by Iser Boymfeld, Rio de Janerio
Translated by Tina Lunson
As a native Ostrovtser who spent the best of his young years in the town I feel a strong desire to tell about the great efforts that the conscious part of the Ostrovtse Jewish population made to modernize its education system and make it appropriate to the demands of the new era and the new needs that had been created in our town, as in other towns of Jewish Poland after the First World War.
Before the First World War the Jewish children in Ostrovtse were educated according to the familiar example. They began with an elementary teacher who taught the them alphabet, and later went over to a teacher who taught them khumesh mit RaShI [the Five Books of the Torah with RaShI's commentary]. Then came the teacher for Talmud, starting with the arbe avos nezikim [concerning damages] then going to more difficult chapters such as nedrim [vows] and Talmud with commentaries and to the laws of purity in the Shulkhn orekh.
I remember the elementary teacher from my time, R' AsherLeyb, a tall Jew, broad shouldered, in his fifties. One studied with AsherLeyb in a large salon in which there was one long table with two benches for R' Asher and one smaller table with two benches for his belfer or helper. All together about 60 students studied with R' Asher.
R' Asher's kheyder also employed the traditionalforthetimes braided whip, with which a teacher held the pupils in fear.
R' Abish taught us khumesh mit RaShI. We also began to study Talmud with R' Abish: bava kama, bava mitsiye, kidushin. R' Abish did not use a whip, but a kind of ruler which he had made himself from a thin board. A rap with that ruler gave a child swollen hands more than once.
R' Khayim was a higher teacher for us; people called him Khayim the lender. He had a total of 8 students. He taught Talmud with commentaries, the tractate for the holidays. He also taught the reading of the Torah from a scroll, with a trope.
At R' Khayim's we studied the lesson in the morning and repeated it later in the day. In the afternoon R' Khayim either slept in his alcove or was busy with the clients who borrowed 5 to 10 rubles from him.
R' Kahayim did not have a whip or a ruler. But when R' Khayim twisted your ears you felt it for a long time. He also had other ways to punish the unruly pupils. Such a boy had to help the rabbi's wife with the housework or go into penitence.
Barmitsve boys studied with R' Azriel, a small, thin little Jew of skin and bones with a pointed beard. R' Azriel put his whole soul into the pupils and rarely ate to his fill. His ambition was that his pupils could be examined successfully by the elite of the town.
These that I have mentioned were not the only teachers in Ostrovtse. They were the most wellknown.
At the same time that public life in town was dominated by old lifeways, the haskole [haskalah, Jewish Enlightenment] began to secretly permeate it. I recall how I once saw in a studyhouse that as the adult boys Yehoshue Rozenman, Ruven Halpern and Shloyme Naforstik were studying, they were hiding something under the Talmud volume. I was intrigued and I could not rest until I knew that these were the thenfamous books Ha'tue b'darkhey ha'kahyim and Kevures ha'mor [Wanderder on the path of life and Burial of the Ass] by Perets Smolenskin. I was drawn and gradually became close to the abovementioned studyhouse boys and was their gobetween for carrying the Ha'tsfire from one to another and the Yiddish and Hebrew haskole books like Oheves tsion [Love of Zion], Ashmot shomron [Sins of Samaratins], Even negef [Stumbling block] and others. I usually got the books from the secretary Hernes Kantor, who in Ostrovtse was called the philosopher because
loved to talk about RaMBaM and his More nevukhim [Guide for the perplexed]. It seems that even though his name was Khayim Ginsburg, the observant Jews called him the soul catcher; nevertheless for arbitration and for business matters they turned to him and had the greatest respect for him. At that time I was 14 years old.
My grandfather Zundele Boymfeld must be counted among the maskilim [followers of haskole] in our town, and was known as an antihasid. My grandfather R' Zalman Yoshes, his brother, could not find peace with him. My grandfather, who studied with the Ber Rebi, could not make peace with the thought that his brother could be antihasidic. My father had a fine library in his house and many communal matters had been decided in our home.
During and after the First World War, the Jewish environment in Poland had begun to develop an intensive culturalsocial life, and life in Ostrovtse had taken on a different face. The beginning was quite modest. A smallloan society was founded in 1914, and was the first expression of the selfactivity of the new, rising Jewish youth. The society was founded in the house of the Mints family with the participation of the writer of these lines. Later new institutions sprang up in the environment of the loan society: a public library, the Zionist organization Mizrakhi, a Poaley tsion, professional unions, secular schools and other institutions.
The founders of the loan society were Menye Blankman, the brothers Yekhiel and Elieyzer Pantser, Yekhiel Halpern, Ziml Halpern, Moyshe Kats, Simkhe Mintsberg, Mayer Rozenman, A. Kroyngold, Yankev Vaynberg and Iser Boymfeld.
The organization Mizrakhi was founded by Motl Sheyner, Moyshe Kats, Leybish Halshtok, Yehoshua Kuperman, Elimelekh Halpern, MordkheMayer Nisker, Avrom Dovid Kroyngold, Yankev Koper, Iser Boymfeld and others.
The Zionist organization was founded by Avrom Yankev Mintsberg, the brothers Yehiel and Elieyzer Leyvi, the brothers Shmuel and Ezra Bomshteyn, Simkhe Mintsberg, the brothers Blankman, Elieyzer Mintsberg, the brothers Yekhiel and Elieyzer Pantser, Yehiel Malinak, Yekhiel Halpern, Yekhiel Vaynberg and others.
The Poeley tsion organization was founded by Ayzik Benker, Fayvl Shteynbok (died in Brazil), Shmuel Sharfshteyn, Itsik Nusinovitsh, Hersh Kudlovitsh, Yosl Finklshteyn, Shmuel Shpayzmakher and Itshe Lustman.
The Bund was founded by Avrom Shertsman, Itshe Zinger, Shmuel Beyglman, Sh. Fishman, A. Grober, I. Frumerman, Velvl Patsontek and Yitskhak Vagshol.
The noted party organizations created the movement for establishing modern Jewish schools in Ostrovtse. The first modern school in Ostrovtse was the Tarbus school. It founders were Avrom Malokh, A. I. Mintsberg, Simkhe Mintsberg, Yehiel and Elieyzer Leyvi, Yekhiel Mayer Blankman. The director of the school was A. Kestenberg, whose wife helped him in his work. 120 students studied in the school.
