Table of Contents


Voice of Kremenets Emigrants in Israel and the Diaspora, Booklet 11


Translation Project Editor's Note

After World War II, the Kremenets Landsmanshaft had active members in Israel, New York, and Argentina. Sometime after the Stein Yizkor book, Pinkas Kremenits was produced in 1954, the Landsmanshaft began publishing a series of booklets. Their purpose was to keep Kremenetsers around the world in touch with one another. The translation you are reading is for Booklet 11, published in 1974, following the Yom Kippur War. In a very real sense, it is a Yizkor Book … not the traditional kind that deals with our ancestral shtetl in Eastern Europe, but one that deals with the lives of those who left Kremenets before, during and after World War II, and their descendants.

Booklet 11 is in two major sections. The first is in Hebrew, beginning on p. [ Intro-4 ]. The Yiddish Section begins on p. 27. An asterisk preceding a page number in the Table of Contents indicates that section has been translated and is included in this document.

JPEG images of photos and line sketches from the Yizkor Book have been inserted on or near the appropriate pages. In addition, we have added several finding aides to the Book to assist readers in locating illustrations and names of people. Thus there is a Table of Figures at the front of the book and a Name Index at the end.

It was not possible to maintain pagination as it appears in the book. However, we have indicated actual book page numbers in square brackets just before the first line of text that appears on each physical page of the book. This should help those who are using search features to jump to the page they seek. In some cases, placement of the page numbers may not be exact because we tried also to maintain continuity of text. So we caution you to examine contiguous pages for the text that you seek.

In translating Yiddish proper names, we have tried to use YIVO standards, although we have spelled place names as they appear in modern usage.  Thus, the proper modern spelling for our shtetl is Kremenets, but the Yizkor Book uses Kremeniec, Krzemienca, and Kremenits in different places. The Yiddish and Hebrew spellings are kof-resh-ayin-mem-ayin-nun-yod-tsadi and kof-resh-mem-nun-yod-tsadi, respectively.

Transliterating personal names from Hebrew and Yiddish to English is beset with difficulties, many of them stemming from the lack of explicit vowels in printed and handwritten materials. The Hebrew letter vav, for example, may be translated as a /v/, or as the vowels /o/ or /u/. Thus the Hebrew name mem-nun-vav-samekh could be Manos or Manus. Which transliteration is "correct" depends on how the letter sounded in the area the person came from, at the time the person lived. Feldblyum indicates that the Manos spelling is found in Baltic and Polish areas, and Manus is found in Lithuania and Volhynia. Since Kremenets was in Volhynia (which was part of Poland in the interwar years) until it became part of modern day Ukraine, Manus is the more likely spelling. We have used similar reasoning, and Feldblyum's book (Feldblyum, Boris. Russian-Jewish Given Names, Teaneck, N.J.: Avotaynu, 1998) on other names appearing in this translation. Rabbi Gorr's book (Gorr, Rabbi Shmuel. Jewish Personal Names: Their Origin, Derivation and Diminutive Forms, Teaneck, N.J.: Avotaynu, 1992) was used to supplement Feldblyum.

Sometimes we had to deviate from YIVO and Hebrew standards to bring names closer to common English spelling. And sometimes, the lack of "pointing" or diacritical marks in Hebrew and Yiddish can make an English transliteration ambiguous. Thus using YIVO rules, the name shin (sin)-tet-yod-yod-nun could be transliterated to English in any of four spellings: Shteyn, Shtayn, Steyn, or Stayn.  The problem with this name is two-fold. Is the first letter an /S/ or /Sh/ sound? Is the double yod an /ey/ sound as in 'grey', or an /ay/ sound as in 'sky'? Or, deviating from YIVO rules, but applying common English usage, the name could be spelled Stein, where /ei/ is pronounce like 'y' in sky. In this particular case, A.S. Stein is the original Editor of one of our Yizkor Book, and his name is spelled Stein in current English bibliographies. However, in both the Cyrillic and Hebrew vital records for Kremenets, a shin/sin in a proper name like bet-ayin-resh-nun-shin(sin)-tet-yod-yod-nun always represents an /sh/. The vital records also indicate that the double yod (yod-yod)   in such names represents an /ay/ sound. Thus, in the absence of vowel and consonant "pointing", we transliterate the name bet-ayin-resh-nun-shin(sin)-tet-yod-yod-nun, and similar names, as Bernshtayn.

Some people use the presence of double vav  and double yod in texts as indicators of Yiddish rather than Hebrew text. Unfortunately, this is not always the case. Hebrew texts sometimes use double vav and double yod in medial positions in words when the letters are consonants. Thus in Hebrew, a double yod  would have a /ya/, /ye/ or /yo/ pronunciation, but in Yiddish, it would transliterate to either /ey/ or /ay/. We have tried to discern the proper transliteration from context and from the names in Gorr's and Feldblyum's books, but the reader should be aware that we might have erred in some cases.

A single yod may be a vowel (short /i/) or a consonant (/y/).  We have transliterated a yod appearing in the middle or at the end of a word, /i/.  However, a yod at the beginning of a word typically is a consonant, /y/.

A vav-yod combination transliterates to the diphthong /oy/.

The double vav also presents a problem. Typically, it represents a /v/ sound. However, in some geographic regions it represents a /w/.  Kremenets is in a border region where either sound may be correct. The Cyrillic and Yiddish/Hebrew vital records for Kremenets clearly indicate that usage at the time the records were created calls for a /v/. Consequently, we have standardized on transliterating double vav as /v/, except where context or common usage requires a /w/. Thus the name vav-vav-aleph-kof-mem-aleph-nun is Vakman, not Wakman.

Other letters also raise difficulties.

There are no guarantees that the 'rules' we have applied in this translation are 'correct', but we have tried to be consistent in applying them, and we have tried to apply them in a way that allows the reader to work backwards to the original Hebrew or Yiddish (whoops, make that Yidish) spelling.  As Editor, I take full responsibility for changes I have made to our translators' work. And, I welcome any comments, criticism, and suggestions for improving this work.

If you identify any errors in the translation, or if you take issue with the way we have transliterated specific surnames please advise me of them so that we can get them corrected. You can contact me at Ronald D. Doctor

Ronald D. Doctor
Editor, Kremenets Yizkor Book Translation Project
Co-coordinator, Kremenets Shtetl CO-OP
Portland, Oregon USA

[vii ]

Translation Acknowledgements

As I write this, there are 81 people on the e-mail distribution list of the Kremenets Shtetl CO-OP. Of those, 14 are actively involved as volunteer translators for the Kremenets Yizkor Book Translation Project. I want to especially thank Elliott Raisen, the volunteer translator who has worked on Booklet #11.  And, I want to acknowledge the assistance he received from participants on the e-mail discussion list Mendele. They provided invaluable help on particularly difficult Yiddish words and phrases. More information about Mendele is available at:

I take full responsibility for changes I have made, and any damage I have done, to the work of our translators. Please keep in mind that this is an ongoing project. Additions and revisions to this translation will be made available as they are completed.

