you could see their two daughters collect spoiled produce the farmers had thrown away. The eldest son worked as a shoemaker, the eldest daughter took care of the house, but they all knew how to read and write despite the fact that they often could not go to school because they did not have shoes on their feet. This was a traditional Jewish family. No one survived. The Germans considered them to be parasites and thieves.


Linchitsky Yekhezkel Mordkhai
His wife: Rozhe
Sons: Eliyahu, Avrom, Hersh Leyzer, Noteh.
Daughter: Ita


Yekhezkel Mordkhai and his family lived in their own house. Together with his eldest son Hersh Leyzer he was a village peddler. Two other sons, Eliyahu and Avrom, ran a tailor workroom. Their daughter Ita was a women's tailor. Both workshops were in the same room. Despite this, they were not well off. They were a very observant family, simple honest people. Reb Yekhezkel Mordkhai read from the Torah for many years in the House of Study. In his free time, he studied Ein Yakov with other Jews.

[Page 262]

Markovitch Wolf
His wife: Henna
Her son: Nokhem Zielinsky


Wolf Markovitch dealt in a variety of goods and rags with his stepson. In the 1920's, he married the widow Henna Zielinsky who had two sons, Hersh and Nokhem. Nokhem was a sick boy, and his step father treated him as his own son. Wolf Markovitch was a very smart and nice man. Like the majority of Jews in town, he was observant and a member of the Psalm Society. Even though he was not from Przedecz, everyone in town loved him very much.


Neklin Naftali
His wife: Hadasa and family
His brothers: Avrom and family,
Eliyah and family


Naftali Neklin was one of many Jews in town who honestly looked for different ways to earn a living and provide for his family. He was a village peddler, a glazer, a fruit seller and a wagon driver. He had a coach that was put together with planks of wood, painted red, that squeaked when he drove it. He would take passengers in this coach to the train station in Kshevate ( Ed. Note: a village just past Klodawa about 12 kilometers away). From all of this, he barely earned a living, and like most people, he worked hard and went hungry. The last years before the war, he lived in Izbica. His son Mendl died in Israel around 1952.

His two brothers Avrom and Eliyahu were hairdressers and had a shop. In the years before the war, they left Przedecz but we do not know the exact details. They were all murdered by the Nazis.

[Page 263]

Levkovitch Mikhal
Shperke Elye his wife and family


Shapiro (Shperke), the parents died in June 1926. They left behind three daughters and a son. They lived in a fenced house. Their son Mikhal Shapiro and his sister remained in the house. Mikhal was a hat maker. He helped write requisitions for the Jewish inhabitants to various government institutions. He was one of the founders of the Needle Union, where he offered lessons in reading and writing without pay to young people who needed these skills. He also founded the Shomer Hatzair organization which functioned on a high cultural level. His brother Elye married and move to Klodawa, where he had a photography business.


Neklin Moishe
His wife: Soreh Gitl
Their sons: Meir, Avrom, Lipman, Yosef
Their daughter: Ella


The Levkovitch family was a big family. All six children were active in the Sholem Aleichem Library. Young workers often gathered in their home for discussions and to read newspapers. They would also sing worker's songs that were not always legal. Even though the parents were observant, they sympathized with the worker's movement. The young people loved the parents very much. Almost everyone in the family was a hard worker. They had a coach and four horses and took passengers to the train as well as heavy loads to Vlotslavek and grain from the grain dealers. Besides this, they had a Matzah bakery where, on the eve of Passover, they would bake Matzah with the Rabbi and the Khasidim with the special “Water that Slept” (Ed. Note: Mayim Shelanu – water drawn the day before and left to rest overnight, a requisite for making matzoh) which was brought the night before from the Yedz River. His daughter Dvoyre lives in Canada.

[Page 264]

Zielinsky Hersh
His wife: Khana
Their sons: Moishe, Wolf


The Nelkin family was large, with ten grown children. They earned a living as village peddlers, hairdressers, tailors, glazers, wagon drivers and one was even a dance teacher. They all married and moved to other towns except the youngest daughter, Khana who married the glazer Hersh Zielinsky and lived in her parents' home after they died. She had two children. As well as being a glazer, Hersh played the violin at weddings. He also entertained the wedding guests with his beautiful singing voice.


Rivinsky Mordkhai
His wife: Yokheved Rekhl


Mordkhai Rivinsky was a son in law of Zalman Buks. He was a tailor who sold his wares at the fairs. As most of the artisans in town, he was traditional. He prayed with the Psalm Society. He died in a camp. His wife was killed in Auschwitz.


