Table of Contents Photographs »


Translator's note. In many cases, the photos were translated into English already in the text. However, usually the English translation was not complete. In some cases, it was not an exact accurate translation of the Hebrew or Yiddish. I augmented the translation of these captions to reflect the Hebrew or Yiddish. I include here all of the photo captions, even if they were already translated completely in English, so that the reader can get a complete overview of all of the photo captions.

For captions describing title pages of books, I often augmented the caption with information from the title page itself when not included in the caption (such as date and place of publication, main topic, etc.). I did not include a full translation of such title pages.

There are two page numbers to each page of text in the book, as each of the two columns on a page has its own page number (i.e. the numbers are really column numbers rather than page numbers). In the list below, when a picture spanned an entire page in width, I mentioned both page numbers. However, in the index, it is only listed with the first page number.

The index of names below is not part of the text, but was rather compiled by myself as I translated the captions.


Map of Grodno – translation of legend of this map is included in the text translation at its appropriate page.


Remnants of the ancient Jewish Quarter: the “Shulhof” (Synagogue Yard) Ghetto. Photographed from the vantage point of the river in the late 1940s. Above the slope, to the left is the area of the old Jewish cemetery.


Grodno in the 16th century, a gravure from 1568.


The Great Synagogue, named for the Levush


The 'Ratusz' (Old Town Hall). A view of its southern side on the Sabbath day, when the stores are closed.


Title page of the “Sefer Haradni” {A Kabbalistic work on the Book of Ruth, published in Lemberg in 1884}.


Excerpts from the Statutes of the “Chevrat Mishnayot Ve'Alshich” in the Parbar suburb across the river, 1767.


Title page of Rabbi Alexander Susskind's “Testament”.


Excerpts from the annals of the “Bikkur Cholim Society” (Society for Visiting of the Sick) of Grodno from 5579 – 1819.


Title page of the first Hebrew book printed in Grodno, 1778. The book is called “Zera Yaakov” (The Seed of Jacob).


Title page of “Pirke Rabbi Eliezer” (Chapters of Rabbi Eliezer) printed in Grodno by Baruch Mas (Romm) in 1797.


Title page of the annals of “Chevra Shas” (The Society of Talmudic Study), from the suburb. This is from the year 5590 – 1830.


Title page of the book “Nezer Aharon” (Crown of Aaron) by Rabbi Aharon Miadler. A wonderful commentary on the book of Kohelet (Ecclesiastes), published in Piotrkov, 5674 – 1914.


Rabbi Alexander Moshe Lapidot


Title page of the book “Toldot Menachem” on the life of “Reb Nochemke”. Published by Aryeh Leib Miller in Piotrikov, 5673 (1913).


The poet Yissachar (Dov) Ber Hurwitz


{middle of page} The writer Menachem Mendel Davidson

{bottom of page} the writer Avraham Shalom Friedberg


Th poet Abba Konstantin Shapira


Title page of the book “Ir Giborim” (The City of the Mighty) by Shimon Friedenstein, the first historian of the Grodno Jewish community. Published in Vilna by Yehuda Leib the son of Eliezer Lipman Metz, 5640 (1880).


The writer Yisrael David Miller.


Reb Fishel Lapin


Rabbi Moshe Yehoshua Yehuda Leib Diskin


A letter from the year 5640 (1880) from the “Yishuv Eretz Yisrael Society” of Grodno to Reb Yechiel Michel Pines of Jerusalem, regarding the purchase of a plot of land in Petach Tikva.


Reb Mordechai Diskin, one of the first settlers of Petach Tikva.


Members of the Vilbushevicz family (1883). Standing on right is Izak Vilbushevicz, who immigrated to the land of Israel in 1882 and worked there with Biluim. Standing on the left is his nephew Dr. Yosef Chazanovitch. Sitting on the left is his sister Chana Vilbushevicz, in the center is his mother Sara (nee Rosenzweig).


{center} Yisrael Shochat


Rivka Pozniak


{top} Eliezer Shochat

{center} Chana Maisel


Noach Bas, Yosef Sprincak (the Speaker of the first Knesset of Israel), and the Hebrew writer A. A. Kabak, in Grodno, 1905.


Naftali Hertz Dreier, an activist of the Jewish Self Defense of Grodno.


The tobacco factory of Shereshevski and partners.


“Yurzike” (ancient Jewish Ghetto) in winter.


Dr. Shmaryahu Lewin, Zionist leader, orator and writer, the “government rabbi” of Grodno.