Ronald D. Doctor
Editor, Kremenets Yizkor Book Translation Project
Co-coordinator, Kremenets Shtetl CO-OP/JRI-Poland
Portland, Oregon USA


List of Illustrations

Yuval Avidar 2
David Kitay 2
Mikhael Sitsuk 3
Avinoam Mordish 3
[Sketch of a helmet and rifle] 12
A Typical House in Kremenets 25a


Name Index

Abir, Avraham (see also Biberman) 17
Akshteyn, Arye 25
Alkoshi, Gedalyahu 23, 24
Alterman, Natan 13
Argaman, Avraham ii, 16, 23, 24
Ashel, Arye 13
Avi (husband of Shoshana Tsilap) 25
Avidar*, Chasida 4
Avidar, Eldad 1, 4
Avidar, Yuval 1, 2, 2 (photo), 4-5
Bakst*, Bronya (née Borbil) 19, 20, 56
Bangold*, Fanya (née Gindes) 45
Bar-Chana family 17
Bar-On 16
Bar-Sever, Ehud 12
Bar-Sever, Rina 12
Bar-Sever, Zev 12
Barshap, Leya 23
Bartana, Ortsion 23
Beaupré, Jan 22
Ben-Amuts family 17
Beni (husband of Sharona Kindzior) 25
Ben-Nun, Buna 46
Berenshteyn, Tsvi 23
Berger, Atara 1, 7, 8
Berger*, Ite 7
Berger, Leyzer 7
Berndshteter 23
Bernshteyn, Bela 42
Biberman family 17
Biberman, Feyga 20
Biberman, Moshe 20
Biran*, Irka (née Gindes) 26
Biran, Utek 26
Borbil, Bronya 19, 20, 56
Borbil, Rut 19
Borbil, Yosef 19
Boyer*, Shulamit (née Karner) 56
Byk, Efraim 56
Chasid, Avraham 17, 26
Chasid*, Etya 17
Chasid, Zev 17, 26
Cherlov*, Batya (née Lapidut) 12
Desser, Mark 56
Desser, Max 56
Desser, Norman 56
Dikhtiar, Liova 26
Dina (daughter of Bilhah Shifris) 25
Dubi (husband of Sefira Gun) 25
Epshteyn, Yakov 23
Fisherman, Menucha Frida 43-44
Fishman, Rachel 17
Fishman, Risya 20
Gelerint, Aharon 56
Gershgal, M. ii
Gindes, Fanya 45
Gindes, Irka 26
Giterman*, Risya (née Fishman) 20
Giterman, Moshe 20
Giterman, Shlome 20
Gletshteyn-Sela, Aharon 25
Gletshteyn-Sela, Sara 25
Gletshteyn-Sela, Yoram 25
Gobrin, N. 24
Gokun, Avraham 24, 25
Gokun, Mira 25
Gokun*, Shoshana 25
Golberg (son of Yehoshue Golberg) 25
Golberg, Betsalel 20, 25
Golberg, Chana 25
Golberg, Ilana 25
Golberg*, Irena 25
Golberg*, Miryam (Mira; née Holsonski) 25
Golberg, Yehoshue ii, 21, 22, 23, 25
Goldenberg, Manus ii, 4, 16, 18, 19 21, 23, 24, 27, 36, 37, 40, 42, 43, 45, 54
Goltsberg, Yitschak (Kitsya) 25
Gordon, Yehuda Leyb 23
Grushko, Moti (husband of Ilana Golberg) 25
Gun*, Bela 25
Gun, Sefira 25
Gun, Shmuel 25
Haefrati, Yosef 23, 24, 26
Harel, Pinchas (Pintsi; see also Lemberg, Pinchas) 18, 40-41
Hofshteyn*, Feyga (née Biberman) 20
Hofshteyn, Duvid 20
Hofshteyn, Livya 20
Holsonski, Miryam 25
Kagan, Velvel 56
Kalin, Amir 25
Kalin*, Miryam 25
Karner, Shulamit 56
Karner, Zalman 56
Katz, Marcos ii
Katz, Mark 17, 21
Katz, Munek 20
Katz*, Rut 17
Katz, Safi 20
Kaufman, Chulio 21
Kenani, Eliezer 13
Kindzior, Gedalyahu 25
Kindzior, Sharona 25
Kindzior*, Shulmia 25
Kiperman*, Chaika 24, 54
Kiperman, Neta 24, 54, 56
Kitay, Avraham 6
Kitay*, Batya 6
Kitay, David 1, 2, 2 (photo), 6
Kitay, Gershon 1, 6
Kitay, Yosi, R' 6
Klug, Rut ii
Kneler, Aba 25
Kneler*, Miryam 25
Kneler*, Rachel 25
Kogan*, Shulamit (née Krener) 20
Kogan, William ii, 20
Kotliar*, Brayna 25
Kotliar, Gidon 25
Kotliar, Orli 25
Kozlovski, Ehud 25
Kozlovski*, Ela 25
Kozlovski, Yakov 25
Kozlovski, Yulian 46-47
Kremenitski family 27-29
Kremenitski, Yakov 20
Kremenitski, Yitschak 20
Krener, Shulamit 20
Kushnir, Mia 25
Lapidut, Batya 12
Laybel, Yisrael 21, 56
Lemberg*, Stisya 18
Lemberg*, Tonya (née Rozenblit) 18
Lemberg, Doshka 18
Lemberg, Mendel 18
Lemberg, Peni 18
Lemberg, Pinchas (Pintsi; see also Harel, Pinchas) 18, 40-41
Lemberg, Rut 18
Levin, Sashka 26
Levinzon, Yitschak Ber, R' (RYB”L) 23, 34
Litev family 17
Litev, Pesach 16, 23, 24
Mandelshtat-Panakh (see also Mendelshtam Panakh) 56
Margalit*, Safi (née Katz) 20
Margolis, Bat-Sheva 25
Margolis*, Genya 25
Margolis, Manya 24, 54
Margolis*, Miryam 54
Margolis, Yosef 24, 25, 54, 55
Markovetski, Rivka 48
Medler, Morris 56
Mendelshtam Panakh, Leya (see also Mendelshtam Panakh) 26
Milgrom, Aharon 25
Milgrom*, Cherna (née Shkurnik) 25
Milgrom, Yitschak 25
Mordish, Avinoam 1, 3, 3 (photo), 9-10
Mordish, Avraham 1, 9
Mordish, Chayim 9, 25
Mordish, Leybush 9
Mordish, Lionardo 25
Mordish*, Mia (née Kushnir) 25
Mordish, Shalom 9
Mordish*, Shoshana 25
Mordish, Yankel 9
Moshe (husband of Bat-Sheva Margolis) 25
Nadir, Rachel 23
Natsits, Boaz 25
Natsits*, Lili 25
Natsits, Neta 25
Nudel family 24
Nudel, Chayim 56
Otiker, Yisrael ii, 19
Ot-Yakar, Mordekhay ii, 19, 23
Pak* 21
Pak, Moshe 21
Pikhovits* (wife of Yurek Pikhovits) 25
Pikhovits, Yurek (Yuri) ii, 19, 25
Poltorek family 17
Portnoy, Yitschak 19, 23, 24
Rabinovits, Dr. 16
Rapoport, David 34, 48, 56
Rapoport*, Rivka (née Markovetski) 48
Rokhel family 17
Rokhel, Amir 25
Rokhel, Chanokh 13-15, 19
Rokhel, Duvid 18
Rokhel*, Eilat 25
Rokhel*, Rachel 25
Rokhel*, Rut (née Lemberg) 18
Rokhel, Shay 25
Rokhel*, Shprintse 4
Rokhel, Yehoshue (Shia) 4
Rokhel, Yitschak ii, 1, 4, 13, 16, 19 21, 23, 24, 32, 49
Rot, Nora 17
Rozenberg, Kalman 25
Rozenberg*, Liora 25
Rozenberg*, Zahava 25
Rozenberg, Yonatan 25
Rozenblit, Tonya 18
Rozenblum, Shamay 19
Rozental, Yehudit (Itka) 25
Shachar, Meir 15
Shadmi, David 13
Shafir family 17
Shifris, Bilhah 25
Shifris*, Guta 25
Shifris, Yosef 25
Shinberg, Arye ii
Shnayder family 17
Shnayder, Shmuel 24
Shnayder, Zev 17, 23, 56
Shtern, Berel (Boris) 23, 24
Shtern*, Irit 25
Shtern, Munya 25
Shtern, Ori 25
Shtern, Rami 25
Shtern, Shevach 25
Shtern*, Sofi 25
Shtern*, Tanya 25
Shtern*, Yehudit (Itka; née Rozental) 25
Shtetmoher, Avraham 26
Shtetmoher*, Liova (née Dikhtiar) 26
Shvarts, Leyb 56
Shvartsapel family 17
Shvartsapel, Hinda 56
Simonson, Sh. 16, 23
Sitsuk*, Atara (née Berger) 1, 7, 8
Sitsuk, Leyzer 8
Sitsuk, Mikhael 1, 3, 3 (photo), 7, 8
Sitsuk, Moshe 1, 7, 8
Taytelman, Shmuel 23
Taytsher, Chayim 56
Teper, Fishil 23
Teresova, Aleksandra 24
Terom family 17
Tilon, Bronya 25
Tseytag*, Aleksandra (née Teresova) 24
Tshernichovsky, Shaul 1
Tshilap*, Bronya (née Tilon) 25
Tshilap, Moshe 25
Tshilap, Shoshana 25
Tsizin, Shmuel 23
Tsukerman, David 25
Tsukerman*, Sima 25
Tsukerman*, Sonya 25
Tsukerman, Zev 25
Tsvi (husband of Mira Gokun) 25
Vakman, Yitschak 11, 56
Vaynshteyn, Simon 19
Vaynshteyn*, Vitya 20, 25
Vaynshteyn, Yitschak 19 20, 25
Vender family 17
Verthaym*, Yentel (see also Yonatan, Yentel) 26
Vilderman*, Leya (née Barshap) 23
Yizraeli, Shmuel 13
Yonatan family 26
Yonatan*, Yentel (see also Verthaym, Yentel) 26
Zats, Klara 23
Zeyger, Meir 17