Bornshteyn Leybush Mendl
His wife: Zelda
Daughter: Rokhl
Sons: Ozer, Eliyahu


Leybush Mendl Bornshteyn was the son of Tuvia Bornshteyn. He lived with his family in Klodawa. Leybush Mendl ran a large hat-making workshop and employed a few workers. Thanks to his good financial situation, he was one of the more esteemed householders in town. His children received a national traditional education.

[Page 265]

Miller Hersh
His wife: Rivka
Sons: Sholem, Mordkhai, Gutman
Daughter: one


Hersh Miller was a custom shoemaker, good at his trade. His eldest son, Sholem was an educated young man. All three sons worked with their father and helped provide for the family. It was a well-respected family. Being an observant man, he provided his children with a traditional education. He was a member of the Psalm Society and contributed money to its building.


Pshedetsky Mikhal
His wife: Gitl
Their sons: Shmuel, Zelig, Khaim Yakov


Mikhal Pshedetsky was a tailor who repaired torn clothes. He sold the refurbished clothing at the market. Like all the tailors in town he spent weeks away from home. Even though he worked hard far from home all week in order to provide for his family, he was an observant man and would always be among the first on the Sabbath at the Psalm Society. As an observant Jew, he gave his children a traditional education. His dear devoted wife Gitl helped to maintain the traditional atmosphere at home. Their daughter Feyge lives in America.

[Page 266]

Noymark Mikhal Hersh
His wife: Rakhil
Their sons: Hersh Leyb, Yakov
Their daughters: Tauba, Malka, Khaya Rokhl, Blema


Mikhl Hersh Naymark (sometimes spelled Noymark), was a village peddler, a quiet butcher who slaughtered calves, goats and sheep. He sold the meat at cheap prices specially for poor people. He prayed at the House of Study regularly. During the Sabbath afternoon prayers, he had the longstanding tenured position of leading the service. When it came to the line “You are One and Your name is One” he sang so beautifully. It sounded as if it was coming from deep in his heart. He was a smart and kind hearted man. He loved to build and rebuild. The people living in his houses did not have the ability to pay rent. Mikhal Hersh never demanded rent. He took whatever they were able to pay whenever they were able to pay. He was praised by everyone in town, Jews and Christians. He was always full of humour and loved to share witticisms. His daughter Golda died in Brazil in 1971. His son Simkha lives in Brazil.

His second wife Rakhil had a son from her first husband, Hersh Leyb Prakhovsky. He was a tailor who worked for another tailor. He was an intelligent young man and played an active role in the professional union and the Sholem Aleichem Library.

[Page 267]

Khava Klodovsky
Simkha Noymark's aunt
  Bluma Noymark
Mikhal Hersh Noymark's daughter


Kayla and Bluma Klodovsky,
Simkha Noymarks's aunts
  Khava Rokhl, Yakov, Malka, Tauba Noymark

[Page 268]

Noymark Tuvia
His wife: Shayna
Their daughter: Frimet


Tuvia Noymark and his wife Shayna had two children. He lived in his own house. He had a horse and wagon, and every day he travelled to the villages and sold whatever he could. In order to earn a living, he worked very hard. He was an observant man, very smart, but quiet and did not get involved in any issues. He provided his children with a religious education.


Toronchik Mordkhai
His wife: Mindl
Son: Yoel
Daughters: Khaya, Tauba


Mordkhai Toronchik was a saddle maker and by nature a happy man. He loved to talk to people, particularly in the House of Study between afternoon and evening prayers, when Jews discussed all worldly affairs. He liked to convince his listeners that his opinions were right. He was an observant man and worked hard to earn a living. His wife helped out with business. They provided their children with a religious Zionist education.

[Page 269]

Tchanskovsky Yitzkhak
His wife: Masha
Their son: Avrom
Their daughters: Freda, Mikhl


Yitzkhak Tchanskovsky and his wife Masha had three children. He was Mikhal Hersh Naymark's son in law. He dealt in village products. He was a quiet, observant man who did not get involved in community matters. He lived a difficult, hard-working life and with great hardship provided for his family. However on the Sabbath he was among the first to arrive to pray at the Psalm Society. Many families lived in Mikhal Hersh Naymark's house. It was small, low, with a slanted roof. In the yard there were small wooden annexes like many other homes in this part of town, which was called the old marketplace. The houses miraculously stood up and the biggest miracle was that a fire never broke out, which would have destroyed everything.