Rabbi Eliakim Shlomo Shapira


Rabbi Zeev Wolf Margaliot (Reb Velvel)


Rabbi Moshe Yehuda Rabinowicz


Michael Uriahson, delegate to the First Zionist Congress.


Mordechai Janowski


Shlomo Pasmanik, one of the first Labor Zionists of Grodno


{top} Leading figures of Poale Zion in Grodno (1904-1908). The committee: from right: Feitshe Starodob, Avraham Rebeikov, Avraham Krinitzi, Binyamin Eisenberg, Rivka Pozniak.

{lower right} Active Poale Zion workers among the ranks of the Russian army. From right: B. Eisenberg, Sh. Janowski.

{lower left} Binyamin Weller


The Cheder Metukan, 5669 (1909). Grade 9 on Lag Baomer. Middle row from the right: the teachers and members of the supervisory committee: Zaltmanovitch, Klaczkowski, Berta Isakovna, Yehoshua Lewin, Rif, Betzalel Jaffe, Dufelberg, Chazan, the music teacher. In the continuation of the row, the administrator (Shamash).


The teaching staff of the “Cheder Metukan”, 5672 (1912). From right: Chazan, Yehoshua Lewin, Bloch, Zeltzmanovitch, A. D. Minkin, Eliahu Diskin, Reuven Vigdorovitch, Aharon Kahanshtam the principal of the cheder and of the pedagogic courses.


Title page of “Bein Or Lachoshech” (Between Day and Night), by A. Miller, Vilna 5661 [1901].


{bottom} The first group to be trained as Hebrew teachers in Grodno. Sitting second from right: the group's teacher Yavnin, Josefson, A. L. Semiatizki.


The first graduating class of the Hebrew pedagogic courses, with the teachers and the members of the supervisory committee. Sitting from right, in the first (bottom) row, fourth person: A. Karon. Second row, Y. Dopelberg, Ch. A. Chazan, Moshe Taraschanski, A. Kahanshtam, Tzvi (Grigory) Katznelson, Moshe Gildin (music teacher), L. Rif, Shmuel Lewin. Third row standing, second from left – A. A. Zalmanovitch. Top row, first from left – Avraham Golomb.

{183 - 184}

The Hebrew poet Shaul Tchernichovski on a visit with the Hebrew Pedagogic Courses during their third session in 5669 (1909). Seated, from the right, in the first (lowest) row: 7) Gad Shklarski; second row: 4) A. Kahanshtam, 5) the poet Shaul Tchernikovski, 6) Dr. Sh. Y. Tsharno, 7) the poet Yaakov Lerner, 8) A. A. Zeltzmanovitch. Third row: 2) Gershom Muradow, 4) Yitzchak Spivak; Fourth row: 3) Y. Wermel, 6) Yechezkel Han, 7) A. Diskin; Sixth row: 6) A. D. Minkin.


Reuven Yosef Paikovitz (father of Yigal Alon, general and minister in the Israeli Government).


The Vilbushevicz family (1920). From right: Nachum, Manya Shochet, Tzila (nee Broda), Moshe, Gedalia.


Eliezer Prudovski


People from Grodno who made Aliya to the Land of Israel during the Second Aliya

{upper right} Yehuda and Feiga Riva Tankus

{upper left} Yisrael Shochat (in the center) among the members of “Hashomer” Mascha-Kfar Tavor, 5669 (1909)

{center right} Betzalel Jaffe

{center left} Meir Shochat

{lower right} Rachel Maisel

{lower middle} Necha Neiman

{lower left} Tovia Matus


Distribution of daily food portions at the Jewish Children's Home. On the right is the nurse Sonia Starodob.


Leaders of the “Yiddishe Kunst” Society. From right: Noach Bas, Dr. Mordechai Boroditzki, Avraham Zak, Leib Neidus, and Baruch Kasin.


The “Kibbutz” (Yeshiva) Shaarei Torah, in the year 5678 (1928). Sitting in the second row from the bottom, from the right: 2) Moshe Salman 4) The teacher Yakir Landa, 5) Yitzchak Wasilishki, 7) Reb Y. M. Zak, 9) The Rabbi of the German army Dr. Erich Winter, 10) the head of the Yeshiva Rabbi Moshe Wolfson, 11) Reb Yosef Leib Nandik, the spiritual overseer of the Yeshiva, 12) Luwitz, one of the trustees (gabbaim), 13) The founder of the Yeshiva Reb Reuven Soloveitchik. In the lowest row, fifth from left – Peretz Sandler. In the third row from the bottom, standing sixths from the right – Moshe Betzalel Shapira, later a minister in the government of Israel.

{217} Public announcement of the Temporary Municipal Committee concerning distribution of ration cards.