After the Tarbus school, the Mizrakhi school was founded, in which there were 350 pupils. Many children could not be accepted because of lack of space. The founding of that school was thanks to the devoted social activist Moyshe Lederman, who was for many years president of Mizrakhi, a member of the city council, vicepresident
|The Tarbus folks-shul|
of the Jewish council and whom everyone in the town valued and loved. The director of that school was A. Viner, and the teachers were Erlikh, Shakher, Rabinovitsh, Rumianik, Mandlboym, the brothers Zilberberg, Temse Ayger. Blume Mushkes and others taught the kindergarten. There was a year when, due to the pressing demand from parents, the Mizrakhi school accepted 380 children, which was beyond its capabilities and could not be sustained.
Later the Poaley tsion founded the Folks shul in which 150 children studied, under the leadership of the teacher ZamietShkovski, Fayvl Shteynbok and others.
The new, modern schools created a brilliant educational opportunity for the Jewish child. The schools had good, suitable venues with the necessary furniture, maps, pictures and instruments. The schools used the best pedagogical education methods. The school became a second home for the child. The children loved the teacher, who know how to win the trust of the child. They went to school with eagerness. Parental committees were established and school holidays were instituted at which the parents and children spent happy time together.
Further, the modern schools attracted the Jewish child who had a very weak desire to go to a backward kheyder. The observant religious Jews were thus also forced to reform their educational institutions. Then modern TalmudTorahs were established where there was also secular knowledge and the children wore school uniforms. But the modern TalmudTorahs had less success than the Mizrakhi schools that were located in the center of the town, had good teachers and good direction. The Mizrakhi school was known for its children's presentations and so was called on in the surrounding town to give some of the presentations.
|The first Jewish students in the Ostrovtse boy's gimnazium [high school]|
Modern education was naturalized in Ostrovtse until Hitler may his name be blotted out destroyed everything.
by Paltiel Brikman
Translated by Tina Lunson
Ostrovtse, just like all other provincial towns in Poland, did not especially excel in the social conditions of its Jewish population. Poverty, want and lack of sanitary services were almost a normal condition. Residences where people lived together with a large number of children in one room, with at most one little side room, and the barrel for water, the slops pail and the oven for baking and cooking as well as heating, were a very common situation in the streets of the poor.
Because of those unbearable conditions, the Jewish council was forced to develop multibranched charity activities in various areas. We will try to record a few charity institutions and their activities here.
Lines ha'tsedek [homeless shelter]
This institution was located on Shener Street. The manager of the pharmacy for the shelter was a thin little Jew with a sparse yellow beard, Yekhiel Yanovski. He was almost a complete pharmacist, knowing what to give an old Jew for a cold, a poor mother for her children who had measles, had the pox or just a fever. Jews also went to him for a wad of cotton, a vial of iodine.
Biker kholim [visiting the sick]
The tasks of the bikur kholim were many, from going to sit with the very ill overnight to borrowing various medical equipment that would be useful to the patient. It was a very difficult and sacred work and Yankele Hertsog was the faithful director of that institution.
He also led a second institution which was called Gut shabes, yidelekh [good sabbath, Jews]. This was an institution that undertook to provide poor families with khale for shabes. Each shabes morning two Jews would carry a big basket by its two handles and with the call Gut shabes, yidelekh! they knocked at Jewish houses and [p. 228]
people happily gave them khale that they had baked extra on Friday just for this mission. Shmuel Povroznik and another Jew had claim to go around with the basket and call out, Gut shabes, yidelekh!
Gemiles khesed kase [small loan fund]
Almost everyone had to come to the gemiles khesed fund, whether to make a loan himself or to provide an endorsement for a friend or a neighbor. One could borrow from 100 to 500 zlotych from the fund and repay it at weekly rates from 1 to 5 zlotych. Akive Roset had given a room for public prayer, and it was that minyon that put together the committee for the fund every Monday and Thursday, and Jews came there to pay their installments. The only one who was paid for his work in the fund, a few zlotych a month, was Yosl, Motl Shamli's oldest son. The last president was Mendl Brikman and his assistants were Pinye Vatsharsh Sherman, Yankele Tarshish, Khane Rivke's soninlaw and others.
Hakneses orkhim [taking in guests]
This noble task of helping homeless and displaced happened especially when the Jews of Konine were driven out to Ostrovtse. The entire Jewish population of the town took in the refugees as their own relatives. One case will serve as an illustration: A woman, Montshke was her name, was standing in the middle of the market square with one of her sister's daughters and from their condition it was clear that they felt themselves refugees, as uprooted from their home and thrown into a town where they had no friend and no rescuer. One of the town proprietors, Yekhezkel Vaynberg, approached them and took them into his home, where they lived with his family until they all were taken away to Treblinka.
The Judenrat [Naziimposed council of Jewish elders] organized a public kitchen in the venue of the Mizrakhi group, which provided around one thousand lunches a day. The leaders of this effort were Moyshe Likht, Khayim Fishl Silman, Itshe Vishlitski, Mendl Brikman and Yehude Ratshimora.
There were two yeshives in town. One was called the Rebi's yeshive and it was supported by the Hasidim of our town and of other towns. The second was called the Novorodke yeshive and the entire burden of maintaining that yeshive fell on the Ostrovtse Jews. The boys of the yeshive had eating days among the population of the town. Besides that there was a yearly breadaction in the studyhouses and each householder was obligated to give a kilo or two kilos of bread each week for the yeshive boys. The yeshive boys lived around the old and the new studyhouses and the shul. Passersby on Old Kuniavska Street could overhear the wellknown Musar melodies as they studied. The attire of those boys was conspicuous too: A big tall hat, a long frockcoat with an open blouse, disheveled.
There were also small aid institutions in Ostrovtse, and on Purim for the feast, besides the usual help for the poor, couples collected money for the Poor Brides' Fund and other charitable institutions that functioned in the town.
May these lines of mine be a living memorial for the holy work that the Jews in Ostrovtse did in order to come to the aid of their impoverished brothers.
by Isser Boymfeld
Translated by Yaacov David Shulman
Ostrovtse, a town with a train station in the Kielce Voivodeship, was known for its large metal factory, where 24,000 men worked in three shifts. 17,000 Jews lived in the town.
