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[Page 42]

Voice of Kremenets Emigrants in Israel and the Diaspora, Booklet 14 (cont.)


In Memoriam


Irka and Utek Biran,
of Blessed Memory

Manus Goldenberg


Irka arrived in the Land in 1944 with the Tehran Children, the children and young people who arrived here from Russia via Persia according to an agreement with the Soviet authorities. When she arrived in the Land after a two-year wait in Tehran, as all the rest did, Irka's sister and brother-in-law, Tanya and Munya Shtern, took her in.

[Page 43]

Utek, whom she had met earlier in the Soviet Union, arrived in the Land at the same time with General Anders' army. After a short time, they were married and settled in Haifa. Their only daughter, Ilana, moved to Tel Aviv after her marriage, where she still lives.

When she began her life in the Land, Irka worked as a seamstress, and later she was manager of the ladies' garment section of the in Hamashbir Latsarkhan department store in Haifa, a job at which she excelled.

In summer 1973, while Irka and Utek were on a trip to Rumania, 59-year-old Utek died suddenly. This calamity sabotaged Irka's health; she fell ill, and soon it was understood that her illness was fatal. She held on to life for three years, overcoming her agony through sheer will and love of life. She continued to work and even took a few trips abroad. Irka was hospitalized for the last four months of her life, and she passed away in December 1976 after great suffering.

Irka and Utek left a daughter and three grandchildren.

Like any Kremenets emigrant, when I mention the name Miron Gindes, I cannot help describing and talking about him: there he is, in my mind's eye, manly and erect, full of energy and humor. He was even-tempered, but any attempt by anti-Semites to affront his dignity or, even more so, to affront any Jew's dignity or do bodily harm to a Jew would anger him, and he would let the perpetrator feel the force of his hand. We all still remember the great brawl that erupted in the Vidomka after the soccer game between the Jews and the Poles, in which I, too, was embroiled. Even now when our townspeople meet, they still talk with amazement about the Miron's heroic deeds and bravery then.

Miron, with his muscles and creative hands, the excellent electrician who managed Shmuel Gorenshteyn's, of blessed memory, first electric station in Kremenets with talent and devotion (and there were other Jews there like him), stands out as the complete opposite of the image of the “poor” Diaspora Jew shown to our young people in certain chapters in books read in our schools throughout the years.

[Page 44]

Dora Ayzenshteyn-Yakobson,
of Blessed Memory

Yehoshue and Shabtay


Dora Ayzenshteyn, of blessed memory, a native of Shumsk, is the daughter of the famous Dr. Yakobson of Shumsk[8]. She was brought up and educated in Kremenets, first at the Aleksina High School and then at the Lyceum. Then she studied at and graduated from the Warsaw School of Economics. During the war years, she lived in Russia, and afterward, she worked in an orphanage for Jewish children who had survived the Holocaust in Gishtshe-Poste, a small town in lower Silesia. At the beginning of January 1946, I visited that shelter and saw the devotion and motherly love with which Dorka took care of the children, who had been miraculously saved from the Nazi talons by nuns in convents or by simple, compassionate farmers and were put into Dorka's good hands by members of the Escape Movement and the Joint.

At the beginning of 1948, the children were moved from Poland to Austria, from there to Italy, and then to the Land. Here, Dorka studied Hebrew in the Borokhov ulpan[9]. After that, she got a job at the Jewish Agency, where she worked until her retirement. Dorka's link with the children she had cared for was never broken. Today, they have their own families, and most of them serve in the army. At a 1972 convention of those “children” in the Land, they had Dorka's name inscribed in the National Fund's Golden Book. After her retirement, she worked as a volunteer to help new immigrants from Russia. She was full of energy and always ready to help others.

She was killed in a traffic accident at the age of 67. She left a married daughter, a sister and brother-in-law, a grandson, and a granddaughter – may they have long lives.

Anyone who had any contact with her was impressed by her charming personality and loved, honored, and admired her.