Seal of the District Magistrates Court, January 1919.


The committee of “Shaarei Zion”. From right: Yosef Eisenstein-Barzilai, Alexander Kasin, Isser Kulik, Chaim Pasmanik, Dov Rabin, Yisrael Shipers, Yehuda Stolarski-Sneh, Shlomo Wolikow, may G-d avenge his blood.


The Local Zionist Committee in 1919, at a farewell party for Leib Jaffe as he was about to make Aliya to the Land of Israel. From right, sitting on the floor: Moshe Zandman, Dov Rabin; Sitting in first row: P. Matus, Yehoshua Lewin, Wishniak, Dr. M. Boroditzki, Leib Jaffe, Hillel Isser Janowski, Tzvi Soloveitchik, Eliahu Hurwitz, Mordechai Rebiakov; Standing: Meir Belko, Hillel Panowka, Abba Brustin, A. Tarlovski, A. Goldshmid-Gad, Yitzchak Yezerski, Y. Lewinstein, Yehoshua Pomerantz, the artist Marc Lev, I. Kulik, Tovia Zamkow, Yaakov Shereshevski, Rabinowicz.


Active members of the Zionist youth organization Cherut-u-Techiya

{on right} Yeshayahu Fainsod

{on left} At the conference in Grodno, December 31, 1919. Seated from right, in the first row from the bottom: 1) Aharon Goldshmid, 2) Itzkowitz; Second row: 4), Tzvi Belko, 6) Shlomo Jokowski, 7) Mordechai Tzafnat, 8) Yaakov Janowski; Standing in the third row: 1) Shapira, 3) Topolanski, 4) Moshe Marder, 6) Elimelech Gornitzki-Goren, 7) Zbar, 8) Adin, 9) Peretz Sandler, 11) Kimhi, 12) Chaim Jablonik (Jablokof); Fourth row: 2) Lutenberg, 3) S. Weinstein 5) Etrog, 6) Yosef Zandman, 7) Shlomo Kimhi, 8) Novak.


Members and friends of “Hechalutz” visiting the “Hachshara” at the tobacco plantation in Pocubiyaty in 1919.

Seated from right: first row from the bottom: 1) Yehuda Janowski, 2) V. Soloveitchik-Zamir. Second row: 1) Meir Yezerski, 4) Efraim Payes, Yaakov Shereshevski, 7) Alexander Kasin, 8) Aharon Zachari, 9) Avraham Stariski, 11) Elenhorn. Third row: 1) Tova Alexandrovitch (Torenheim), 3) Anders, 4) Avraham Tzadok Koloditzki, 5) Ch. Pasmanik, 6) Rachel Kaplan-Payes (Ben Ami), 7) Zeev Dov Drozdowski, 8) Y. Lewinstein, 9) Mrs. Soloveitchik, 10) Abba Tarlovski, 11) Tzvi Soloveitchik, 12) Y. Kuczkowski, 13) Mrs. Fis, 14) Mina Cohen-Amami, 15) Mata Kaplan Ben-Yosef, 15) Eliezerovitch.

Standing from left in fourth row: 1) Hillel Panowka, 2) Goldberg, 3) Blodworska, 4) Yocheved Janowski (Aharonowski), 5) Sara Janowski, 6) Dina Bas-Gan. Fifth row: 1) Binyamin Dashut-Nachmuni, 2) Dov Rabin, 3) Yitzchak Wasilishski, 5) Yitzchak Gan, 6) Akiva Shklarski, 7) David Payes, 11) Yedidya Janowski, 12) David Rubin, 13) Yitzchak Nofech, 15) M. Manasewitz. Sixth row: 1) Shmuel Horowitz, 2) Asher Pochter, 3) Shaul Kalko-Barkli, 4) Mordechai (Marc) Lifshitz, 5) Avraham-Bar Paikowski, 6) Tzvi Klempner-Kafri, 7) Malka Rozovski, 8) Roza Klempner, 9) Yehuda Lubowski, 10) Nachman Milishkovski, 12) Matus, 13) Y. Eisenstein-Barzilai. Top row : 1) Eisenstein, 3) Yehoshua Pomerantz, 4) Aryeh Fis Ben-Ami, 6) Sara Gilula, 7) Sh. Welikow, 8) Yehuda Stolarski-Sneh, 9) D. Manasewitz, 10) Stolarskit.


Hechalutz members on Hachshara in the “Slobodka” garden plot on June 29, 1919, after the visit of the American delegation headed by Henry Morgenthau.