After the First World War, which broke out in 1914, Ostrovtse grew extensively. In town, various institutions cropped up: sports organizations, libraries, schools, drama circles, a choir, and more.
This provided the impetus to transform the oldstyle cheders (one room school houses) with their melamdim (Torah teachers of young pupils) and bahelfers (helpers) into newstyle chedersi.e., talmud torahs (classroom schools). At the same time, there were yeshivas, Hasidic shtieblech (small synagogues) and batei midrashim (Torah study halls) with morning and evening classes.
Jewish laborers began engaging in politicaleconomic activism in 1905, in the revolutionary movement against the Russian czarist regime. A few were sent to Siberia for their illegal political actions.
The town of Ostrovtse was almost completely Jewish. Jewish houses stood in all four directions around the marketplace. A Christian seldom moved onto the main streets. 70 per cent of the Jewish Ostrovtse population derived its income from business; 20 percent from craftscobblers, tailors, bakers, carpenters, glaziers, smiths, tinsmiths, construction workers and others; and 10 percent were professionalsmelamdim, teachers, associated staff, doctors, dentists, pharmacists and others.
The overwhelming number of Jews in Ostrovtse were deeply religious. I will mention my uncle, Dovidl Boymfeld (or, as he was known to everyone in Ostrovtse, Dovidl Kalman Yashes), the leader of the Sabbath observant Jews. Every Friday eve, before candle lighting, he and his comrades would go out
into the town and demand that stores close. Many times, he caused damage to the barbershops that were cutting hair or shaving beards a little bit late into the night. On Monday morning, he would pay for all of the damage. This happened numerous times.
The young Dovid came up with new ways to put an end to the backwardness of the town. In 1914, the first youth gathering in Mintzes' beis medrash took place, in which the writer of these lines participated. At this first youth meeting, a gemilus chesed [free loan] fund was created in order to help the craftsmen who could not pay the weekly wages of the journeymen working under them, because their own boss was taking a bath or enjoying an afternoon nap and did not sympathize with these tailors, cobblers or carpenters whose journeymen were waiting to be paid. Many times, it happened that a craftsman would avoid his journeymen by coming home come late at night, and he himself did not have enough for Shabbos. The fund helped many such craftsmen, lending them up to five rubles, which they would pay back over the course of the coming week.
This first youth gathering also founded the first library in Ostrovtse, which stood until the destruction of the entire Ostrovtse Jewish community.
|Workers of the sport club, Yutzshenka|
A few months later, after the founding of the library, the first Bundist group was formed.
In those years, a struggle took place between the Agudah and its most important rival, the Mizrachi, regarding who would influence the youth of the shtieblech and batei midrashim.
A bloc consisting of Mizrachi, Tze'ireiMizrachi, Zionists, Tze'ireiTzion, Po'alei Tzion, and politicians, in which sometimes the Bund also participated, was active in the elections to the gmina and town government, and attained a significant representation that the Agudath had to deal with.
The first contest with the Agudah took place on November 2, 1917, when the Balfour Declaration was celebrated in a mass ceremony held by the Zionist organizations from right to left, Shomrim, sports clubs, women's organizations, Tarbut and Mizrachi schools. Each group had its own flag, and a few even brought their own orchestra. Despite the fact that the Agudah, and the rabbinate as well, tried to prohibit street celebrations and gatherings in the great synagogue, all of that interference was put aside, thanks to the work of our community leaders led by the gmina vice chairman, Moshe Lederman,. This demonstrated the strength of the organized youth, which with the help of sympathetic elements ended the privileged positions of the religious community leaders, who had for many years allowed no one to speak. From then on, a new attitude began to form regarding the youth in our home town of Ostrovtse.
Religious life was concentrated in 40 Hasidic shtieblech. Foremost were the Gerer and Aleksander Hasidim. The two large batei midrashim were attended by craftsmen, as well as misnagdish (nonHasidic) householders. The small beis medrash belonged to the tailors. It was in fact called the tailors' beis medrash. They had a tradition to recite psalms every day before dawn.
The large synagogue belonged to the ordinary folk: craftsmen, hand workers, unskilled laborers, porters, butchers. They set the tone for the synagoguealways taking into account, however, the view of the Ostrovtse rabbi.
Rabbi Meir Yechiel Halshtak, who was born in Sabin in 5610 , had illuminated the town with his righteousness and brilliance since 1888. After ten years as rabbi in Skernyevitz, he came as rabbi to Ostrovtse in 5649 . Very quickly he gained the love of all the townspeopleeven the Christians. Whenever a Christian had a dispute with a Jew, he only wanted to go for judgment to the rabbi.
It is worth noting that one of the students of Rabbi Meir Yechiel Halevi, the Ostrovtse tzaddik, was Rabbi Shmuel Brodt, who later served as the Mizrachi representative in the sejm. From time to time he would leave the sejm in Warsaw and go to Ostrovtse in order to discuss matters with his rebbe. He would always hurry to Ostrovtse to gain the benefit of the great Torah light that shone in Ostrovtse and illuminated the entire Jewish world. In Rio de Janeiro as well, there was a student of the Ostrovtse rebbe, a ritual slaughterer named R. Berish Diamond.
by M. Piltzmacher
Translated by Pamela Russ
[ ] translator's remarks
South from Radom and east from Kielce, in the southern part of the so-called Crown of Poland, up the hill, there is a busy, productive, and industrial city of trade spread out Ostrowiec. The city had great importance for Poland, and was also known in the larger world.
The name of the city in Polish as Ostrowiec, but everyone, even the Poles, who came to the city to trade and buy, expressed the name of the city as the Jews did, Ostrowca.
Looking at the city from Klimkowicz, from the factory area side, or from the train station, half the city seemed to be within a hand's reach. The half that stretched up the mountain gave the impression that the houses were built one on top of the other, with one house is able to see into the neighboring house.
On a mountain on the right was the city's church that was located at the very edge of the lower Polish area the Stav. There was a mix there, of Poles and Jews, and only a small street led from the church to the marketplace, with its streets and small roads which were densely populated with Jews only.