The secret of that admiration is the perfection that glowed from within. Her beauty, her modesty and discretion, her quiet intelligence, her good taste, and the balance of ideals and self-control expressed in her movements and speech were a perfect match for her inner beauty: purity of soul, nobility of character, and love for her fellow, truth, and beauty. And she had a deep aversion to anything that was depraved and despicable. Such integrity could not abide any space between spoken words and deeds, not in others and not – and this is her significance – in herself.

[Page 45]

Her integrity was the key to all her deeds. Her life was straightforward after the Holocaust, and the most personal tragedy befell her: the loss of her husband, Chana Ayzenshteyn. She never married again, being unable to accept the idea of damaging the close tie with her beloved friend or the thought of bringing a stranger into her little daughter's life: a stepfather.

And out of the integrity came her blessed activity after she returned from the Soviet Union, where she lived during the war. She dedicated herself – body and soul – to orphaned children, refugees from the Holocaust. There was no limit to her devotion to children who had been beaten down by cruel fate. She knew no fatigue, no day or night; nothing could stop her from complete dedication to children. With them and with her sister-in-law and brother-in-law, Sara and Barukh Barak, she wandered from Poland, through Austria and Italy, to the Land of Israel, suffering inhuman, backbreaking, and nerve-wracking hardship. Even when the children came to the Land of Israel, she did not lose touch with them, and they repaid her generously: love and devotion for love and devotion. When she was settled in the Land and in a job at a Jewish Agency office, she continued on this path. Her work was a symbol and example of endless dedication and highest responsibility – all the fine characteristics that a citizen who deserves such a name should have.

Not for a moment did Dora-Dvora Ayzenshteyn veer from her path: even before she retired, she volunteered her time to help immigrants from the Soviet Union, and her devotion to and love for her people and nation continued until her final days.


Frida Rubinfayn,
of Blessed Memory


The passing of Frida Rubinfayn (on the eve of Independence Day, April 4, 1977) is not only a great loss to her family and friends. With her departure, another original, distinctive personality has disappeared. In her, culture in its classical sense blended with the lofty qualities of a Jewish and universal outlook, sensitivity to pure justice, and reverence for art, beauty, and harmony – all with an absolute readiness to make personal sacrifices for the good of everyone.

[Page 46]

Frida arrived in Kremenets in 1920 after she and her husband, parents, and other family members escaped empty-handed from the persecution of the Communist authorities, on one hand, and the “White” rioters, on the other (Frida's parents, Aharon and Bilha Shchopak, were very wealthy until the Communist revolution).

At the end of World War II, in which six million children of Israel were annihilated – Frida's entire family among them – Frida and her husband, Tsvi, and their only daughter, Dozya, settled in the small town of Lubevka, near the Czech border, where their home was a center for Zionist activities.

In 1948, after the declaration of the state of Israel, the Rubinfayn family and a group of young enlistees to the Israel Defense Forces boarded the ship Benovski to the Land. There they went through the hardships of acclimating, while Frida carried most of the burden: her husband decided to persuade the establishment of the importance of field crops (in the meantime not earning a living), and their daughter, Dozya, studied microbiology, which entailed expenses… Frida sold the rest of her jewelry and worked as a fruit picker. Later, she started a chicken coop to help the family make a living. Frida never gave in to difficult circumstances and wisely managed to extract herself from them.

About three years ago, a serious illness began to consume the beautiful Frida (among her acquaintances, she was well known for her beauty). She would not give up, and with her strong and unique character, she fought hard against her bitter fate. Throughout the wretched period, she kept all her fine habits; she was an excellent housekeeper and hostess. Even when bedridden for months, with pain wracking her body, she continued to read books and the newspapers. Only she and those closest to her knew of her grave condition; those who came to visit her did not realize that her days were numbered.