Shpringer Motil – widow
Her son in law – Stramsky Mordkhai
His wife: Pese


The Stramsky family, Mordkhai, his wife Pese, and their small child lived in the same house as his mother in law, Motl Shpringer. Mordkhai, the son in law, was the sole provider. He would go to the market with a small valise which carried a little bit of merchandise, including children's toys and other inexpensive things that he would sell for 35 groshen each. He did not earn a lot from this. But he tried not to be a burden on anyone. This was a quiet family. On the Saturday afternoons that he was home, he liked to sit at the table with his family and read a newspaper or a book.

[Page 270]

Sokhchevsky Moishe
His wife: Miriam
Their daughter: Regina
Her husband: Leyb Ulezniko and three children.
Daughter: Edzhe
Her husband: Yakov Glassman
Their son: Mark
Their daughter: Miriam


The house of Moishe Sokhchevsky, of blessed memory was a bit bigger and longer than the other houses at the old marketplace. He was a well to do businessman with a dry goods store and was a custom tailor.


Regina and her husband Leyb Ulezniko   Edzhe Glassman (Sokhchevsky)

[Page 271]

He was the chairman of the Ludavi Bank as well as one of its founders. He was an observant Jew and a passionate Zionist. When an important guest came to town, he would stay at his house, and Moishe Sokhchevsky would take care of him. When Rabbi Zemelman first arrived in town as a potential candidate to become our town's rabbi, he spent his first Sabbath with him. When he was officially hired as rabbi, after the celebration in the synagogue the leaders of the community gathered at Moishe Sokhchevsky's for a reception until late at night. When the Keltz Rebbe visited our town in early 1930s, he too stayed at his house and led his Sabbath table there. His daughter Esther Pulman lives in Israel and his second daughter Sala Diskin lives in Paris.


Krauskopf Kalman Yakov
His wife:
His son: Moishe
His daughter: Soreh


In the yard of this house was the building that later housed the Sholem Aleichem Library. Kalman Yakov Krauskopf lived there with his family. He was a house painter, tall and thin with long hands similar to Don Quixote from La Mancha, not to compare. With a stroke of the brush, he could white wash half a wall. On the white, he would paint the color the householder chose – gold, silver, yellow or red etc. … On winter days when he had no work he would sit in the House of Study beside the hot oven and tell stories about the red Jews on the other side of the Sambatyon, and about Leviathan and the legendary giant ox whose flesh will be eaten by the righteous in paradise. Small boys would gather around and swallow up every word he said with great curiosity. He never earned a lot of money.

[Page 272]

Goldman Blema Rokhl – widow
Her daughter: Esther


Blema Rokhl Goldman had a butcher shop in the market place in the building with all the butcher shops beside City Hall. She lived with her daughter Esther, who was a seamstress. She was one of the founders of the Needle Union and the Sholem Aleichem Library. She took courses in reading and writing and was a member of the drama club. She stood at the helm of the cultural movement in town.


Goldman Tuvia
His wife: Malka
Their son: Yosef
Their daughter: Feyge Miriam


Tuvia Goldman, like his brothers Mordkhai and Khaim, was a butcher. He was a member of the Public Library and dedicated a lot of his free time to its development. He was an observant Jew and a knowledgeable man. He provided his children with a traditional Zionist education. His wife Malka contributed a lot to this, as she was known to be an educated, knowledgeable woman.


Goldman Khaim
His wife: Shayne Brokha
Their daughter: Khana


Khaim Goldman was a butcher in partnership with his brother Mordkhai. This was a quiet, modest family. They were observant people. He, too, prayed at the Psalm Society. His home was pious and traditional. He, his wife and daughter were known in town as knowledgeable people.

[Page 273]

Goldman Mordkhai
His wife: Khaya Soreh
Their daughter: Kazer


Mordkhai Goldman was a butcher by profession. Like his mother Blema, he had a butcher shop in the market place next to City Hall. He was a pious Jew and prayed at the Psalm Society. He was on the Board of Directors of the Interest Free Loan Society (Bikur Cholim). He gave his daughter Kazer a traditional education. Wandering guests and poor people were always warmly welcomed in their home, receiving food and a nice donation.


Nimchovka Mendl
His wife: Pese


Mendl Nimchovka was a village peddler. He lived in a roof room (attic) on top of the house of Itzik Zingerman. He liked to get involved in community affairs and once was elected as a community council member. He also served as the representative of artisans on city council. He was a smart and nice person, and people enjoyed listening to his speeches and observations. He was also religious and a member of the Psalm Society. His wife Pese, even though she was a sick woman, did all she could to help the poor, even though she was limited in what she could do.