On a mountain to the left, was the center of Jewish life. There was the old wooden shul [synagogue], with a women's section walled in around it, that was likely added later on when the community grew. The synagogue courtyard had a wall around it with three round gates, and this was also the courtyard of the Batei Medrashim [Study Halls]. The old Beis Medrash was always filled with people who were praying and studying, and with Talmud teachers and their students. On the walls, were shelves packed with religious texts, and around the old, scratched up tables, there were old and young seated, studying with enthusiasm. Across from the old Beis Medrash, was the new Beis Medrash, which was a little more organized and less noisy.
|Workers' Sport Club Gwiazda [Star]|
There, a more honorable, but religious aristocracy prayed. A few steps lower down was the small Beis Medrash where the more modern part of the Jewish population prayed, early in the mornings, on the Shabbat, and on the Jewish holidays. In the small Beis Medrash, there was an elderly Spanish Jew would teach poor boys how to pray, and teach them some Chumash and Rashi [Torah and commentary]. This was the Talmud Torah cheder [school for young children] where young boys studied, those whose parents could not pay tuition, and each Friday, the teacher's assistant would go to each house with a pushke [charity box] for the Talmud Torah, and that is how they would collect their weekly salary for teaching the poor children in the Talmud Torah.
In 1918, at the end of World War One, when the Jewish Workers' movement grew, the Poalei Tziyon established the first Jewish mandatory elementary school, where children from the poorest homes, both girls and boys, came to study. Here in school, children were taught with modern methods, to read and write Polish and Yiddish, math, and other important subjects. The joy of the children and the parents knew no bounds.
The Polish government later also instituted mandatory education for school aged children, without discrimination of religious belief or gender.
Also, the Mizrachi [religious Zionist movement] and Shelumei Emunah Yisrael [The Whole and Faithful in Israel], which were established then, ran a modern cheder, and brought in modern teachers from the larger cities. There was a great commotion among the city teachers, and one evening, a delegate of the most esteemed teachers presented at the central location of the professional union, which the Poalei Tziyon managed, and they demanded that they be included as members of the professional union, and be allowed to maintain their professional interests. They did not receive a decisive reply at the moment, but they were guaranteed that the union would consider their request and soon give an answer. The decision of the Central Bureau of the Professional Union was that the teachers were not employed by anyone specifically, so they could not belong to a professional union, and so the Central Bureau could not take them under their care, as they requested.
The Jewish labor society, which was very organized professionally and in the area of culture, occasionally clashed with the religious Jews in the city. So, more often than once, they found themselves in hostile relationships with their classmates, the Polish workers. Let me describe an episode of this hatred: It was after World War One, the spring of independence; it was the Red Guards of the PPS [Polish Socialist Party] who actually ruled. The professional unions of the PPS had control in their hands over the public jobs that the city implemented to alleviate the needs of the workers. A delegation of the Poalei Tziyon went to the PPS requesting that they also allow the Jews to take on public jobs. The Poles threw off the demands of their friends, the Jewish workers
Life in the city was Jewish, it was both popular and characteristic [of the Jews]. There were Jewish shopkeepers, craftsmen, workers, merchants, wagon drivers, porters, and all other types that each city in Poland possessed. They could not survive with the overall poverty, so in an effort to improve their economic situation, the Ostrowiec Jews ran towards every possibility [for improvement]. That is why Ostrowiec colonies are spread out in the entire world.
Certainly, everyone now remembers their former home, where they were born and grew up, how they lived, hoped, and finally, ran from there in order to find better living opportunities. Today Ostrowiec has no Jews. What kind of city is this if it is without Jews? Today it is no longer Ostrowca, today it has returned to be called Ostrowiec
by Eber Beinerman
Translated by Pamela Russ
[ ] translator's remarks
Ostrowiec was one of the industrial centers in Poland, and excelled with its Jewish workers and laborers, such as tailors, quilters, carpenters, shoemakers, and others. Thanks to that, there existed a lively social life.
The most esteemed place at that time, between the two World Wars, was held by the Poalei Tziyon. In Akiva Rose's large building, with many floors, party life went on in its institutions: the youth organization, the library, the workers' kitchen, evening courses, and the professional movement. All these institutions gave the party the characteristic of a mass movement. Itzik Berger held direction of this entire institution, and as the organizer and speaker, he also played the dominant role in the societal life of Ostrowiec. Other directors and activists of Poalei Tziyon were: Moshe Piltzmacher, Feivel Steinbok, Yosel Finkelstein, Shmuel Shpeizmacher, Yitzchok Nusenovitch, Henoch and Shmuel Shamstein. Those who managed the youth movement were: Yoel Shneider, Avish Menerman, Moshe Kotik, Gidainski, and others.
The evening courses were run by one of the best intellectuals in the city, Zamieckovski, and under his direction, the first Jewish school was established.
The Bund had a very important place in the Jewish workmen group of Ostrowiec. Its location was at Peretz Zeigermacher's, under the name of Grocer Club. The Bund also had its own library, and organized open discussions about social themes. Those Bundists who managed this were: Szertsman, Itche Zinger, Shimele Fishman, Mamale Velman, Shmuel Beigelman, and Yosef Frimerman.
On the townsmen street, the Zionist organization held an honored position. They owned a rich Yiddish-Hebrew library, and a children's school. The Zionist directors were: Ezra Baumstein, Leizer and Yechiel Levi and Shmuel Baumstein.
Those who were busy with the youth, were: Yechiel Griner and Noteh Kuperman. Also, the Mizrachi school had a reputable place in our city, and the teachers were Erlich and Tumshe Eiger.
The most esteemed position in the school movement was held by the Folksshule of the Poalei Tziyon, where there were about 150 children, and during the summer the children spent their vacation in special summer colonies, far from the city. The heads of the school were Zamiczkowski, Kestenberg, and the beloved Yiddish-Hebrew pedagogue Feivel Steinbok (died in Brazil).
The professional movement included all the organized Jewish workers of all vocations, and was run by the central office of the professional unions. For a long time, the professional movement in Ostrowiec was directed by the leftist Poalei Tziyon.
The directorship of the Jewish Workers in Ostrowiec held a respected place in the workers' centers in Poland, where they were delegated. Among those who excelled were Yosef Szluszne, Zelinger, and Weissfelder. Yosef Szluszne also directed the famous strike of the matzo bakers in 1922,
which embroiled the city and ended with the victory of the workers.