Sitting from right: 1) A. Shklarski, 2) Eliezerovitch, 3) Yehoshua Pomerantz, 4) Shoshka Yellin, 5) Rachel Kaplan-Payes, 6) V. Soloveitchik-Zamir, 7) Goldberg, 8) Sh. Wolikow.

Standing, first row from the bottom, from the left: 1) E. Fis, 2. Tz. D. Drozodowski, 3) Y. Eisenstein-Barzilai, 4) Dov Rabin, 5) Ch. Pasmanik, 6) Shoshana Yellin, 7) Payes (in the white shirt); Second row, from the left: 1) Abba Tarlovski, 2) Binyamin Kreinowitz, 3) M. Y. Krikstanski, 4) Wishniak, 5) Yakir Lande, 6) Avraham Kaplan, 7) Aryeh Goldshmid-Gad, 8) Tzvi Soloveitchik, 9) Efraim Neimark, 10) Binyamin Dashut-Nachmuni, 11) Y. Moarman, 12) Y. Shereshevski. 13 (the gardening instructor), 14) Yehoshua Belitzki. Top row, from left: 1) Belodworski, 2) Tzvi Klempner-Kfari, 3) Shmuel Zaionce, 4) Y. Stolarski-Sneh, 5) Zecharia Kimhi, 6) Aryeh Mostowski-Geshri.


Title page of Hechalutz song book “Shirei Zion” (Songs of Zion). Published by Sh. Gan, Grodno.


The medic Jonas administers first aid to the pogrom victim Yisrael Berezovski, Shavuot 1935.


Aharon Yezerski


The masthead of the “Grodnoer Zeitung” newspaper.


Board of directors of the Folks-Bank, 1925. Sitting from right, bottom row: 1) Yosef Marmer, 2) Kaplan, 3) Asher Zszurawski, 4) Yosef Rubinroit – chairman of the board of directors, 5) A. Chomul, 6) David Lewin, 7) Noach Bas. Second row: 2) Moshe Adin-Lipnik, 3) David Widricki, 4) Yaakov Burda, 5) Yosef Slip, 6) Orman, 8) Nisan Fein – director. Standing in top row: 1) Limoni, 2) Zelig Mifleb-Mifali, 3) Rivka Marmer, 4) David Manski, 5) Pinia Kaplan, 6) Manski, 7) Kobrinski, 8) Moshe Plotkin.


“ORT” branch committee in Grodno, 1920. Sitting from right: 1) Sh. Birger, 2) Yosef Yashunski, 3) Y. Shereshevski, 4) Tzvi Soloveitchik, 5) Abba Brustin. Standing: 1) David Berman Ben-Dov, 2) Yehuda Karon, 3) Mordechai (Marcus) Feder, 4) Yitzchak Gozanski – chairman, 5) Yehoshua Shulkes.


Workers of the Shereshevski tobacco factory, 1923.


Members of the “Hachshara” at work in the Kron vegetable garden. In the center is Avigail Kron.


Members of the “Hachshara” of Hashomer Hatzair in 1934 near their headquarters, with Leib Jaffe.


Active volunteers for medical and social aid. Sitting from right: 1) Dr. A. Lipnik, 2) Mrs. Chazan, 3) Olga Bulkovstein, 4) Sh. Ostrinski, 5) Dr. Rachel Gershuni, 6) Noach Bas, 7) Dr. M. Boroditzki. Standing: 1) Sara Iberski, 2) Sh. Garber, 3) Slip, 4) Mrs. Soloveitchik, 5) B. Abramowitz, 6) Y. Suchovlanski, 8) Dr. Gitis.


Yaakov Tarlovski, Last Chairman of the Jewish Community Council.


Rabbi Shimon Shkop


Interior of the ancient wooden synagogue of the suburb.


Rabbi Avraham Gelbord (Grodno Chief Rabbi) toward the end of his life.


Rabbi Aharon Rubinson (Rabbi of "Slobodka" area)


Cantor Baruch Kamenetzki


The Great Synagogue choir with the cantor and the choir director, Berezowski.