She remained wise and noble until her last breath. [Page 48]

Bina Ben-Hari (Blit),
of Blessed Memory

Sh. Taytelman


In 1935, Bina was a student in the Kremenets Gymnasium, and then she went to the Land of Israel to continue her studies at the agricultural school in Nahalal. In 1940, she married Tsvi Ben-Hari. In 1956, they joined Tsvi's brother in America, and they returned to the Land in 1913 [sic].

From 1936 to 1940, she worked hard at various jobs. After suffering from a heart ailment, she had successful open-heart surgery and felt well for years. A few months ago, she had surgery again, but this time it was unsuccessful. She passed away on July 10 at the Beilinson Hospital.

Bina was always aware of the needs of her fellow people; she was goodhearted and always ready to help. Her attitude toward people was reflected in the number who attended her funeral. She was 64 years old at the time of her death.

We will remember her always.

[Page 49]

Lionya Gokhberg,
of Blessed Memory

Yehoshue Golberg


He was born in Kremenets. He studied at the Technion in Petersburg, but when the Bolshevik revolution began, he returned home. He and his mother, Gitel Gokhberg, managed the Nobel brothers' agency for oil and gasoline distribution in Kremenets and vicinity. From 1939 on, after the Russians conquered western Ukraine, he worked in Lvov as an engineer paving the road connecting Lvov to Kiev. During the war, he and his wife lived in Russia, and when it was over, they returned to Poland and lived in the town of Valdenburg. There he was active in the Zionist organization called Union. In 1951, he immigrated to the Land, where he worked for the Organization for the Care of Handicapped Immigrants[10] until his retirement. He died at the age of 74, leaving a wife.

He was known in our town as a proud Jew. During the 1930s, there was a famous anti-Semite in Kremenets, a rowdy drunkard named Bochek. Once, while Yonye Hokhberg was taking a walk on the sidewalk near the Bristol Hotel, Bochek, who was leaning on the electric pole, apparently drunk, saw Yonye approaching and began spouting anti-Semitic slogans. Lionya did not hesitate: he turned around and gave him a loud slap on the face. This event was the talk of Kremenets for a long time.

The “hero” Bochek was shocked and went away.


Tsvi Bar-Tana,
of Blessed Memory

M. Goldenberg


Tsvi Bar-Tana, husband of Tsipora Litvak of our town, passed away suddenly at the age of 68. His life since childhood was bound up with various periods in the life of our nation, some of which many of us are not aware.

[Page 50]

Tsvi was born to a traditional family in a small town in Lithuania. He was six years old when World War I began. The great defeats suffered by the Russian army along the German front brought on the czarist authorities' edict that Jews who lived near the front were be deported en masse deep into Russia to prevent them from joining the enemy.

Tens of thousands Jews were hastily loaded into cattle cars. In a journey that lasted for days, they were transported deep into the interior under horrible conditions.

Tsvi's father died there in a typhus epidemic that took many of the deportees. His mother was left a widow with four young children. Eight-year-old Tsvi was forced to work in a factory to help support the family. When the family returned to their town after the war, they found it demolished. With much labor and with help from Jewish institutions in America, the town's residents rebuilt it, and life slowly returned to normal. Tsvi became active in the Zionist youth group, and after being discharged from service in the Lithuanian army, he went to pioneer training in the harbor town of Memel[11].

In 1935, he immigrated to the Land. When the harbor was built in Tel Aviv after the 1936 riots, Tsvi was among the first workers there.

He devoted much of his time and energy to Haganah activities, and when institutions in the Land called on citizens to join the British army, he was one of the first volunteers. Along with other Israelis, he fought against Rommel's German army in the harsh conditions of the great desert. Each time he received a furlough, he brought bits of ammunition to the Haganah, and there was someone who made sure that his furloughs were frequent…

When the war was over, Tsvi began working at the Jewish Agency, and he worked there until his retirement three years ago. All his years in the Land were full of various public activities. After he and Tsipora were married in 1947, they participated in most of our organization's events, and he never skipped even one memorial to our martyrs. Some of us even thought he was a Kremenetser.