In 1924, the activities of the workers' movement in town were extended. Avrohom'tche Beinerman, the town barber-medic, was sent as a representative of the left-wing Poalei Tziyon in eth community and in the city council. He was active for many years, until the Nazis murdered him. A second active representative had the same fate Nachman Alman.
The two drama circles held an important position in the intellectual life of the Jewish workers' union, and in the Jewish population in general. At the head of one of the circles, of the Poalei Tziyon, there was Birkenvald for many years, who had a literary approach to the Yiddish theater.
At the head of the second drama circle, of the Bund and of the left-wing and the revolutionary part of the Jewish workers, there was Yitzchok Gruber, a talented, intellectual theater director, who performed difficult pieces on his stage, such as Der Yeshiva Bochur [The Yeshiva Student], and he competed with them. He was active in this area for many years until his death in Toronto (Canada).
There also began to emerge a sport movement, such as, for example, the sports club Shtern [Star], of which, the author of these lines was the founder. But because of the trickery of the police, the club was shut down.
There were also two workers' kitchens: one for the Poalei Tziyon, and the second for the Bund, which after a short time was dismantled.
In the year 1923, new breezes began to blow. The splits of the left-wing Poalei Tziyon and in the Com-Bund [Communist Bund], led to new groups in the workers' movement. New energies emerged: Mamale Velman, Shmuel Beigelman, Yosef Frimerman, Eli Goldberg, and others.
During the May 1st demonstration in 1926, in partnership with the PPS [Polish Socialist Party], there were great confrontations with the police. After that, the police arrested many Jewish workers.
On June 10, there came the bloody confrontations with the police on account of three engineers in the steel factory in Klinkowycz.
|Poalei Tziyon in 1918|
A huge demonstration was formed going to the magistrate who was just put in charge by the workers in the last 24 hours. As a result of the fighting with the police and the military reinforcements four people died and many were injured. After that, the police began to harass the Jewish workers, and particularly the leadership. Many were arrested and others were forced to leave Poland.
It is interesting to describe the huge demonstration in Ostrowiec on the day of the Balfour Declaration. On that day, the Jewish workers, regardless of ideology, went into the streets with red faces, to demonstrate their solidarity with the great Zionist freedom movement of the Jewish people.
From right to left: Note Briks, treasurer of the needle union (perished); Avrohom Shtarkman, chairman; Yeshaye Tzweigman, secretary; the flag bearer Binyomin Mintz
by Moshe Rosenberg
Translated from Hebrew by Pamela Russ
[ ] translator's remarks
It is still difficult now to make peace with the idea that Jewish Ostrowiec, with its yeshivos [religious schools], Talmud Torahs, and Zionist youth organizations, that buzzed with such pulsing life, went down and no longer exists. The memories swim past, one after another.
I remember the first gathering of the Zionist youth. The meeting took place in a location of the right-wing Poalei Tziyon. At that meeting, the active Zionist Dr. Shibber came out. In his lecture, he explained the goals of Hechalutz, and called for the self-realization of the goals of Zionism. He underlined that the only one who could join Hechalutz is someone who was prepared to change his life goal and immigrate to Israel in order to build our own Jewish country.
Soon after ending his richly filled lecture about 50 friends registered, and the Ostrowiec Hechalutz was established. The youth, who until now had a comfortable lifestyle, were thirsty for activity and tasks, and yearned to become productive and find physical work.
In fact, there were very few opportunities in Ostrowiec to get to a working position. The large steel factory Zaklady Ostroweicka [the Ostrowiec steel mill] was locked to the Jewish youth. The Jewish youth was only able to profit from the factory by hearing the signals at specific hours and adjust their clocks to that. Wanting to actualize their ideals, the first chalutzim who registered had to go out into the Hachshara places that were created in other cities in Poland.
But the older chalutzim did not agree to allow their children to leave home and go to a strange place. It was difficult to explain the meaning of this to them.
I remember a few incidents that happened because children left their home. The blond Zalman Joiczarzh went to the police with a report that they robbed him of his daughter Bashe. The secret agent Wikerek then came to the location of the Hechalutz to find out where Bashe was. I remember a second incident that is almost unbelievable. The shochet [ritual slaughterer] of the town Szenne, and his wife, came on Friday night to the Hechalutz location out of breath from their long walk. The shochet took out his knife, placed it on the table, and cried out: Slaughter us, because we have nothing to live for any longer, now that you stole our daughter Bashe from us! Bashe had joined the Ostrowiec Hechalutz because there was no such organization in Szenne. The Hechalutz had sent her away to a Hachshara and after that she immigrated to Israel, and after some time, she brought over her parents. With the knife that he had asked them to slaughter him, today he is slaughtering fowl in the Tel Aviv area. Thanks to the lost daughter, the parents remained alive.
I remember all kids of cultural and political projects that the group of the Ostrowiec Hechalutz undertook. We brought over all kinds of performers for outings, such as Jacques Levi, and Menachem Kipnis and his wife Zeligfeld. We carried out a very bold project that had many expenses:
We invited the chairman of the Jewish Kala [club], Yitzchok Gruenbaum, of the Sejm [Polish government] to deliver a lecture. In order to carry out the project, we borrowed money from a lot of people. A day before the gathering, we suddenly received a telegram that Gruenbaum had to delay his coming to our town, because he had to attend a conference with a Polish minister. The announcement unsettled us very much because this also forced us to close the location of our organization. We went into debt, which we were not able to pay back.
We then sent a special representative to Warsaw, friend Yisroel Hercyk [Yisrael Libai in Israel], so that he could come to an agreement with Gruenbaum. He found the famous leader still asleep. Gruenbaum explained to him that the conference would stretch until three o'clock and then after that he would be ready to go. Not having any other means of travel, he took a special taxi and rode with the lecturer on a snowy day. He telephoned us that Gruenbaum would come to us that evening. We prepared a festive welcome. The Hanoar Hatzioni [Young Zionist], and other delegates, went into the Kunów forest to await the esteemed guest. Because of the frosty weather, one flat tire after another happened. We waited in the forest until 10 o'clock, and the taxi had not yet arrived. Meanwhile, the crowd that was sitting in the hall had become impatient and demanded back their money from the tickets. The lecture began at 11 o'clock at night. The hall became filled, and Gruenbaum spoke about the theme of: the political situation in the country. After the speech, a banquet was organized and it went until early hours. After covering all the costs, more than 200 zlotys were left in our cashbox.
by Moshe Blajberg
Translated from Hebrew by Yechezkel Anis
[ ] translator's remarks
The year was 1927. We were a group of 1315-year-old youths, graduates of the Mizrachi school, suffused with a Zionist awareness imbued within us by our teachers. Our longing for the Land of Israel found expression in the Hebrew language that we spoke among ourselves and in the Hebrew books that we devoured, everything from poetry to prose.