Editorial Matters

After a break of almost a year and a half we are presenting Booklet #11 to the Kremenetsers in Israel and in the Diaspora, and we hope that conditions in the future will allow us to publish regularly.

We start this issue with a section "Four who fell in the war". We all mourn them, but such sacrifices are a part of building Israel. We who witnessed the loss of 14,000 victims in Kremenets will have the courage to go on.

The delay in publication of this pamphlet was caused by the dark mood after the Yom Kippur war, by fatigue of the workers, by members who can contribute but are not helping, and by delay in receipt of payments. Due to this delay some news will be outdated but is included to maintain continuity. Meanwhile a lot of material that is accumulated will be put in Issue #12, including memories from the Kremenets Ghetto by Ruth Klug from Haifa; discussion of the book by Yisrael Otiker, Z"L, "A khalutz (pioneer) from Poland, 1932-1935"; a biography of Prof. Aryeih Shinberg, Dean of School of Medicine – Tel Aviv; and a biography of Yuri Pikhovits. Some articles from Argentina will also be included in number 12.

We hope that the next issue will be published on time.

The Editors

P.S. The price will be 6 Israeli Pds. instead of 5 – please pay as soon as possible and include past due balances.

[Page 1]

Four Who Fell


Behold O Earth

Shaul Tshernichovski

Take the best of our sons, youths with pure dreams,
brave, honest, innocent, before they became the refuge of the earth,
they are still weaving their days, weaving the hopes that the day will come
when we don't have better than they, did you see? Where?

The four descendants of Kremenets natives who fell in the Yom Kippur War are:

It was a painful and expensive sacrifice.

Our hearts are with the bereaved parents, who immigrated to the Land from the town of Kremenets with the first pioneers, put down roots in kibbutzim, and brought up glorious sons to follow in their path. When the fateful day arrived, the branches were cut short, and they were killed defending their homeland.

We join you in your sadness and in your pride in having such sons. Our condolences to the parents and relatives; would that we will not know another war.

Your friends from your town

[Page 2]

Yuval, Our Son and Brother

Yuval Avidar


Yuval, our son and brother, was born in Kibbutz Yiftah on December 24, 1950; he was the first child of the kibbutz. In summer 1953, he moved with us to Kibbutz Hagoshrim, where he spent his nursery school years. At the end of the summer of 1957, he moved with his family to Ashkelon-Afridar and attended elementary and high school there, from grade 1 through grade 12. In summer 1970, he moved with us to Beit Zayit.