Tsvi left his wife, Tsipora, his only son from his first marriage, three children, and his young brother and his wife.

His sudden death took him four days before his firstborn grandson's bar mitzvah.

May his memory be blessed!

[Page 51]

Mosaic: Community and Individual

Collected by Y. Rokhel

In Memory of Pesach Litev, of Blessed Memory

On the second anniversary of Pesach Litev's death, a memorial service was held in Tel Aviv, and scholarships from the Jewish Colonization Association (JCA)[12] were presented. This was the organization in which Litev had been active for a long time, particularly in establishing and helping to develop agricultural settlements in the south of the Land. The scholarship fund that carries his name was established according to his will, and today it has about I£70,000 from three sources: the bequest of the departed, a sum donated by the JCA, and a sum donated by a branch of Bank Leumi, which had connections to Litev.

Glowing words were said in his memory by Mr. Paran, the manager of the JCA; Mrs. Zushya Kempler, his former secretary; and his son.

At the end of the memorial, three scholarships of I£3,000 each were given to first-year students at Tel Aviv University, and one of the recipients thanked the fund on behalf of the other two.


Manus Goldenberg Is 75

During our November 1976 board meeting, Manus's wife, Chana, and daughter, Lola, showed up with refreshments in honor of our dear friend's 75th birthday. That was when the secret was revealed. The surprised board members gave Manus their praise and appreciation for his basic good natures and showered him and his family with blessings and wishes of health, long life, and lively activity as the spiritual father of the Kremenets organization.

Tsvi Berenshteyn Returns from Argentina

Our board member, Tsvi Berenshteyn, and his wife, who had been in Argentina for nearly two years, returned at the end of April 1977.

[Page 52]

While there, he was active in the Landsmanschaft of Kremenets Emigrants and did much to revitalize the organization, which had been in bad shape, and worked on encouraging Kremenetsers to immigrate to the Land. On July 21, 1977, we held a reception for him in our club at the college with friends and associates. In the Argentina section of this booklet, there is an article by member Berenshteyn about the Kremenets organization in Argentina.


Memorial to the Martyrs of Kremenets

The annual memorial was held August 14, 1976, in the Kibbutzim College plaza in Tel Aviv. Nearly 200 Kremenets emigrants from all over the Land attended. Manus led the ceremony, and Yitschak Portnoy of Haifa eulogized our townspeople who perished in the Holocaust. Manus and Yehoshue eulogized our townspeople in the Land who passed away this year. David Rapoport of New York gave a talk about our organization's productive activities in the Land and about Kremenetsers in the United States. Manus spoke of the need to continue publishing Voice of Kremenets Emigrants. Dvora Feldman of Hadera gave a warm and moving speech about our organization's activities, the booklet's rich contents, and its graphic design.

Former mayor of Kremenets Jan Beaupré, Kremenets' former mayor, who today resides in London, England, sends his blessings for the new year of 1977 to Kremenets emigrants.

London, December 1, 1977

(Translated from Polish)

Dear Mr. Golberg,

I thank you and I appreciate very much the fact that, after so many years, the emigrants from our town still remember me. Permit me to wish you and all our townspeople in Israel best wishes and success in 1977.

I beg your forgiveness for my delayed good wishes, but because of my age (92), I don't manage to do everything at the proper time. Though in spite of the years, I feel well. Regards from my wife and our daughter, Irena, who lives with us.

Jan Beaupré (former mayor)

[Page 53]

Reception for Mr. Fayvel Barats and his wife, of Canada
Yehoshue Golberg

On April 26, 1977, in our club, we hosted Mr. Fayvel Barats and his wife, who came as tourists from Canada. At Fayvel's request, we invited all the former townspeople from the Dubna suburb in the Land to the party. As is usual at such gatherings, people reminisced and brought up memories interwoven with the humor that enlivened the daily lives of people from the Dubna suburb.