Meanwhile, there was a great crisis in the Land as the yeridah [dropping out] of new immigrants was increasing from day to day. The Grabski Aliyah had failed, with some of our own townspeople among the returnees. The better-off merchants were bitter and spoke ill of the Land, while the younger idealistic ones returned despondent and withdrawn. Their conscience bothered them over their inability to weather the crisis.
They would occasionally visit the small meeting hall of the National Guard [HaShomer HaLeumi], soon to be called the Zionist Youth [HaNoar HaTzioni], and teach us some of the songs that came out of their ordeal. It was amid this atmosphere that the Zionist Youth became a bustling center of yearning for Aliyah to the Land.
Our ideological teachers and educators
It is only proper that I mention some teachers and a few others who left their imprint upon us and indirectly led to our organizing ourselves into a dynamic group of 200 Zionist youths who wielded a large influence over the town's other young people.
I am reminded of our teacher, Alter Yehudah Erlich zl, who gathered around himself a small circle of students whom he would take out at dawn to the Kunow forest. There he would recite before us the poems of Bialik and Tschernichovsky. When he made Aliyah we were then 10- or 11-year-olds he left behind a great void that increased our longing for him and for the Land. We followed the occasional pieces that he would contribute to various Hebrew literary publications and with pride would brag that our teacher was a recognized, practicing writer.
I should mention as well another teacher, M.Y. Peker, whose fiery words and poems laid the foundation for the formation within our school of the Chaver group, which eventually became the National Guard. He even provided each of us with a hand-written membership card.
Another distinguished teacher was Genia Levy zl who, in spite of the ideological differences among us, instilled in us the desire for a life grounded in justice and self-supporting labor.
The precious Yid, Reb Yehoshua Kuperman zl, a Mizrachi man whose rendering of Kol Nidrei on Yom Kippur night would leave us all trembling, had no small influence on our future paths as well. We used to swallow up the conversation between Minchah and Maariv among the Mizrachi shul goers, when Reb Yehudah would pronounce with his dark, burning eyes: Do not despair. Years ago, many Jews who emigrated to America came back as well, but those who remained today they are Rockefellers! His words were prophetic, for the few of our townspeople who managed to stick it out in the Land eventually struck roots and if they persisted, even acquired considerable assets.
Engraved in my memory is a wonderful picture of Simchat Torah hakafot at the Linas Tzedek shul. Leading the sixth hakafah I see Avramele Malach zl proudly marching with a Torah scroll in one hand and a Simchat Torah flag produced by the Jewish National Fund in the other. He supported us in every Zionist activity that we conducted in the town. An opposing memory involves a certain Ostrovtzer named Meir'l Chazans who scribed a pathetic pamphlet in ridiculous language entitled The New Tower of Babel. In it he unleashed a tirade against Herzl's State of the Jews. How bizarre it sounds when I read it today.
The first meeting hall we used for congregating and organizing was on Malinska street the hall of the Zionist Organization, who kindly availed their facilities to us. Its leaders began taking an interest in us, particularly one of its more active members, Leibl Klajner zl, who became the head of our group. In one of the rooms there we discovered a veritable treasure the ten-year-old library of the Young Guard [HaShomer HaTzair, a Socialist-Zionist youth movement], together with scouting gear and camping equipment. On every pamphlet was inscribed the name M.M. Kuperman, a name that was to become legendary. The son of Yehoshua Kuperman, who headed the Young Guard, M.M. Kuperman made Aliyah in the 1920s, dug and paved roads, but then became disillusioned and switched sides to become a leader of
the anti-Zionist Palestinian Communist Party [PKP].
I recall the day that the Yiddish newspaper Haynt [Today] was nowhere to be found in our town. It was during the 1929 Arab riots when dozens of Jews were massacred. The reason for the paper's sudden disappearance from our town was an article reporting that the PKP had signed a secret memorandum of understanding with the riots' leader, the Mufti of Jerusalem. Among the signatories was our townsman, M.M. Kuperman. The paper was hidden by all so that his father would not have to see the report and suffer distress.
M.M. Kuperman's image fascinated us and so when his wife visited Ostrovtze after they were expelled from Palestine to the Soviet Union [where they met their end as Trotskyites], we invited her to speak to us about her husband and their experiences in the Land. She preferred to remain silent, but did join us in singing the Zionist songs of the time.
Our tenure at the hall of the Zionist Organization did not last long: a fire that broke out on one Shabbat devoured the building and everything in it, including our precious treasure, the library and camping gear. Our group was left without shelter, and so we would congregate on the ruins of the hall, with the sound of our singing carried into the distance. Many curious youths ended up joining us and our numbers steadily increased.
All sectors of the community were represented among us: the wealthy, public school children, even the poorest of the poor whose hard-working parents were very far from anything Zionist.
Our group conquers the Jewish street
I can recall an encounter I had with a Jew named Shmali Baruch Leizers, a Bundist [Yiddish-Socialist]. He was a porter who, perched on a curb in the marketplace, would devour the Bund newspaper the Volks-Zeitung [People's Times] from beginning to end. People used to say that after the Shabbat morning prayers he would walk to the railway station, a distance from town, in order to bring back the Volks-Zeitung, the only Yiddish paper to appear on Shabbat. At the time, the Bund had already disappeared from our town. When its national leader, Beinish Michalewicz, died, Shmali dropped everything and traveled to Warsaw so as to attend his funeral.
This same Shmali approached me once and said, Granted I'm a sworn opponent of Zionism, a non-believer in the Land of Israel, but I would greatly appreciate it if you would accept my son as one of your group. I see you as the only youth group in town that knows how to attract the young and make them into menschen [decent human beings]. It goes without saying that we accepted him happily. There were many others like him.