On August 6, 1969, he enlisted in the Israel Defense Forces for compulsory military service and was placed in the armored corps. After graduating from the customary officer's training course, he served in the armored school as an instructor and commander in a tank officers' course for more than two years. He instructed and trained seven sessions of tank commander courses. He was a unit commander, a deputy company commander, and a company commander. Last year, he served in the regular army.

He was due to be released from regular service on October 10, 1973, the day the war broke out, and begin studying in the Social Studies Department at Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He was called to armored headquarters at noon on Yom Kippur and assigned to his last duty. He went down to the Sinai with his armored division.

On Wednesday, October 10, 1973, 14 Tishrei 5734, in the early afternoon, he fell in the Sinai campaign while on duty as a tank commander, across from the Suez Canal, about 7 kilometers northwest of the Al-Firdan Bridge. He was buried in a temporary military cemetery in Mishmar Hanegev on Friday, October 12, 1973.

Yuval was, and he is no longer. We have only memories.

Young and Loved

David Kitay


David, we are writing about you, not in the way we used to and want to, which is to you.

How great is the distance, how sad is the event.

You were born on September 25, 1950. Twenty-three years and one month later, on October 17, an Egyptian ambush killed you after you were wounded and could not fight back.

You went to war slowly, dressed neatly and beautifully, with your usual smile. You wrote to your mother, “Everything's all right, don't worry” – but you also added, “Don't write to me, it will not reach me” – “Don't worry, everything's all right, it's all right.”

But the bitter truth that we feared arrived and became a family tragedy.

[Page 3]

About Mikhael, Who Is No Longer

Mikhael Sitsuk


It's difficult for parents to mourn a son who was taken from them – suddenly, in the storm of war – and may they be as strong as steel. We are not used to the idea that he's no longer with us, since his smile accompanies us day and night.

Mikhael – who had yet to turn 29 – was born in the kibbutz and educated in all of our schools until his graduation. He was a kibbutz member without compromise, and his personality was saturated with “Love your neighbor as yourself.” He greeted everyone with a beautiful smile and a warm welcome. He was dedicated to his job and was always willing to help his coworkers. He was a dedicated son to his parents and relatives. Not long ago, he built his family's nest, and there was no limit to his love and dedication to his wife and daughters.

He had plans to fulfill, but everything suddenly ended, without our knowing of his burial place and with no place to communicate with him.

Without Avinoam…

Avinoam Mordish


I knew Avinoam for three years in my capacity as the Tomer group educator. During that time, he was transformed from a child into a young man. He was really very young, even when he enlisted in the army. He was an extroverted child with good manners.

He was always goodhearted and willing to help others. He was very sensitive to the feelings of those around him and to the way others treated him. He was involved with his friends, took part in group discussions, and liked to voice his opinions. I'll always remember him with a smile on his face, his special smile – innocent, open, and a bit embarrassed as if he were hesitating or lacked confidence . . . I also remember his offended, confused facial expression, as if he felt others were trying to hurt him or when he encountered an unclear situation. But you could always approach him and talk to him directly, and again he'd be happy and feel good.

As I write a little about Avinoam here, it's as if I'm saying nothing, because a sensitive young man has passed away – a whole world of opportunities that were not fulfilled, a friendly, lovely young man – and his name is Avinoam.

Ehud Bar-Sever, of Blessed Memory

As this booklet was being published, we received the sad news that Ehud Bar-Sever had been killed in the Yom Kippur War. He was the grandson of Batya Cherlov, née Lapidut, Holon.

He was the son of Rina and Zev Bar-Sever.

Our condolences to the bereaved parents and to our member Batya.


[Page 13]

In the Book Path of Life: Chanokh Rokhel

Y. R.

In September 1973, Kibbutz Tel Yosef, with the encouragement of the Federation's[1] General Council, published a book dedicated to the life of Chanokh Rokhel, of blessed memory, who was born in Kremenets (1900-1970). The book was put together by veteran members of Kibbutz Tel Yosef: Eliezer Kenani, Shmuel Yizraeli, Arye Ashel, and David Shadmi. Of the book's 270 pages, one third consists of a collection of writings about Chanokh, and the other two thirds are works written by Chanokh and published in different periodicals, as well as his speeches. The book is tastefully set, and the material is delivered with great dedication. The book reflects a rich and stormy period, mostly aspects of pioneer life in the kibbutz during that period and about the man Chanokh Rokhel, who stood at the center of events – and sometimes at the top.

Here are the chapters in the book: (a) His Life Story, (b) Words in His Memory, (c) Selected Writings: (1) The Case of the General Federation, (2) The Labor Battalion, (3) The Kibbutz, (4) Pioneer, (5) Tel Yosef – Kibbutz, Society, and Way of Life, (6) Education, (7) In Memory of the Missing, (8) Miscellaneous, (9) My Road to Zionism – Kremenets, My Birthplace (this article was also published in Voice of Kremenets Emigrants). The book overflows with pictures – 40 of them – illustrating the book's various chapters.

We proceed with Natan Alterman's words about the generation of pioneers, “Unusual People” (page 31):

They (about 50 years ago)
came to Israel to be the first pioneers.
And all who saw them said about them:
How unusual these people are.
They said: it is not enough to talk
about Zion and the land of the patriarchs.
For we need to clear the stones and dig a well
and plow and sow, we must work. We say and we do and we leave for work.
Truly very unusual people.

Here are excerpts from Chanokh's article “From the Tractate” (1931), which is considered the foundational work on the Labor Battalion's lifestyle.

The basic theory: (1) The solution to the Jewish question is feasible only by fulfilling the Zionist duty. (2) Fulfilling the Zionist duty is possible only by creating a Jewish working society in the Land of Israel through the efforts of the Jewish working class and its related movement abroad. (3) To fulfill the Zionist duty of the working class in the Land of Israel, it is necessary to establish active kibbutzim, which will form an organized economic society.

[Page 14]

(4) The kibbutz is an accessory cell of a future society built on the basis of full cooperation, without exploiters and exploited, with equal living conditions for all. (5) The kibbutz needs to be part of the General Federation of Labor.

Duties: What are the Labor Battalion's main duties?

(a) Pioneering and conquest. To organize camps of people who are ready to serve the Zionist movement: to capture plots of land for the Jewish nation and create settlements that the usual settlers cannot go to. But they are important for reasons of political settlement – to capture professions and new jobs without hesitation and without recoiling from difficult conditions.

(b) Defense. To organize, train, and strengthen members so they will be ready to fight back any attack on the Jewish settlements in the Land.

(c) Absorption of immigrants. At all times, the Battalion will be ready to absorb any number of new immigrants, teach them skills, organize them, and ease their adaptation to conditions in the Land.