Manus reminisced about the time he went to the Dubna suburb to empty the National Fund's blue boxes and praised the warm reception he received from the Barshap, Barats, Bialer, Troshinski, Zalts, and other families. People recounted how Kremenetsers met in distant Russia during the war and the trials and tribulations they suffered until they arrived in the Land.

Yehoshue spoke about the warmth of the Lyceum's curator, Yuliush Poniatovski, toward the Barats family, which ran a lumber warehouse for from the Lyceum's sawmill in Smiga[13].

The party for our dear fellow townspeople from Canada ended with hearty handshakes.


The Flowering of the Hebrew Newspaper, 1691-1856

Dr. Menucha Gilboa has finished editing the first part of her book, which is dedicated to research on the Hebrew newspaper during the Enlightenment period. The book contains 120 pages in a quarta format and, in spite of its serious contents, it is an easy and worthwhile read for any educated person. The Organization of Kremenets Emigrants scholarship fund for research papers on Enlightenment literature facilitated the book's publication, thanks to a two-year grant. Dr. Gilboa continues to research the period after 1856, and we wish her progress in finishing her research.

The publisher of the book is the Katz Institute for Research in Hebrew Literature at Tel Aviv University.

[Page 58]


To Gedalyahu and Shulya Kindzior on the birth of their granddaughter to Dina and her husband, Chayim Lanchotski, in Hadera.

To Betsalel and Irena Golberg on the birth of their grandson, Yonatan, to Ilana and Mordekhay Grushko, in Haifa.

To Yehudit Shtern-Rozental on the birth of her granddaughter, Maya, to her son, Lev, and his wife, Lana, in Jerusalem.

To Leya Tsur (Liftman) of Kibbutz Givat Hashlosha on the birth of her great-granddaughter, Lihi, to her grandson, Omer, and his wife, Osnat, in Givat Hashlosha.

To Avraham and Etya Chasid of Moshav Herut on the birth of their 10th grandson, Yair Yosef, to their son, Nechemya, and his wife, Sara, in Herut.

To Yosef and Miryam Zalts of Kiryat Bialik on the birth of their granddaughter, Kineret, to Rachel and Yosef Gruber in Kiryat Bialik.

May they all be blessed, and may there be many sources of joy among us.

[Page 59]


Simcha Berger, of blessed memory, passed away in Haifa this year, leaving behind his wife as well as sisters in Givat Brener and Yagur. Simcha was a loyal and devoted member of our organization and was very strict when it came to members' financial obligation to the organization. Because of his failing health, he stopped attending the annual memorials about two or three years ago.

In the Condolences section of booklet 11, we lamented the loss of Mikhael, his sister Atara's son, who fell in the Yom Kippur War. We told about the Eliezer Berger family's open home in Kremenets, whose daily life and holidays were devoted to helping all facets of the Zionist movement.

Victor Tsimels, of blessed memory, Malka Tsimels-Kaganovits's husband, passed away this year. He left a wife, a son, a daughter, and grandchildren.

Barukh Shteynberg, of blessed memory, Tsirel Shteynberg-Gintsberg's husband, passed away this year. He left a wife, two daughters, and a grandson.

Shalom Shafer, Malka Troshinski's husband, who came from a small town near Pinsk, passed away two years ago. He left his wife, a daughter, two sons, and grandchildren.

Koltun, of Blessed Memory

This time, our townspeople who persevere in attending our annual memorials will not find Koltun, who always arrived first at the college for the memorial, even before the organizers. His wife passed away about a year and a half before him, and he died alone in his home in Holon.

Hilel Avrekh, of blessed memory, Sosya Avrekh-Berger's firstborn son, was killed in a road accident at Kibbutz Yagur. Hilel left a wife and three children.

Some time ago, Hilel's father died in a work-related accident in the kibbutz fields.