Keren Hayesod Committee and key workers. Sitting from right, first row: Mesdames Becker, Berman, Brustin, Shmulevitch, Alperstein, Berman, Mr. Koshvenik, Breina Dreier-Berger, Y. Kosowski. Second row: A. Shulkes, Y. Dufelberg, Mesdames Margoliot and Kosowski, Asher Kosowski, Leib Jaffe, Dr. Shmuel Chazan, Yehuda Margalit, Mesdames Bronerwein and Lapin, L. Rip, Shaliota. Standing in third row: Poliak, Wilin, Karasik, Sawitzki, Yitzchak Soloveitchik, Avraham Pomerantz, Eliezer Gelgor, Noach Bas, Avigail Kron, Mrs. Polak, Bielchik, Mrs. Feingold, Gutkin, Tovia Zamkow, David Dunski. Fourth row: Bzozowitz, A. Brustin, Ber Belko, Maichik, Lapidot, Lewin, Tz. Finkel, Shmuel Draznin, Beiram, Wolberg, Dlugach, Lipski, Avraham Faibuchewitch. Fifth row: Mishkin, Nachman Tankus, Yaakov Wolstein, Pinchas Wein, Eliezer Palnitzki, Zalishanski, Geretz. Top row: Woroshilski, Pozbaski, L. Zonshein, Z. Lubitch, Chaim Shaskin, Yitzchak Pozniak, Moshe Dreier, Pesach Sreiski, Avraham Babun.


A group of members of the Akiva movement. Sitting from the lower right: Moshe Alperstein, Rachel Neiman, Mordechai Soloway, Miriam Kaplan. Second row: 1) Shevka Drebianski, 3) the counselor Ben Yaakov, 4) Ada Rubinstein, 5) the counselor Jaffe, 6) Paula Kimhi, 7) Yitzchak Lev. Standing: Pesia Klempner, Fania Brodowitz, Michael Bas, Etka Kaplan, Isser Lewin, Yaakov Kushelewitz.


Avraham Kimhi


Hachshara of Hapoel Mizrachi in Karolinka.


Farewell party at Poale Zion, 1934. Seated at the table from the right: 3) Avraham Broida, 4) Yisrael Sas, 5) Eliezer Palnitzki, 6) Y. Walstein, 7) Eliahu Janowski. Standing in the center: Meir Belko, next to him on the right is Chaya Feder (nee Polachek), and on the left Pinchas Steinwachs.


Exhibition at the Brener Library. (library named after Y. Ch. Brener)


The Hachalutz Hatzair committee in 1925. Seated from the right: Zelig Mifalew-Mifali, Etka Chaiut, Zigelnitzki, Eliezer Graievski, Batya Broida, Chaikel Zalishanski may G-d avenge her blood, Mordechai Pomerantz, R. Gelbord.


Founders of Hashomer Hatzair, Grodno, 1923. Seated in the center: Yehuda Janowski, to his right is Misha Dashavski and to his left is Izak Hurwitz.


Members of Zionist Pioneer youth movements, with Leib Jaffe, 1925.

From the bottom in the first row, from right: 6) Rivka Brestowitzki, 7) Lea Elkes, last) Shmuel Diament. Second row: Y. Pozniak, P. Wein, N. Tankus, Shmuelevitch, Leib Jaffe, B. Dreier-Birger, P Sreiski, Herzel Marcus, Yosef Pomerantz, L. Zonshein. Standing in third row: 1) Ch. Gafni, 2) A Babun, 4) Michael Wolgel, 5) Ch. Shaskin, 7) Zerach Lubitz, 8) Daniel Stanetzki, 9) Yaakov Shore, 10) Yaakov Hurwitz, 11) Chana Shuruk, 14) Stanetzki. Fourth row: 2) Aharon Braverman, 3) M. Dreier, 4) V. Soloveitchik-Zamir, 5) Chaim Ziman, 7) Yosef Maayani, 8) Misha Gelgor, 9) Leib Kazlatzik, 10) Moshe Maltz. Fifth row: 1) Avraham Shure, 3) Abba Stein.


First Hachshara of Hashomer Hatzair of Grodno in Wasileibitz's estate near Sopotzkin, 1925. Seated on the bottom: Reuben Ben-Shem, the regional leader and founder of the farm. Next to him is Feibish Bendarski-Ben-Dori of the Chalutz Council.


Commanders of Betar in Grodno, 1935, with Menachem Begin. From right: R. Yellin, Aryeh Lifshitz-Lapid, Maniewitz, Y. Sawitzki, Menachem Begin, Sorin, Bialostotzki, Notess, Noach Zaruches-Zarchi.


Reb Zeev Wolf Berman (Chairman of Agudat Israel and member of municipal council)


The masthead of the weekly “Grodner Shtime”, 26 September, 1930.


Preparing an exhibition of “Jews in Poland” at the Zisho school. The teacher Leib Shifres in the center. Date on photo is 1938-1939.


Breakfast at the Talmud Torah school.