(d) Creation of a new form of society. To build a society that will be fully responsible to the individual and the community and create comprehensive financial aid, an equal standard of living for all members, and cooperation in creativity and enjoyment.

(e) Aid to the working class in its unified war to improve workers' standard of living and change existing social rules.

Personal achievement: The keystone of the Battalion's foundation is personal achievement. The pioneer's role is to impose practical deeds on the individual's life. A Battalion member must take part in all pioneering activities and fulfill the movement's orders. This is the ethical power of a kibbutz, which is built by personal achievement: that it is good as one's word.

Expansion: The Battalion's creators and those who laid its first foundations must show the ambition needed to expand it and the willingness to absorb the knowledge of those who want to follow the Battalion's path. The Battalion absorbed new immigrants even during periods of unemployment. It knew how to share its meager bread with each immigrant who wanted to join its camp. It excelled in an amazing initiative to create jobs in different sectors, and the push was always ambition to expand, responsibility for the Diaspora, and absorption of immigrants.

[Page 15]

In the kibbutz movement, the Labor Battalion sees the assigned path for all workers. This passage will not come suddenly and dynamically, but gradually, requiring much preparation. The expansion of the movement and the creation of a reserve require the training of souls, mostly among young people who are planning to start an independent life and are asking for direction. An educational program is needed in the circles of the Pioneer youth organizations abroad and among youth circles in the Land. This action requires a system, continuity, and a lot of energy. Herein lie the root and focal point of the movement's future.

* * *

We end the survey of the book with the words recited beside Chanokh Rokhel's grave by Meir Shachar (page 46):

“Chanokh was a prominent figure in our society and one of the founders of the Labor Battalion. He was an educated, wise man with a strong will and iron logic, a public figure in the movement who fought bravely for his opinions . . . against the danger of the decline in idealism and the Sovietization of the movement in order to prevent the destruction of our settlement project. When he came to Tel Yosef to settle permanently, he worked with sheep, cultivated the fields and fruit trees, and held central positions in the kibbutz and society. He traveled to Lithuania as a representative of the movement. His main activity in the kibbutz was in the educational field.

Out of personal ambition, he accompanied a child in his education from the infants' house to adulthood. He was a founder of the joint district school and fought for higher education for the kibbutz children.

A builder, a creator in the society, the movement, the kibbutz, and education, has left us. May his memory be blessed…”

[Page 16]

Scholarship Fund Agreement with Tel Aviv University

In the previous Voice of Kremenets Emigrants booklet, we published the article “Toward the Establishment of a Scholarship Fund with Tel Aviv University on Behalf of the Organization of Kremenets Emigrants,” by member Pesach Litev. But before that, the board assigned a group of members (Argaman, Litev, Rokhel, and Dr. Rabinovits) to execute the idea. The committee began to collect money for this purpose and sent a circular to donors on October 10, 1972. At the same time, the committee negotiated with the university, and on July 16, 1973, the two parties signed an agreement. Below we present the main points of the agreement for our members' attention.

The agreement between the Organization of Kremenets Emigrants in Israel and Tel Aviv University, on the matter of the scholarship fund named after RYB”L on behalf of the Organization of Kremenets, Vohlin, Emigrants, for research on Enlightenment literature.

With Tel Aviv University, the organization establishes a scholarship fund in memory of the martyrs of the town of Kremenets and in memory of individual townspeople who have passed away. For that, the organization will collect donations from Kremenets emigrants. The university is interested and agrees to hold the fund's assets and operate it according to the general principles listed below. The fund will be attached to the cost-of-living index, and interest of 9% will be paid annually on the amount collected. The university, for its part, will contribute the same amount each year. The amount collected from both parties (interest and a parallel amount) will be given each year as a scholarship or prize to those who research subjects connected to the literature of the Enlightenment period. Research projects recommended by the university will receive the scholarships. With the signing of the agreement, the organization hands the university the amount of I£16,240 and will continue its efforts to collect additional money in the Land and abroad. Recommendations for scholarships will be brought before the “RYB”L Library and Scholarship Fund Parity Committee” for deliberation and final decisions. The university will publicize the fund well in its annual bulletin. Each donor will receive a donor's certificate from the university. The scholarships will be awarded in the annual scholarship ceremony or in a special ceremony on behalf of the university's Institute for Research in Hebrew Literature.

The agreement was signed by the rector, Professor Sh. Simonson, and Mr. Bar-On on behalf of the university and by members A. Argaman, M. Goldenberg, P. Litev, and Y. Rokhel on behalf of the organization.

[Page 17]

Fundraising Drive for the RYB”L Scholarship Fund

(On behalf of the Organization of Kremenets, Vohlin, Emigrants with Tel Aviv University, for research on Enlightenment literature)

As of March 20, 1974, we had received and handed over to the university treasury the donations listed below (in alphabetical order).

1. Organization of Kremenetsers in New York, in memory of the four descendants who fell in the Yom Kippur War – $1,000 I£4,196.00
2. Abir Avraham, Jerusalem, toward his pledge of I£2,000 500.00
3. Members of the organization in Israel, toward its pledge of I£1,000 752.00
4. Biberman family 600.00
5. Zeyger Meir, Haifa 1,000.00
6. Professor Chasid Zev, Berkeley, USA 1,000.00
7. Chasid Avraham and Etya, Moshav Herut 1,300.00
8. Professor Chasid Zev, Berkeley, USA, $100 420.00
9. Katz Rut, Haifa 1,000.00
10. Professor Mark Katz, New York, $1,000, toward his pledge of $3,500 4,200.00
11. Shnayder, Litev, Vender, and Bar-Chana families 1,050.00
12. Poltorek and Shafir families 600.00
13. Fishman Rachel, Givatayim 3,000.00
14. Rokhel family 1,000.00
15. Rut Nora, New York, $200 839.20
16. Shvartsapel family, New York, $1,000 4,200.00
17. Shnayder Zev, Detroit, USA, $300, toward his pledge of $600 1,256.85
18. Terom, Shnayder, and Ben-Amuts families 1,000.00
Total I£27,914.05


Fund expenses were covered partly by interest received before handing over the amount to the university and partly from the organization's funds.

A review committee was invited to inspect and approve the fund's annual financial report.

[Page 18]

In Memoriam

M. G.


Pinchas Harel (Pintsi Lemberg),
of Blessed Memory

He died in Kfar Vitkin at the age of 74.

It is impossible to describe Pintsi's personality without mentioning his origin, the Lemberg home in Kremenets. The Lemberg family's spacious house stood up the alleyway across from the Oyezda cinema, surrounded by ancient trees.