[Page 64]

The following is a list of those who contributed for the benefit of the Organization of Kremenetsers in Israel at the farewell party on member Chayim Tsvi Berenshteyn and his wife's departure from Argentina, hosted by the Fayer family in their home.

Yechezkel, Fani Reznik-Garber 500 pesos
Avraham Yergis 300
Yitschak Shpak 300
Velvel Oks 200
Nuta Kiperman 200
Mordekhay Katz 100
Almenat Fishman 100
Barukh, Moni Kamensheyn-Dorfman 100
Chayim Tsvi Berenshteyn 100
Total: 1,900 pesos
The sum of 1,900 pesos in dollars 61 dollars
Moshe Libman 20
Chayim Fayer 20
Tsvi (Enrique) Fayer 10
Mikhael (Manuele) Fayer 10
Velvel Oks, to inscribe his parents in the book 30 on account
Almenat Fishman, to inscribe her husband in the book 20 on account
Total: 171 dollars


[Page 69]

Funds Received from Abroad

Yehoshue Golberg

The following is a list of money donated by Kremenetsers abroad, continuing the previous list in booklet 13, page 47.

For Voice of Kremenets Emigrants
8/15/76 Rapoport David, America $10
10/29/76 Morris Melder, America 25
12/6/76 Fred Byk, America 100
12/19/76 From our fellow townspeople in Argentina – via Tsvi Epshteyn 100
1/25/77 Yitschak Vakman, America 100
4/5/77 From our fellow townspeople in Argentina – via Tsvi Epshteyn 100
4/7/77 Norman Desser, America 25
5/24/77 Vulf Shnayder, Detroit 50
7/8/77 Norman Desser, America 25
Total $535
For the Organization of Kremenets Emigrants
5/15/77 Max Desser, Winnipeg 20
For aid to members in need, maot chitin
4/7/77 Yitschak Vakman, New York 100
6/15/77 Targeted donations To list the names of the departed among our fellow townspeople in Argentina in the Memorial Book (through Tsvi Berenshteyn 150
Total in dollars 805
For the benefit of the Organization of Kremenets Emigrants in Israel
12/9/76 Max Shpinke, Canada I£1,000
5/26/77 Fayvel Barats, Canada 2,000
3/6/77 Fellow townspeople in Argentina, from the sale of recordings by Mordekhay Katz 210
Total in Israel pounds I£3,210


[Page 70]

Revenue from Obituaries in Booklet 14

Yehoshue Golberg

Vishniov Hertsel, Kibbutz Sarid, in memory of his son Yair, of blessed memory, who died while fulfilling his duty I£ 150.00
Mrs. Sara Rabinovits of Tel Aviv in memory of her husband, Yisrael Rabinovits, of blessed memory 250.00
Mrs. Dozya Federman in memory of her mother, Frida Rubinfayn, of blessed memory, wife of Tsvi Ben-Efraim (Rubinfayn) of Pardes Katz 500.00
Mrs. Ilana Elkin in memory of her mother, Irka Biran (née Gindes), of blessed memory, of Haifa 500.00
Mrs. Masha Pesis, Ramat Aviv, in memory of her brother, Zalman, of blessed memory, who passed away in Kremenets in May 1977 200.00
Total I£1,600.00


List of Donors to Voice of Kremenets Emigrants

(Continued from booklet 13, page 48)

Ester Krivin, Haifa I£ 50
Kremenechka Shila, Jerusalem 90
Litvak-Bar-Chana Tsipora 100
Toren-Feldman Dvora 100
Golberg Betsalel 100
Tsvi Ben-Efraim (Rubinfayn) 100
Yitschak Charash 100
Mrs. Kerler Ana 100
Tsvi Horovits 100
Pesach Gorinshteyn, Paris 150
Moshe Leviten 65
From the sale of booklets to Kiosk Vaynberg, Jerusalem 67
Golcher Meir 50
Basis Atara 50
Berger Simcha 50
Bodeker 50
Arye Leviten (Lionya) 50
Amdurski Mendel 50
Mrs. Egozi Bela 50
Berenshteyn Aleksander (Shalom) 50
Biher Mrs. Nechama 50
Aharon Gintsburg 50
Nachman Shnitser 40
Avraham Chasid 40
Shmuel Manusovits 50
Total I£1, 752