By the way, that Shmali, in spite of his anti-Zionism, did not get any satisfaction from the 1929 Arab pogroms. Instead, he would tell us, You have no business being in the Land of Israel. The imperialist English rule there and they're the ones who are responsible for everything going on. Take your revenge on them! He suggested that we send dozens of youths to India in order to join the civil uprising there and increase the mayhem.
As our numbers grew from day to day, we found ourselves in need of our own meeting place. This turned out not to be so easy. No landlord was willing to rent out space to a youth group, given the noise and singing. After several runarounds, we ended up finding a place further out of town in a Gentile neighborhood, on the way to the Siennien forest, not far from the pig slaughterhouse. It was quite bold of us, but the new building afforded us ample space: a large courtyard for outdoor assemblies and several rooms for nighttime activities.
Each evening boys and girls would stream to our new warm headquarters [in winter, carrying coal and wood for the kindling stoves] and enjoy themselves until late at night singing and dancing, learning Hebrew and geography of the Land, attending various talks, and practicing their scouting skills.
All holidays and Jewish occasions were celebrated in the confines of our headquarters where we injected content and meaning into our lives. I remember a certain Pesach eve, with frost still on the ground, when a minyan of us made our way to the hall at dawn for pidyon bechor [redeeming the firstborn]. We kindled the stove and in the warmth it provided we spent that Pesach eve in accordance with Jewish custom. We imagined ourselves as characters in I.L. Peretz's story, If Not Higher, when the Tzaddik of Nemirov, masquerading as the peasant Vassil, brought firewood to a sick Jewish woman, lit her stove and stayed to recite selichot [penitential prayers] by its flame. In our case it was not the prayer of one man, but of many youths who had found new meaning in their lives.
On Shabbat the place hummed from early in the morning. In the afternoon we would read aloud from Hed-haken [The Nest's Echo], a pamphlet that we produced each week. It was edited by our leaders with the active participation of Avraham Rozenman, who already then exhibited talent both in writing and in speaking. I recall a communal gathering in the old shul at the time of the 1929 Arab pogroms. For the first time, Avraham appeared in the name of the town's youth and delivered a fiery speech on the implication of those events. His call for massive Aliyah to the Land left a deep impression upon those assembled. After that, he would represent us at all kinds of communal gatherings.
We would produce a special edition of Hed-haken for special occasions. For the 50th birthday of Yitzchak Gruenbaum [a Zionist leader and member of the Sejm] we produced an edition in his honor and were even able to present it to him. Standing at the edge of the forest leading to Kunow on a cold snowy day, our entire group with its officers waited until late at night for Gruenbaum to arrive in town for a lecture. He was delayed due to a stormy session of the Sejm where he delivered a forceful speech against the anti-Semitic government.
An assortment of emissaries from the Land, representing all movements and streams, would visit our group. We drank up their accounts of events in the Land and they found in us a source of support for their activities in town.
We participate in local elections
As an organized youth group, we developed various social activities in town. We participated in the Zionist Organization's choir. We established a drama group and arranged an annual dance party whose proceeds went to the Jewish National Fund, even though we were too young to actively take part. Soon the town's authorities began taking notice of us. Viewing us as nothing more than a scout group, they did not look kindly upon our political activities. They knew that we represented Yitzchak Gruenbaum's party in the Zionist Organization and tried numerous times to challenge the legality of our activity.
The height of their harassment came with the 1931 elections for the Polish Sejm. The ruling party at the time, headed by Poland's revered liberator, Jozef Pilsudski, reneged on its promise of equal rights for Jews and other national minorities in Poland. Yitzchak Gruenbaum, from the podium of the Sejm, demanded our rights as citizens equal in every regard. Every speech he delivered served to encourage the Jewish masses, regardless of party affiliation, in their struggle against the oppressive Polish government.
It was in this climate that the 1931 elections for the Sejm began to take place. Amongst the Jews, the leaders of the ultra-Orthodox Agudat Yisrael party, together with assorted other machers [lobbyists], called for supporting the list of the ruling party, which bore the number 1. The Zionist Organization, with Gruenbaum as its head, appeared as a separate list, but found itself suppressed in most of Poland's provincial towns. No one would dare conduct a campaign in the light of day, and at night every campaign placard was destroyed by bands of thugs working for the government's list.
It was then that we Zionist teenagers mobilized ourselves into action. We operated at night so that by the next morning the whole town would be plastered with giant campaign posters and the paths covered with the number 17, that of Gruenbaum's list. One night, we broke into the Agudat Yisrael headquarters and seized all their campaign material as well as a printing press.
The government's secret police began pursuing us. I can't forget how one night, after returning from a grueling round of posting campaign placards, we were accosted by those thugs who laid in ambush ready to tear us apart. We began to flee, with them in pursuit, until we reached the street which housed the old shul and beis-medresh. We took refuge there knowing that these toughs would never dare enter our house of worship. We emerged victorious from that election campaign. Over 1,000 votes were cast in our town for Gruenbaum's list.
The first olim from Ostrovtze
From merely singing and dancing to Zionist songs, we proceeded to the next stage: attending hachshara [preparatory camps] for settling the Land and then ultimately making Aliyah itself. It was hard leaving behind the bustling life we had enjoyed, but all our desires were directed exclusively to the Land. Thank God that we had the foresight to leave school and family behind and to make Aliyah before the great scourge
On the deck of the ship, I already decided to direct my first steps in the Land to those few of our townspeople who had not abandoned it.
I wanted to see them and let them know that there was a next generation in the town that thought like them. Once arrived, I sought out these people whom I didn't even know, as I was only 8 or 10 years old when they made Aliyah.
I met with Yechiel Levi zl from Kibbutz Ginegar and gave him regards from his nephew. Standing before me was a Jewish farmer, a cattleman by trade but also a distinguished educator. He very much enjoyed our meeting and let me know it as we walked the length and breadth of Kibbutz Ginegar, which lies along the edges of Balfour Forest. I mentioned to him the letter that he had sent to his pious father, so detached from the problems of the Land, but which his nephew had shared with us. In it he spoke of the drought that they were suffering and of the rat scourge that consumed every good inch of field simple words etched in pencil on simple paper, gray as ash [as in the well-known song, Two Letters], but which for us served as a complete treatise regarding the conditions of the Land.