The mother of the family, Stisya, was an educated woman whose name was known far outside our town's borders. Their Zionist home served as a cultural center.

The eldest son, Doshka, was a man of the book, with a deep knowledge of a number of languages. Like many people of that kind, he was cut off from the real world. Many jokes were told about him, as they were told about great philosophers and scientists. The second son, Peni, husband of the beautiful Tonya Rozenblit, was a diligent mathematician and one of the town's chess champions.

Their only daughter, Rut, was married to Duvid Rokhel, the famous Yiddish writer and poet.

Pintsi, of blessed memory, excelled in painting and music. Many Kremenetsers still remember the evenings when Pintsi entertained them by singing the Yiddish folksongs he loved so much. His drawings and paintings hung on the walls of many homes. The youngest of the family, Mendel, was a conductor and songwriter, and he founded a number of choirs, spreading music among the students and working youth.

Pintsi immigrated to the Land with the second Pioneer group at the beginning of the 1920s. He was one of the first settlers of Kibbutz Tel Yosef but did not live there long. When Moshav Kfar Vitkin was established, Pintsi was one of its first members. He established a magnificent farm and worked there until his last day. Even after a long day of work as a moshavnik, he did not ignore the craft of painting. Also in the Land, he was a religious singer in the area where he lived.

Pintsi took part in our memorial services and participated in a number of meetings, in spite of the transportation difficulties in his village in the late evening. A few years ago, he hebraicized his name to “Harel.”

With the death of Pintsi, we have lost a beloved friend who carried the soul of our birthplace, the town of our childhood and teen years, in his heart. Pintsi left a wife, two sons, and grandchildren.

May his memory be blessed.

[Page 19]

(Community and Individual)

Y. Rokhel


Annual Memorial Service for the Martyrs of Kremenets

As it does every year, a memorial ceremony for the martyrs of Kremenets took place on August 14, 1973, in the Kibbutzim College square in Tel Aviv. The memorial was attended by more than 200 Kremenets emigrants from all over the Land and a number of guests from abroad. The ceremony was conducted by Mordekhay Ot-Yakar, of the next generation, and his words were very impressive. Member Yitschak Portnoy eulogized those who had passed away during the year, and member Manus Goldenberg welcomed guests from abroad: Ruth Borbil, daughter of the late Yosef and Bronya Bakst-Borbil, both of New York; Simon, son of Yitschak Vaynshteyn of London; and Rachel Koyler, sister of Pesach Koyler of Buenos Aires. He also welcomed new immigrant Yakov Kremenitski (see a special article about the Kremenitski home and its generations in the Yiddish section) as well as Yuri Pikhovits, son of a respected Polish family from Kremenets, who has been a citizen of Israel since 1947 and is now a member of our organization (a special article about his interesting life will be published in the next booklet).

The broadcaster-artist Shamay Rozenblum read a variety of verses appropriate for this ceremony in Hebrew and Yiddish. His performance added to the cultural-emotional level of the memorial service.

A long hour after the ceremony ended, those gathered spent time together bringing up memories of the past and talking about their current lives. They left with a great deal of emotion.


Books by Kremenets Emigrants

In a short period, two books written by recently deceased Kremenets emigrants have been published.

1. The Pioneer Movement in Poland, 1932-1935, by Yisrael Otiker, of blessed memory, of Kibbutz Naan

The book was published by Ghetto Fighters' House Museum in December 1972 and has 230 pages.

2. Path of Life, by Chanokh Rokhel, of blessed memory, was published in September 1973 by Kibbutz Tel Yosef. The book has 270 pages; a full review is presented in a special article in this booklet.

A full review of The Pioneer Movement will be published in booklet 12 in both languages.

[Page 20]

Three Kremenets Families from Russia Settle in the Land

Among those who have settled in the Land in the past few months:

1. Feyga Hofshteyn née Biberman and her daughter, Livya. Feyga is the widow of the author Duvid Hofshteyn, who was murdered by the Soviet authorities in 1925. They lived in the Land from 1925 to 1929, and since they could not acclimate, they returned to the USSR and lived in Kiev. The mother's and daughter's immigration to the Land was highlighted in Israeli newspapers. Articles and pictures were published in Letste Nayes, Maariv, and Molad. Right now, they are staying at the Brodetski House absorption center in Ramat Aviv. The daughter, Livya, is an exceptional violinist, andshe may be accepted by one of the orchestras. With their immigration, only one member of the Biberman family, the oldest brother, Moshe, remains in Moscow.

(For a picture of Feyga as a young woman, see Pinkas Kremenets,[2] page 305.)

2. Yakov, Yitschak Kremenitski's son, and his wife and daughter. He is the sole survivor of the extensive Kremenitski family. They arrived recently from Ternopol and settled in the town of Tsur Shalom near Haifa: Yakov as a dentist and his wife as an office clerk for the state lottery in Haifa. (See the article “The Kremenitskis” in the Yiddish section of this booklet.)

Our member Betsalel Golberg, a Haifa resident, took good care of their arrangements in the Land.

3. Risya Giterman née Fishman, widow of Shlome Giterman and a doctor by profession, emigrated recently from Kiev with her son, Moshe Giterman, a mathematics professor, and his family. Risya is staying at the Brodetski House absorption center in Ramat Aviv. Her son is working at Bar Ilan University.

(For a picture of Risya in her youth, see page 305 of Pinkas Kremenets.)

We wish the three families an easy transition and good health, and we hope they find satisfaction in the Land.

A reception for Kremenetsers from abroad took place in our clubhouse on April 28, 1973, in the presence of 35 people. On May 5, 1973, the reception continued at the apartment of Vitya and Yitschak Vaynshteyn and was attended by around 20 people. The guests (from the USA) were the secretary of the Kremenets organization (the Society) in New York, William Kagan, and his wife, Shulamit, from the Krener family; Bronya Bakst; and Safi Margalit (daughter of Munik Katz, of blessed memory).

[Page 21]

And from Argentina, there was Mr. Laybel, an active member of the Kremenets organization in Buenos Aires. Family members and friends of the guests from far and near were invited to the party, and the room was not large enough to accommodate all of them. A selection of pictures of Kremenets was displayed on the walls – the Great Synagogue, the Levinzon house, Mount Bona, the sports field (Skotshnaya), Sheroka Street, and typical traditional Jewish homes. For a short time, these pictures brought the guests back to their “old life” and the atmosphere of their birthplace, and added warmth and festiveness. The guests talked about Kremenetsers' lives in the United States and Argentina and their organizations' activities.