Buks Nakhman
His wife: Tzesha


Nakhman Buks was Zalman's son. He was a saddle maker. In order to avoid military service, he tortured himself a bit, and suffered from this all his years. He married and left Przedecz. He was a very knowledgeable man and often came to visit his father and family in town in order to fulfil the good deed of honoring your father.

[Page 274]

Rukhshteyn Khaim
His wife: Malka


Khaim Rukhshteyn was a tailor. The last years before the war, he worked as a teacher with small children in Kheder. He was a good, pious and smart Jew. He prayed in the synagogue. He had one daughter, Soreh Ratzeh, the wife of Leyb Khodetsky. By nature, he was a happy person and loved to tell jokes, which people enjoyed very much. In the House of Study, between afternoon and evening prayers, he would tell everyone the news of the day because he liked to read newspapers. Even though he was a poor man, no one noticed as he never revealed to anyone that he was in need of anything. His wife Malka was a great homemaker, and her home was always clean and tidy.


Zingerman Itzik
His wife: Sheva
His son: Hersh
Their son: Zingerman Avrom
Their daughter: Zigerman Miriam
Their daughter: Zingerman Khana
And their families.


Itzik Zingerman was a tinsmith. Like the majority of Jews in town, he was observant and served as the gabbai of the synagogue for many years where he devoted all his energy. He had a big family, three sons and three daughters. They were all very cultured people. Five of them were married and lived outside of Przedecz. They had many grandchildren. They were all killed. No one survived from this beautiful family. The eldest son Avrom lived in Lodz. He and his brother in law visited Israel in 1935 and wanted to settle there. Unfortunately, he could not realize this goal and returned to Poland and was murdered with all the others.

[Page 275]

Raukh Khaim
His wife: Rokhl Leah and family.


Khaim Raukh was the eldest son in law of Itzik Zingerman. They lived in the same house. He was a chicken dealer, a wholesaler, taking chickens to Lodz. They had a very nice house. He loved to tell witticisms and jokes. He was an observant man and prayed in the synagogue.


Khaim Torner
His wife: Malka
Their sons: Shmuel Hersh, Yehoshua


The Torner family was a cultured family. Reb Khaim was a teacher and taught almost all the children in town. His sons Shmuel Hersh and Yehoshua were members of the Needle Union. They were both tailors. They were very cultured people and read a lot. They were well informed in many areas. Their youngest son Arye lives in America.


Martshok Shimon
His wife: Royza
Their sons: Yosef, Avrom
Their daughters: Hinda, Tamar


Shimon Martshok was a village peddler and a fruit seller. He spent half a year in the villages and summers in the orchards where he protected the fruit he bought from the Christians. The majority of Jews in our town earned their living like this. Hard work but not a lot of money. He was a good, quiet observant man who did not get involved in community affairs. He worried about feeding his family and being able to provide a good education for his children.

[Page 276]

Kladovsky Mordkhai
His wife: Khaya Soreh
His son: Moishe Aron
His daughter: Yokheved


Mordkhai Kladovsky was the son in law of Blema Rokhl Goldman. He took over his uncle Levi Klodovsky's bakery. He was one of the founding members of the Public Library. His wife Khaya Soreh was also an active member of the library. They were quiet, observant people. Their children received a traditional and Zionist education.


Buks Zalman – a widower
His daughters: Mindl, ?


Zalman Buks was a village peddler and a widower. When his youngest daughter Mindl was born, his wife died. He devoted himself totally to her and didn't sleep nights in order to be both father and mother to this child. He worked hard, but barely earned a living from this hard work. His daughter Mindl was very cultured and was a member of the Sholem Aleichem Library. His daughter Khava Leah lives in America.


Buks Abba
His wife: Rokhl and their family


Abba Buks was a village peddler. His wife Rokhl was the daughter of Yosef Vishnivsky. He worked hard day in and day out but barely earned a living. On the Sabbath he arrived at the Psalm Society very early and recited psalms before praying. He was killed in Auschwitz.

[Page 277]

Saike Kapl
His wife: Rivka
Their sons: Monish, Yehoshua, Yosef, Khaim.
Their daughter: Yudis


Kapl Saike lived on the right hand side of the beginning of Synagogue Street. He was a saddle maker and had a big family. They had a very nice house. He was the gabbai of the synagogue, a member of the Ludavi Bank and, for a short time, was a member of the Board of Directors of the community. He was a happy man. His son Monish was an intelligent man, a good artist. His oil paintings hung on the walls of the synagogue. He was in various camps, including Auschwitz and Yavazne, and died shortly before liberation in Buchenwald.