I went to Jerusalem and visited the home of Shraga Feivel Mincberg zl. Such joy and embracing of two fellow townsmen who didn't even know each other! I remembered him from my childhood, from the times he attended the Linas Tzedek shul on Shabbat. But now I was meeting a different Shraga Feivel, a laborer at the Dead Sea Works in Sodom who returned to Jerusalem every Friday. He had become the spokesperson for the Dead Sea workers organization. Towards the end of his life, he became active among Tel Aviv's workers as well.
Last but not least, there was Eliezer Halevi of Kibbutz Geva, may he live a long life. The elder of the group, he was the leader of the Zionists in our town and a well-known accountant who left it all behind to make Aliyah. On the day I came to visit him, he had just finished his shift baking bread. He took me on a horse-drawn wagon to harvest green corn for the cattle shed. He showed great interest in everything that was happening back in his home town. He was a man of progressive views a dreamer and a visionary. He left an indelible impression upon me as I took my first steps in the Land.
Those of my peers from the Zionist Youth who succeeded in making Aliyah formed a community of sorts in the village of Kefar Saba that we called Kibbutz HaMefales [The Leveling Kibbutz]. For a time, a dozen of us dwelled there together, seeing the kibbutz as a natural extension of our former lives. With time, however, the group broke apart and each found his own path in life while remaining faithful to the purpose of his making Aliyah.
I find it only proper to mention a few of them, and thereby bring this chapter of the Zionist Youth to a close. I will mention the active members of our town's group who made it this far, finding their place in the constructive and productive Jewish settlement of our Land:
On the way to the South, along the coastal road in the direction of Kibbutz Negba, stands an abandoned army camp which, during the Second World War, was occupied by the Polish Anders Army from which many Polish Jews were allowed to desert. Amongst them was Tzvi Landau zl who settled for a time on Kibbutz Usha. Alongside this army camp stands a modest marker, upon which is written: Here fell our comrade Shlomo Rubinsztajn, commander of Kvutzat Nitzanim, in battle with the Arabs as he defended members of the farm on their way to work.
Shlomo Rubinsztajn was a member of our group's youngest contingent. The son of hard-working parents, he made Aliyah on the illegal immigrant ship Asimi and joined Kvutzat Nitzanim. Following in the footsteps of his predecessors from our group, he became a leading member of the kvutzah, managing its orchards. It was in those orchards that he and his comrades fell defending the kvutzah from Egyptian invaders who overran and occupied it for a short time. Its members [including my brother Yechiel] were taken captive after a fierce battle between a few dozen Jewish youths and hundreds of Egyptian soldiers, armed and equipped with tanks and artillery. After spending half a year in captivity, they returned to reestablish Nitzanim as a thriving agricultural settlement. There one may find a memorial to those who fell in its defense, including its local commander, our fellow townsman, Shlomo Rubinsztajn zl. The memorial stands atop a hill overlooking the settlement as an eternal testament to those who fell in its defense.
by I. Birnzweig
Donated by Avi Borenstein
Like in every Jewish town in Poland, Ostrowiec was also home to various youth organizations and movements from all streams, yet the different branches of the Revisionist Movement particularly excelled in their public activity, such as the Brit HaTzohar [Union of Revisionist Zionists] and Brit HaHayal [Revisionist Zionist Association]. The lectures held every Saturday at Brit HaTzohar by Adv. Friedenthal, who is now in Israel and by the late teacher Rabinovich, May Gd Revenge his Blood, were renowned among the youth movements and many came to hear them.
Among the figures who stood out the most in these organizations activities, were the Chairman Yisrael Rosenberg, May Gd Revenge his Blood, Shmuel Zussman, who represented the movement before the municipality and the community's committee and Secretary Moshe Goldfinger, who is now in Israel.
The Jews of the town experienced an exceptional experience when Zeev Jabotinsky appeared in Ostrowiec. The film theater was too narrow to hold all the masses that came to hear the leader and the nearby streets were filled with Jews listening to the speech from speakers installed especially for the occasion. Mr. Friedenthal had the tremendous privilege of receiving the distinguished guest and opening the lecture. Y. Rozensweig had a big part in the success of this event, after investing numerous hours preparing it. The lecture was followed by a party with festive tables at the home of Mr. Heine, the richest man in town and fatherinlaw of the Rabbi from Gur, who offered him his spacious and luxurious apartment. We sat there with the great leader until the early hours of the morning, listening to his words without feeling time pass.
Brit HaTzohar was established in 1927 by a group of youngsters headed by Yaakov Orbach. It evolved into an active and strong body that took part in the town's cultural and political activities.
Two years later, Shmuel Grossman and Eli Mintsberg established the Beitar Movement, which quickly developed and included most of the town's youth within a short time, mainly thanks to teacher Rabinovich, who contributed valuable cultural contents to the movement's activity, many ran to the lectures and cultural balls that he hosted. Beitar also organized summer camps, defense sports training, trips and more. When members of Beitar walked the town streets wearing their uniforms, they were considered by all as the start of the Hebrew army.
After the Nazis began WWII in 1939, an underground Command Center was established by the honorable Messieurs P. Shar, Rabinovich, K. Waldman, S. Goldman, Bluma Grossman and Rachel Steinbrat. Brit HaHayal was organized thanks to Captain Yakir Goldberg (Har Zahav), who came especially from Warsaw for this purpose. He managed to gather a number of young Jews after their service in the Polish army and lectured to them about the purpose of Brit HaHayal. Adv. Tzisel agreed to assume the role of commander and together with the rest of the Command members Yaakov Zeltser, Eli Levi and others managed to infuse the acknowledgment that all military veterans should take advantage of their military experience to benefit their brothers, wherever they may be and should protect Jews and their property from Antisemitism. However, they considered getting to the Land of Israel as their main goal, whereas at the time it was closed to Jewish immigrants. Many of them came to the Land of Israel as part of the Aliya Bet [illegal immigration by Jews], which was organized by Mr. Zaitsik from the Center and took part in protecting the Jewish settlements from Arab thugs.
The Nazi evil put an end to this vibrant life and our precious youth was destroyed.
Let these lines serve as a memorial for all the members of the movement who did not live to see their idea victorious in free Israel. May their souls be bound in the bond of life.
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