The guests were welcomed by member Yitschak Rokhel, who made an effort to speak in Yiddish in their honor, a language he is not very familiar with. Member Manus Goldenberg took the trouble to bring copies of Kremenitser Shtime from 1934 and read a few piquant segments. Some people who attended the party were mentioned in them. Member Yehoshue Golberg told a number of funny stories about his meetings with Kremenetsers in a faraway place in Russia during his service in the Polish army. Chulio Kaufman also told stories about the recent past in his humorous way. The party was well organized, and we are certain that those who participated will always remember it.

Mark Katz: Member of the Weizmann Institute Board of Directors. Professor Mark Katz, son of Dr. Bentsion Katz, principal of the Tarbut School in Kremenets, has lived in New York for many years. A world-renowned mathematician, he was nominated a year ago to the Board of Directors of the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rechovot. Every once in a while, Professor Katz is invited to board meetings, giving him the opportunity to see his family and friends. During one visit, he donated $3,500 to our scholarship fund with Tel Aviv University in memory of his father. We bless our fellow townsman for his honored nomination and wish him great progress.

Moshe Pak and his wife arrived in the Land from Argentina at the end of 1972. They are living temporarily in Bat Yam until they move to a permanent location. On January 24, 1973, a party was held in their honor at our clubhouse. The invited guests, most of them Kremenetsers with relatives in Argentina, spent an enjoyable evening in their company listening to stories about Kremenetsers' lives in Argentina. Mr. Pak is a building expert, and he is planning to work in this profession in the Land. At this time, they are in Buenos Aires to liquidate their business and consolidate the money they are planning to invest in the Land.

[Page 22]

From the Polish Diaspora in London – Yehoshue Golberg

The former mayor of Kremenets, Jan Beaupré, sends his blessings to emigrants from our town for the upcoming year of 1974 and his wishes that peace and quiet will reign with our country's neighbors.

We received an invitation from the Polish Kremenets Emigrants Club in London to their annual meeting in London in October 1972.

Here is the text of the invitation.[3]

[Page 23]

A research prize in the name of Shmuel Shnayder, of blessed memory, was awarded on November 18, 1972, by the Organization of Kremenets Emigrants to Mr. Ortsion Bartana for his graduate research on “Hebrew Short Stories during the Enlightenment Period: Yehuda Leyb Gordon and Berndshteter.” The amount of the prize is I£1,250. It was donated by our member Zev Shnayder of Detroit, USA, in memory of his father. Professor Gedalyahu Alkoshi, head of the Enlightenment Literature Department at Tel Aviv University, recommended the prize recipient, and the nomination was approved by the rector, Professor Sh. Simonson. The ceremony took place at Tel Aviv University under the direction of Dr. Y. Haefrati, head of the Institute for Research in Hebrew Literature.

Professor Alkoshi lectured on R' Yitschak Ber Levinzon (RYB”L) and praised the Organization of Kremenets Emigrants for its project to immortalize his name. Our member Litev talked about the personality of the donor, Zev Shnayder, an admirer of RYB”L and founder of the library that carries his name.

Bust of RYB”L. The famous sculptor Yakov Epshteyn, from Kremenets, a resident of Bat Yam, molded a bust of RYB”L on his own initiative, and now we need to cast it in metal. Our member Epshteyn donated his work, but the casting will cost around I£3,000. The board was able to collect donations for half the cost and is hoping to collect additional donations to reach the required amount. The bust will be on display in a suitable location at the RYB”L Library.

Composition of the organization's board: During the year, a number of members volunteered to take part in the board's activities, and in contrast, member Shmuel Tsizin left the board because of his health.

The current composition of the organization's board is (in alphabetical order):

(1) Argaman Avraham, (2) Ot-Yakar Mordekhay, (3) Berenshteyn Tsvi, (4) Goldenberg Manus, (5) Golberg Yehoshue, (6) Golberg Yitschak, (7) Vilderman Barshap Leya, (8) Zats Klara, (9) Taytelman Shmuel, (10) Teper Fishil, (11) Nadir Rachel, (12) Rokhel Yitschak, (13) Shtern Berel (Boris).

Outside Tel Aviv, the board is constantly in touch with member Yitschak Portnoy, Haifa.

[Page 24]

Members of the Editorial Board of Voice of Kremenets Emigrants are (1) M. Goldenberg, (2) Y. Rokhel, (3) A. Argaman, (4) M. Ot-Yakar, and (5) Y. Golberg.

Members of the RYB”L Library and Scholarship Fund Board are (1) P. Litev, (2) Y. Rokhel, and (3) A. Argaman. Representing the organization and the university are (1) Professor G. Alkoshi, (2) Dr. Y. Haefrati, and (3) Dr. N. Gobrin.

Members of the organization's review committee are (1) Yitschak Portnoy, Haifa; (2) Dov (Boris) Shtern, Holon; (3). Shmuel Shnayder, Rechovot; and (4) Avraham Gokun, Haifa.

So far, the board has held one meeting.

Aleksandra Tseytag-Teresova

In spite all of our efforts to bring our townswoman Aleksandra Tseytag-Teresova to the Land as a tourist (she saved eight Jews in Kremenets from the claws of the Nazis, exposing her life to danger), the Polish authorities have refused to provide her with an exit visa.

Important Guests from Canada and Argentina

On Saturday night, April 27, 1974, a warm reception for Kremenetsers from abroad took place at the Kremenets room at the Kibbutzim College: Mr. Yosef Margolis and his wife, from Winnipeg, Canada; his sister, Manya Margolis; and Mr. Neta Kiperman and his wife, from Buenos Aires. Board members and friends of the guests also attended. As usually happens at that type of party, they brought up memories of the distant past, when all the guests were young and energetic and when Kremenets was still a Jewish town. Mr. Yosef Margalit is an important donor to religious causes. With his support, a great yeshiva was established in the city of Miami, Florida, USA. The yeshiva is called the Margolis School for Higher Jewish Education.

He had planned to visit the Land a few years ago but postponed the visit due to illness and the Yom Kippur War. We wish him good health, and we hope that he will come to the Land from time to time.

Mr. Nudel and his family arrived from Argentina to settle in the Land. We wish them an easy and comfortable transition. If only more would follow in their footsteps. Kremenetsers in the Land wholeheartedly welcome them.

[Page 25]


To Yehoshue and Mira Golberg, Tel Aviv, on the marriage of their son to his fiancée, Miryam, of the Holsonski family.

To Betsalel and Irena Golberg, Haifa, on the marriage of their daughter, Ilana, to her fiancé, Moti, and the marriage of their daughter, Chana, to her fiancé, Arye.

To Bela and Shmuel Gun, Haifa, on the marriage of their daughter Sefira, to her fiancé, Dubi.