From left to right: Moishe Toronchik, Itche Danielsky, Monish Saike, Itzik Danielsky, Shmuel Zielinsky, Pinkhas Raukh, Yehushua Saike, Monish Klodovsky

[Page 278]

Zielinsky Moishe
His wife: Soreh
Their son: Yakov


Moishe Zielinsky was Zalman's son. He was a tailor, but not independent. He got work from other tailors who would travel with their goods to fairs. Like the majority of Jews in town, he was an observant and quiet man. He did not get involved in community matters. He worked hard until late at night in order to feed his family. When they rebuilt the Psalm Society building in 1928, he gave a lot of himself and was one of the more important members. He was also a member of the Interest Free Loan Society (Bikur Cholim). His wife Soreh helped to support the family by finishing and sewing merchandise until late at night. They provided their son Yakov with a traditional education, and he was a member of the Shomer Hadati (The Religious Guard) organization.


Naymark Mordkhai
His wife: Ita and their sons
Their daughter: Leah
Her husband: Miller Nokhem


Mordkhai Naymark was a shoemaker by profession. A pious simple Jew. They had four or five daughters. The eldest lived in Vlatslovek. She and her husband Avrom Rayzer were active in the worker's movement. Their second daughter was the wife of Mikhal Danielsky, who lived on Chotcher Street. Another daughter and her husband Nokhem lived together with her parents. Nokhem was an upholsterer by profession, but could not earn a living at this in Przedecz, so he worked with his father in law as a shoemaker. All the daughters in the Naymark family were fine intelligent women.

[Page 279]

Frankenshteyn Mordkhai
His wife: Khaya Soreh
Sons: Yakov Yehoshua, Simkha


Mordkhai Frankenshteyn was a saddle maker. He was an observant Jew interested in secular subjects. He was a member of the Psalm Society. He worked hard to earn a living. His entire family was killed in the camps.


Kladovsky Leyb
His wife: Mindl
His daughter: Krasil
His sons: Monish, Naftali, Wolf, Tuvia, Dovid.


Leyb Kladovsky was a tailor with a large family. He would travel to the marketplace with his finished clothing. He educated his children in a traditional Jewish spirit. His youngest son Monish and daughter Krasil were members of the Mizrachi movement and belonged to the youth movement Shomer Hadati. They subscribed to the daily Yiddish newspaper.


Saike Bluma Rokhl – a widow
Her sons: Abba, Dovid
Her daughters: Khana, Golda Rivka


Bluma Rokhl Saike was a fruit dealer. She had two sons and two daughters. She was a widow. The whole family worked. Her eldest son was a saddle maker, the second, a tailor, one daughter sewed underwear and one daughter was married. They were intelligent people, well read and very active in the workers' movement.

[Page 280]

Zielinsky Leyb
His wife: Shifra
Their son: Moishe
Their daughter: Kayla


Leyb Zielinsky was the son of Moishe, the saddle maker. He had a wife and two children. He was a hat maker who worked for someone else out of his house. He was not active in any community institutions nor in any political parties as he had no time. He was busy with his hats from dawn until dusk and barely earned a living. He had confidence in his own hands and used them to work hard to earn a living. He did not lose courage. He loved life. He loved Yiddish folk songs. He sat at his sewing machine and sang old folk songs which many of us had already forgotten. Shifra was a good and tidy housewife and saved every penny. Their home served as a workshop. The dining room and bedroom were spotless. No one has remained from this beautiful family.


Frankenshteyn Mashil – a widower
His son: Avrom
His daughter: Frayda


Mahsil Frankenshteyn was a saddle maker, a widower. His wife died young and he carried the burden of raising two children on his own. He had to work to earn a living, in addition to being a mother to his children. Nevertheless he managed to give his children a good Jewish education. He was a quiet man, did not get involved in any matters. He was a member of the Interest Free Loan Society and prayed at the Psalm Society. He was an observant and modest man.

[Page 281]

Zielinsky Hersh
His wife: Genia
Their daughter: Soreh
Their son: Mikhal


Hersh Zielinsky was a rag dealer and, at times, a metal dealer with his step-father Markovitch. He had a large place near his house where he kept his goods in a warehouse. He was a well off Jew who prayed in the synagogue. He worked hard to feed his wife and two children.