Tarbut secondary school, 1923. Sitting from the right in the center: the teachers Reuven Vigdorovitch, Dr. Sh. Gutman (principal), Shmuel Lubovski and beside him his son Asher Lubovski. Second row from the top: third from the right – Esther Berman (Kopelowitz), second from left – Rachel Lifschitz (Winkler). Third row from the top: first from the left: Chaim Rabin. Fifth row from the top: fifth from the right – Yitzchak Golnitzki-Golani. Sixth row from the top: second from right: Dov (Borka) Epstein (later a doctor), and fourth – Akiva Skidelski-Skidel.


Founders and teachers of the Tarbut schools, 1929. Sitting from left: Noach Bas, Dr. Sara Soloveitchik (the school's nurse), R. Vigdorovitch, David Braver (principal), Sh. Lubovski, Miria Cimand-Reiskind, Yedidya Dopelberg. Standing in the middle row: Zeev Yekel, Lea Shtutz, Dr. Tzvi Belko, Mrs. Berkman, Shabtai Kaplan, Dr. Shmuel Amarant, Simcha Rubinstein. In the upper row: Zeligman, Yisrael Landa, Y. Safrin, Adam Dam, Karo.


Excerpt from the opening page of Negohot, published by the students of the Tarbut schools of Grodno, March 25, 1929 (first year).


The Tushia school. Gornitzki's Cheder). In the row of teachers, from right: first – Shlomo Zhukovski, in the center – Reb Chaim Gornitzki.


Teachers and “Melamdim”. From right, sitting: Balun, Reb Shlomo Burinski, Shmaryahu Badilkes, Reb Ezriel the melamed. Standing: 2) Yosef the son of Reb Ezriel the melamed, 3) Reb Eliahu Olshnik, 4) Baruch Wolgel, 5) M. Leizerovitch.


Group of Bnot Yaakov. In the center is the counselor Esther Weinstein.


A class from the Yavneh School, 5689 (1929). Sitting in the second row, from right: the teachers: Chaim Melamed, N. Reizel, A. Feldman, Dr. Levi Memtzovitch. In the bottom row: Chaim Rubin.


Shimon Finkel in one of his first plays in Grodno..


Maccabi Sportsmen, 1925. Sitting in the center, from right: Yeshayahu Firnik, the instructor. Tovia Zamkow.


The Jewish hospital..


The Jewish orphanage.


The Old Age home.


The Folkovnik (folk ?) doctor, Colonel Boris Vilbushevich.


The first group of Hechalutz Olim from Grodno with the regional Aliya committee, May 1920. From the right, on the bottom: Aryeh Payes, Zecharya Kimhi. Sitting Efraim Payes, Yedidya Janowski, Leibel Goldshmid (from the Aliya committee), Isser Kulik, Gershon Hepner. Standing: Tzvi Klempner, David Payes, Binyamin Dashut, Yitzchak Lewinstein (of the Aliya Committee), Aryeh Geshri-Mostowski, Dov Rabin (of the Aliya Committee), Chaim Pasmanik.


In the Hechalutz Hachshara plot near Pohulanka, 1920. From left: 1) Yehuda Stolarski, 2) Boiarskit, 3) Shmuel Zaionc, 5) Yosef Eisenstein, 7) Yehoshua Shulkes, 9) Yaakov Shereshevski, 12) Leib Rubinov (the gardner). First from right: Yehoshua Belitzki.


Second group of Hechalutz Olim from Grodno, with other Chalutzim, July 1920. From left, bottom, the group who is making Aliya: 1) A. Tz. Koloditzki, 2) Sh. Adin, 3) Mulia Hurwitz, 4) Gittel Luski-Avi-Raziel Meseini, 5) Moshe Buxbaum (of Bialystok), 6) Sara Janowski (later made Aliya), 7) Dov Rabin, 8) Aryeh Goldshmid, 9) Yitzchak Gan, 10) Sara Prudovski-Avi-Aryeh, 11) Eliahu Goldshmid, 12) Yechezkel Charlap (didn't make Aliya, today in Canada). Seated: 1) Leib Rubinov, 2) Sara Kulik, 3) Yehoshua Shulkes, 4) Yocheved Janowski, 5) Yitzchak Lewinstein, 6) Rivka Babun, 7) Yitzchak Nofech, 8) Tovia Zamkow, 9) David Berman-Ben-Dov, 10) Meir Belko, 11) Nachman Milishkovski, 12) Yehuda Stolarski. Standing in third row: 1) Yosef Eisenstein, 2) Avraham Golub, 5) Reisner, 7) Shoshka Yellin, 8) Chaya Domblanski, 9) Dov Gofman, 10) Boiarskit, 11) Yatzblon, 12) Yaakov Walstein, 13) Reisner, 14) Shmaltzvia, 15) Leib Reisner. Standing in top row: 1) Elenhorn, 4) Dina Bas, 5) Matus, 6) Alexander Kasin, 7) Eisenstein, 8) Tovia Lutenberg.