To Avraham and Shoshana Gokun, Haifa, on the marriage of their daughter, Mira, to her fiancé, Tsvi.

To Sara and Aharon Gletshteyn-Sela, Haifa, on the birth of their grandsons to their son, Yoram.

To Moshe and Bronya Tshilap (Tilon) on the marriage of their daughter, Shoshana, to her fiancé, Avi.

To Vitya and Yitschak Vaynshteyn, Tel Aviv, on the birth of their granddaughter, Neta, to Lili and Boaz Natsits, Beersheba.

To Cherna and Aharon Milgrom-Shkurnik, Haifa, on the birth of their granddaughter to their son, Yitschak.

To Shoshana and Chayim Mordish, Buenos Aires, on the marriage of their son, Lionardo, to his fiancée, Mia Kushnir.

To Yosef and Genya Margolis on the marriage of their daughter, Bat-Sheva, to her fiancé, Moshe.

To Aba and Rachel Kneler, Ramat Gan, on the birth of their grandson, Amir, to their daughter, Miryam Kalin.

To Shulmia and Gedalyahu Kindzior, Haifa, on the marriage of their daughter, Sharona, to her fiancé, Beni.

To Yurek Pikhovits and his wife, Haifa, on the birth of their granddaughter.

To David and Sonya Tsukerman, Haifa, Neve Shaanan, on the marriage of their son, Zev, to his fiancée, Sima.

To Rachel Rokhel, Tel Yosef, on the birth of her fourth grandson, Shay, son of Amir and Eilat.

To Zahava and Yonatan Rozenberg, Haifa, on the marriage of their son, Kalman, to his fiancée, Liora.

To Yosef and Guta Shifris, Tel Aviv, on the birth of their granddaughter, Dina, to their daughter, Bilhah.

To Brayna Kotliar, Tel Aviv, on the birth of her granddaughter, Orli, to her son, Gidon.

To Tanya and Munya Shtern, Haifa, on the marriage of their son, Rami, to his fiancée, Sofi.

To Yitschak (Kitsya) Goltsberg, Tel Aviv, on the birth of his fourth great-grandson, Ehud, to his granddaughter, Ela, and her husband, Yakov Kozlovski.

To Yehudit (Itka) Shtern (née Rozental), Kiryat Yam, on the birth of her grandson, Ori, to Shevach and Irit Shtern.

May they all be blessed, and may the celebrations among us be many.

Typical House in Kremenets


[Page 26]


To Irka Biran-Gindes, Haifa, on the death of her husband, Utek Biran, who died during his trip to Rumania.

To Liova Dikhtiar, Haifa, on the death of her husband, Avraham Shtetmoher.

To relatives in Canada and the United States on the sudden death of Leya Mendelshtam Panakh in California.

To the Kibbutzim College management on the untimely death of director Sashka Levin, an educator and loyal friend of the Organization of Kremenets Emigrants' memorial project.

To the Yonatan family and Kibbutz Kabri on the death of the family's mother, Yentel Yonatan-Verthaym, who laid the foundation for early childhood Jewish education in the town of Kremenets.

May their memory be blessed!

As the booklet went to press, we received the sad news of the death in Ramat Hagolan of Dr. Yosef Haefrati.

He was a lecturer in literature and the director of the Institute for Research in Hebrew Literature at Tel Aviv University. The Organization of Kremenets Emigrants' RYB”L Library operates under the patronage of the Katz Institute and enjoyed the loyal guidance and encouragement of the deceased, who cared about its development and advancement. With his death, our library has lost a loyal friend.

Our condolences to the family, the Katz Institute, and Tel Aviv University.

[Page 26A]

As the Booklet Went to Press

We have just received the sad news about the passing of a distinguished fellow townsman, Professor Zev Chasid, in Berkeley, California, USA.

He was a world-renowned scientist in biochemistry and a recipient of important awards in science. He was associated with the Weizmann Institute of Science and visited it from time to time.

He maintained a warm relationship with Kremenets emigrants, exchanged letters (in good Hebrew), and at times visited the RYB”L Library.

His life story was published in booklet 3 of Voice of Kremenets Emigrants.

He died childless; his wife died a year ago. His brother is Avraham Chasid, a member of Moshav Herut near Tel Mond.

May his memory be blessed.

[Page 56]

Funds Received from Abroad

Yehoshue Golberg

The following is a list of funds donated by Kremenetsers abroad, organizations and individuals. This continues the previous list in booklet 10.

I give a full report of contributions to the scholarship fund on page 17, which includes sums from abroad.

For Voice of Kremenets Emigrants
12/28/72 Max Desser, Canada $ 20  
12/28/72 Efraim Byk, America 20  
1/23/73 David Rapoport,New York 25  
3/4/73 Aharon Gelerint, Milan, Italy 30  
4/22/73 David Rapoport, New York 33  
4/28/73 Kremenitser Society, New York 50  
5/6/83 Mark Desser, Canada 15  
5/15/73 Argentina Organization, by Chayim Nudel 20  
5/15/73 Max Desser, Canada 20  
7/5/73 Bronya Bakst, New York 30  
8/9/73 Mandelshtat-Panakh, New York 20  
10/4/73 Morris Medler, Tucson, Arizona, America 20  
10/26/73 Norman Desser, Brighton, Mass. 50  
2/21/74 Yitschak Vakman, New York 50  
4/19/74 Argentina Organization, by Neta Kiperman 100 $503
For new immigrant aid
4/19/73 Yitschak Vakman, New York $100  
4/4/74 Yitschak Vakman, New York 100 $200
For other organizational expenses
5/6/73 Zalman Karner, New York 10  
5/6/73 Velvel Kagan 6  
5/6/73 Shulamit Boyer-Karner, New York 20  
7/5/73 Zev Shnayder, Detroit 50  
1/3/74   $200 $286
Total $989
Given in Israel, for Voice of Kremenets Emigrants
6/28/73 Yisrael Laybel, Argentina I£ 30  
7/5/73 Chayim Taytsher, Brooklyn, by Leyb Shvarts 105  
7/24/73 Hinda Shvartsapel, New York 415  
Total I£550


Editor's Notes:
  1. “General Federation” in Hebrew is HaHistadrut HaKlalit shel HaOvdim B'Erets Yisrael, or General Federation of Laborers in the Land of Israel. [Ed.] Return
  2. Pinkas Kremenets is a memorial book published by the Organization of Kremenets Emigrants (ed. A. Stein, Tel Aviv: 1954). See [Ed.] Return
  3. The invitation (written in Polish) has not been translated. [Ed.] Return


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