Zikhlinsky Yakov
His wife: Soreh Yehudis


Yakov Zikhlinsky was a leather merchant. His wife was Soreh Yehudis, the daughter of Yisroel Klar. He was wealthy, elderly, observant, stout and fat. One night in the 1920s, a few non-Jewish thieves broke into his house and beat him up badly, wounding his head with an iron bar, and robbed him. Miraculously, he survived because he hung on to the bars on the window and shouted for help. The murderers left him and ran away. He lay sick for several weeks. To show his thanks to God for his survival, and to symbolize the seven wounds he had on his head, he donated a seven branched electric chandelier to the synagogue, with his name inscribed on it. It was a beautiful fixture which illuminated the entire synagogue.

[Page 282]

Plotzker Avrom
His wife: Frimet


Avrom Plotzker and his wife Frimet were an elderly couple. They were very observant people. In his later years, he was no longer working and had married off his children. They took great pleasure in their children and grandchildren. His children supported them and provided everything they needed. He made sure to pray with a minyan (quorum) and was among the first to arrive at the House of Study for prayers. He gave out charity, and his wife Frimet knew which were the poorer homes that needed help and gave them as much as she possibly could.


Plotzker Frimet
Plotzker Avrom

[Page 283]

Khadetsky Faybish
His wife: Yokheved
Their son: Yosef


Faybish Khadetsky and his wife, the daughter of Avrom Potzker, lived on Synagogue Street across from his father in law. He was a village peddler. It was a traditional family. He was not a wealthy man. However, they gave their son a fine education. They were quiet, modest people.


Kladovsky Yekhezkel
His wife: Esther Rokhl


Yekhezkel Kladovsky and his wife Esther Rokhl did not have any children. During the summer months, he rented an orchard, and he dealt with fruit all year long. His wife Esther Rokhl was energetic and was the kneader of the Matzah sweets for Passover. She was active in the society which provided someone to spend the night with a sick person and collected money and clothing which she distributed among the poor, of which there was no shortage in town. She also belonged to the Women's Burial Society. They were observant people loved by everyone.


Klar Avrom Yosef – a widower
His daughter: Soreh and her family


Avrom Yosef Klar was a widower. His daughter Soreh was a seamstress who earned a living sewing underwear and clothing. In his old age, before the war, Reb Avrom Yosef was supported by his son Eliezer. He was an observant man who spent many hours of the day in the House of Study studying Ein Yakov.

[Page 284]

Kazhimirsky Mendl
His wife: Frimet
Daughter: Miriam
Kazhimirsky Meir
His wife: Brayna
Their sons: Avrom, Yakov


The two brothers Mendl and Meir Kazhimirsky and their families. They were the sons of Bronkhie Frankenshteyn from her first marriage. They were handsome men, tall, the tallest Jews in town. They worked as small tradesmen in the village. They were not well educated, but they were honest, observant Jews and were always ready to defend Jewish honor against the non-Jews and gained respect for all Jews. They were proud Jews. They were married just before the war.


Kladovsky Yakov Mordkhai
His wife: Tauba


Yakov Mordkhai Kladovsly and his wife Tauba worked almost exclusively in the orchards. His wife Tauba tried to make some money as a fortune teller. She would read the palms of the women famers or use cards and she “knew” in advance what to say would happen to them and what had already happened with the farmer's family. When she was with one village family, she would ask about all the other inhabitants. This is how she became proficient in all their secrets. She did it all with common sense, as she was a smart woman. This is how some people earned a living in town. During the winter, when the roads were covered in snow and frozen over, she could not go to the village so she worked as a cook for Jewish celebrations or mended socks and underwear for people.

[Page 285]

Vishnivsky Khana
Her sons: Dovid, Shmuel Zalman
Her daughters: Gitl, Roda


Vishnievsky Dovid, Pshedetsky Shmuel Zelig, Hertzberg Moishe, Liek Mordkhai


Khana Vishnivksy was the wife of Zelig, who lives in America. She and her four children were killed in one of the German death camps. Her short life was tragically ended like all other Polish Jews. She was a good mother with a warm heart. She provided her children with a nice Jewish education even though earning a living was not easy. But her children received all that was possible. Her eldest daughter Kayla enrolled in Jewish activities in a camp in Inovartslav. She now lives in America.


Iglinsky Khaya
a widow


Khaya Iglinsky was an observant woman. She helped the wealthier Jews in town prepare celebrations. She was a very good cook. She was active in the Women's Burial Society and in the society that spent the night with the sick. Although she was a poor woman, she sympathized with those who suffered and helped as much as possible.


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