Grodno before the Nazi holocaust.

Top: General view.

Bottom: The ancient wooden synagogue in the suburb.


On the day of the entrance into the ghetto, on Shloss Gas.

Top: At the ghetto gate (where the arrow is), at the Yatka Gesl corner. The central building is the judenrat headquarters.

Bottom: Waiting in line to enter the ghetto.


Grodno Jews on the way to the ghetto.

Top: the Nazis search entering Jews.

Bottom: After the search, on the right, marked with an X is Yehudit Lapin.


Young rebels of Hashomer Hatzair. Standing first from right is Gedalia Brovarski. Sitting in the center (marked with an X) is Shayka Matus. Third from left is Miriam Pupko.


Young fighters against the Nazi murderers (of the Hakarmel corps of Hashomer Hatzair).
From right to left in the first row at the bottom, sitting: 2) Tzila Shachnes, 3) Miriam Pupko, 6) Sara Shabchowitz. Second row: 2) Chasia Belitzki, 5) Eliahu Tankus, 6) Lonchik Pinchanski. Third row standing: 4) Fania Lipkus. Eighth from right in top row Eliahu Yezerski, the last one: David (Dodik) Rozovski.


Forged Aryan certificate of Bronia Vinitzki, with the name Jadwiga Szkibel.


Kvutzat Grodno (Grodno group) in Ramle, 1922, building the British governor's residence with Arab stone-dresser companions. From right, in the bottom center: 1) David Toviahu, later the mayor of Beer Sheva. Sitting in the first row: 1) Chaim Pasmanik, 2) Aryeh Yatom (From Amdur), 3) Aryeh Payes, 4) Rachel Kaplan-Payes, 5) Dina Bas-Gan, 7) Chaya Domblanski-Visovati, 8-10) B. Binyamini, A. Visovati and Nechemia Gutman (all three from Bialystok). Second row: 1) Y. Lewinstein, 3) P. Zarmi, 4) Yosef Eisenstein, 5) Lerman (the government inspector), 6) Tzvi Rothbord (of Krynki), 8) the engineer, 9-11) Shema Zak, Izak Ostrinski, Rothbord-Carmeli (all of Krynki). Standing: 4) Stolarski, 5) Isser Kulik, 8) Shoshana Yellin, 11) Shlomo Kluk (of Bialystok), 15) Aryeh Roitenstein, 16) Ch. Binyamini (of Bialystok), 17) Ibrahim Mukhtar (teacher of stone-cutting), 18) Helmer, 19) Yitzchak Gan, 20) Dov Rabin, 21) Mulia Hurwitz, 23) Handelsman-Cnaani.


Reb Moshe Chaim Shapira, the interior minister of Israel.


Avraham Krinitzi of blessed memory, a builder and fighter, the mayor of Ramat Gan for 45 years.


Reb Nachumka


Grodno printer's union. First from right: Isser Mas.


Grodno artisan's school for girls. Standing (from left to right: Beilka Alpert, Gershuni, Breinka Cheshes, Mattel Weisman-Mas, Yehudit Margaliot, Tzirel Groshkowski, Bluma Novak, Mirke. Sitting (second row): Henia Zdnavitch, Rebeikov (steward), Esther Yacheles (teacher), the engineer Gordon (teacher), Margalina (teacher), Chaim Rubin (sport teacher), Lea Pomerantz. Third row: Tzipa Shereshevski, Chaya Teper (Amdor), Heshke Turianski, Shereshevski (Skidel), Mirele Cheshes. Bottom row: Beilke Kleinvart, Lehka Klempner.


The house of Eliza Ozszeszko in Grodno. She was a famous Polish writer who was known for her friendship with Jews.


The professional school in Grodno. A lesson in the second grade. In the center: the director engineer M. Gozanski and teacher Diament. On the right: Berl Kreditor. Sitting in the second row on the left: Markl Kulkin.


The “Fire Brigade” of Grodno. Among the many I recognize the following: Meir Rubinstein, the editor of the Yiddish newspaper in Mexico; Yaakov Bendetson, an activist in the New York “United Grodner Relief”; Motke Tzeskin. Sent by Y. Bendetson of New York.