[Page 71]

Financial Report, 1975-1976

Y. Rokhel

  1975 1976
Balance at the beginning of the year 593 1,511
Bank Hapoalim 99 44
Post Office Bank 692 1,555
Membership paid during the annual memorial service 2,082 1,725
Membership paid during the year 555 204
Voice of Kremenets Emigrants booklets 2,175 4,325
Voice of Kremenets Emigrants obituaries 200 --
Voice of Kremenets Emigrants, from abroad -- 1,000
RYB”L statue – from an anonymous member 850 --
RYB”L statue – from various members 695 --
Various activities for the organization abroad 277 300
Repayment of loans -- 1,500
Welfare, from abroad -- 970
Bank Hapoalim interest 10 12
Exchange of dollars (1975 – 2,100; 1976 – 555) 12,859 4,486
Special funds -- 3,000
Total 21,115 19,077
Voice of Kremenets Emigrants 5,335 9,544
RYB”L Library 2,661 2,735
RYB”L statue 4,500 --
Memorial service for the martyrs of Kremenets 781 945
Financial help to members 1,300 1,400
Scroll fund, in memory of Zev Chasid, of blessed memory 1,800 --
Scroll fund, in memory of Shoham Efrati, of blessed memory 1,200 --
Receptions for guests from abroad and board meetings 347 487
Telephone 303 296
Postage 119 186
Travel 278 397
Office supplies 107 116
Paid accounting 400 --
Picture frame for the Kremenets Corner 100 --
Obituary printing 171 --
Bank Hapoalim service charge 158 100
Support for two Christian women in Poland who helped Kremenets Jews -- 314
Total 19,560 16,520
Year-end balance    
Bank Hapoalim 1,511 2,380
Post Office Bank 44 177
Total 1,555 2,557


[Page 72]

Activity in Dollars


Balance at the beginning of the year       $1,097
Income     576  
Voice of Kremenets Emigrants     100  
RYB”L Library and RYB”L statue     335  
Various organization projects        
Zev Chasid's will        
Voice of Kremenets Emigrants   1,000    
RYB”L Library and RYB”L statue   1,500    
Various projects of the organization 3,000 500    
Interest     70 $4,081
Total       $5,178
Expense – conversion to I£       2,100
Year-end balance       $3,078


Balance at the beginning of the year     $3,078
Voice of Kremenets Emigrants   345  
RYB”L Library   300  
Various projects of the organization   70  
Interest   181 $896
Total     $3,974
Expense – conversion to I£     555
Year-end balance     $3,419


Editor's Notes:
  1. Shumsk, now known as Shums'k, is at 50°07' N 26°07' E, 17.8 miles E of Kremenets. Gishtshe-Poste is probably the town now known as Pieszyce, at 50°43' N 16°36' E, 403.2 miles W of Kremenets, where an orphanage was located after World War II. Return
  2. An ulpan is a school for intensive study of Hebrew. Return
  3. In Hebrew, the Organization for the Care of Handicapped Immigrants is MALBEN (mosdot letipul beolim nechshalim). Union in Hebrew is Ichud. Valdenburg is probably the town now known as Wałbrzych, Poland, at 50°46' N 16°17' E, 417.1 miles W of Kremenets. Return
  4. Memel is now known s Klaipëda, Lithuania. It is located at55°43' N 21°07' E, 432.3 miles NNW of Kremenets. Return
  5. The Jewish Colonization Association was created to facilitate the emigration of Jews Eastern Europe to agricultural colonies, particularly in North and South America. Return
  6. Smiga, now known as Smyha, is at 50°14' N 25°46' E, 9.5 miles NNE of Kremenets. Return

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