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[Page 347]

Kolodne
(Ukraine)

48°10' 23°36'

Ruthenian: Kolodne
Hungarian: Darva

Translated by Jerrold Landau

Donated by Roslyn Eldar

It is a village in the district of Tetsh, about 25 kilometers east of the city of Chust,
between the villages of Uglya-Kritshif. All of its residents are Ruthenian.

 

Population

Year Jews Total
1768 16 -
1830 68 574
1880 145 -
1910 - 717
1921 - 783
1930 109 942
1941 - 1117

 

In all the censuses of Jews in Hungary that were published to this date, Jews are mentioned in Kolodne. In the first census of 1728, a Jew named Yaakov is listed, who had a wife and two children, employed a Jewish servant and maid, and owned a horse. Apparently, Yaakov was a wealthy Jew. He maintained himself in Kolodne for several years, for he still lived in Kolodne at the time of the census of 1735, and still had only two children. He only employed a maid. He owned a horse, a cow, and two calve, and paid six florins a year.

There was an additional Jew listed in that census, named Avraham. He too had a wife and two children. He owned a horse, two calves, and paid two florins annually. Four Jews are listed in Kolodne in the census of 1746, but only three of them had wives and none had children. All together, they paid 14 florins a year.

In the census of 1768, 16 Jews are listed as residents of Kolodne, as follows: David Salamon, whose family numbered five individuals, and who paid 15 florins annually; the Jew Moshko, whose family also numbered five individuals, and who paid 25 florins; the Jew Leiba, the head of a family of three individuals, who did not pay any lease money – apparently he was poor and destitute; the Jew Itzko (3 individuals) who paid 10 florins annually.

We have the census of 1830, which states that 13 families lived in Kolodne that year, numbering 68 individuals. This is a sufficient number for the maintenance of a community and religious life.

The names of these Jews, as listed in the census, are as follows (the number of individuals in each family is in parentheses):

Sholomon Bash (4), Vigdor Rezmibesh (7), Moshko Berkovitch (7), Moshko Rezmibesh (5), Avraham Ingber (7), Shimon Lebovitch (8), Sender Lebovitch (3), Izik Rezmibesh (5), Hirsch Daskal (6), the widow of Yankel (6), Efraim Ingber (2), Hirsch Mendelovitch (4), Gedalia Zhido (4).

As was usual among the Jews of Maramures, the first among the Jews of Kolodne was Reb David Rotner, who was a Hasid of the well-known Tzadik Reb Mendel of Rymanow, and who came from Galicia. He was a very wealthy Jew, who owned forests and pastures for sheep. His son was Reb Avraham Leib, and his grandson was Reb Shmuel Moshe Rotner, a great scholar, rabbinic decisor and Hasid of Tzanz [Nowy Sacz]. He settled in Bursha. We indeed find Reb Shmuel Moshe Rotner among the signatories of the book Imre Shoham (Kolomyja, 5640 – 1880). The other Jews of Kolodne who signed the book are Reb Chaim Zelikovitch, Reb Chaim Mordechai Rotner, Reb Yaakov Feintuch, Nachman the son of Moshe Yehuda, Reb Mordechai Dov.

It is clear from here that the beginning of the Jewish settlement of Kolodne was secure, and was set for growth. However, with the passage of time, the number of Jews in this small settlement declined, until it ceased to exist because the destruction also fell upon the Jews of Kolodne, wiping them off the face of the earth. How it took place – we do not know because we have not found any native of this village to research and investigate the fate of the Jews there. To our dismay, we cannot even figure out the ghetto from which the Jews of that village were deported to Auschwitz. It would seem that, similar to the Jews of nearby Uglya, the Jews of Kolodne were deported to the gigantic ghetto in the city of Mata-Salka [Mátészalka].

 

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