Betar in Grodno in 1932. First row: Mordechai Shulkes, Daniel and David Pinski. Third row: Tabalski, Liponski, Shoshana Yellin. Forth row: Nathan Yellin-Mar, Mordechai Kulkin, Yitzchak Kulik, Dina Binder, Tzvia Meirov. Chaim Staver, Yaakov Leizerovitch, Miriam Yellin, Aryeh Bilov (Bialostotzki), Noach Zarchi, Zalman Nanievitch, Y. Kreingel, M. Goldberg. Fifth row: Carmela Buzman, Leibel and Beilka Sarin, Chaya Etkes, Chava Kravetz. Last row: Reuven Yellin, Avraham Kulkin, Leibel Falak, Prof. Natan Grasovitch, Moshe Notess, Eliezer Gordon, Izak Bernstein.


A group of Maccabi sportsmen. Rotkin, Chaim Rubin, Yudel and Labondz.


Military training. A group of Betar members undergoing military training with instructors from the Polish army. From right to left: Mendel Rivkind, Avraham Kulkin, Reuven Yellin, Zalman Maniewitz, Sh. Zaruches, Chaim Naor, Eliezer Gordon, Braver.


Active members of the Grodno Organization in Israel, 1949. Sitting from left to right: Aharon Borda, ?, Dr. Shimshon Chertok, Reb Mendel Pozevitch, Yosef Kagan, of Chicago, Moshe Reisner and his wife, Pnina Rebeikov, Miriam Yellin. Standing: Berta Burde, Eliezer Palnitzki, Dvora Livni, Chaim Pasmanik, Yitzchak Livni, Meir Donski, Yitzchak Keidan and wife, Freda and Yosef Arkin, Moshe Alperstein, Reb Mordechai Rebeikov, Aharon Zachari, Yitzchak Yellin.


Dr. Shimshon Chertok of blessed memory, the chairman of the Grodno organization of Israel for 20 years.


The committee of the Organization of Grodno Emigres in Israel. Sitting from right to left: Shimon Mas, Chaim Pasmanik, Yitzchak Yellin, Aharon Zachari, Shmuel Diament. Standing: Mordechai Kostin, Moshe Notess, Moshe Alperstein, Freda Gershuni, David Menaker, Chaim Naor. Sitting third from left is Eliezer Palnitzki.


Administration of the Grodner Relief in New York: Abe Shultz, Jack Bendetson, Leo Garbolski, Morris Leon, Samuel Shneider, Jack Kahn, Willy Stein.


{top} A memorial gathering of the Grodner society in New York.

{bottom} The Grodner aid organization of the United States and Canada. Sitting from left to right: Mrs. Stoirn, Isadore Stoirn, Sam Babitzki – president, Tzvi Polak – vice-president, Dr. Shimon Chertok of Israel. Standing: Herman Jablekof – honorary president, Nechemia Gilmovski – director of UJA in America, Jack Kahn – general secretary.


The general secretary of the Grodner Relief of New York, Jack Kahn with his wife Helen at the memorial monument in the Har Chevron cemetery in Brooklyn.


William Stein


Phillip Karabel


Avraham Menes


Memorial gathering in New York, organized by the Yizkor committee of the Grodner club of New York in 1965. On the dais: Professor Karabel, Yitzchak Rivkind, Rabbi Moshe Grazalski.


Directors of the Organization of Grodno and vicinity of Buenos Aires, 1971. Standing: Chana Wolinski, Shalom Palanski, Reznikovski, Varbeitchik, Yehuda Wolberg, Leibel Mowshovitch, Leibel Talkovski, Shmuel Kleinvert. Sitting: Yehuda Atlas, Izak Novak, Avraham Zak, Fanny Zak, Shmuel Wolfovitch, Hersh Wasserman, Nissan Burak, Shlomo Zlatnik, Zeidel Lev.


Avraham Zak and Leib Neidus in Grodno (1917)


{top} “Mincha” (the afternoon prayer) after the memorial gathering on Mount Zion in Jerusalem. Standing from right: Chazan, Stanetzki, Chaim Naor, Yitzchak Yellin, Isser Kulik of blessed memory, Moshe Notess, Shmuel Diament.

{bottom} On the eve of the catastrophe. Grodner young men in their thirties. Shlomo Zshzakovski, Avraham Berger, Aharon Yellin, Moshe Alexandrovitch, Lewin, Ch. Berger, Zbar. Standing: Avraham Shereshevski, Moshe Rosen.


Memorial plaque for the Grodno community in the Holocaust cellar on Mount Zion in Jerusalem. Text of plaque is as follows: In memory of the community of Grodno, may G-d avenge its blood, which was destroyed during the Holocaust. Memorial day is the 8thof Adar. May their souls be bound in the bonds of everlasting life. Perpetuated by the Grodno emigres of Israel and the Diaspora.

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