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[Page 32]

Buczacz In Old Books

Translated by Adam Prager

We held a session as a rabbinical court with three judges and we were as one. We declared a ban in the synagogue, proclaiming that whosoever knew or heard of an engagement [kidushin] of the aforesaid Rakhel Bat Khayim should come and inform us and if he did not he would bear the sin for not doing so. And we sent the sexton from house to house to inquire if anyone had heard of such an enagement, since a ban had been proclaimed in the synagogue. But no one came forward to make a declaration, neither man nor woman, married or unmarried, came to give evidence. And we wrote and signed that here in the holy congregation of Biczacz, this day Wednesday the second day of Sivan 1572, we are witnesses that what was done was done. Yitskhak, son of Aharon David (of blessed memory); and head of the congregation [? ve-rak], the cantor of Biczacz Avraham son of Barukh (of blessed memory); Perets, the son of the reverend [khaver] Shlomo HaLevi (of blessed memory) Luri"a. The witnesses signed the aforementioned document before me with their own hand and I supervised the signing in the proper manner. Yuda [either Yehuda spelled to avoid tetragrammaton or influence of Yiddish Yude] Bar Binyamin z"l. Copied letter for letter in the body of the document.

of Rash"l R' Shlomo Luria, Responsum 101. S. Y. Agnon told me that Avraham Khayim Freiman (May God avenge his blood) brought this source to his attention. Ed.)


"The holy Gaon R' Avraham David, head of the rabbinical court of the sacred congregation of Buczacz wanted badly to see a copy of Sefer Khemdat Yamim [authorship unknown; see Yaari]. He heard that a householder in the town owned one. He sent someone to ask to borrow it. When the book was brought to him, he was engrossed in study and his table was full of books so that there was no clear space on which to set it down. He would not place the book on the books he was studying from and stood up in order to lay it on his bench; however, he remained standing by the bench and did not sit down until he finished looking through Sefer Khemdat Yamim.

(from Book, Author and Story, 2nd ed., section 14, cited in Avraham Yaari, Taalumat Sefer, Jerusalem, 1954.


Your name will be remembered with love, my dear and exalted Gedalia, son of the holy Rabbi Avraham (May the Lord watch over him and restore him). Behold, most esteemed one, in the matter of the engagement [kidushin] report concerning the young woman Blume, your daughter (may she live). I looked into the matter in the rabbinical court of the sacred congregation of Buczacz and found that the report was baseless, since both the young man and the young woman deny there was an engagement [kidushin]. In every such situation everyone agrees that the report is meaningless. Nothing is clear except a vague report which is insignificant and we have no anxieties about an engagement.

(From the appeal of Binyomin to R' Binyomin Aharon (Solnik), head of the rabbinical court of the sacred congregation of Podheyts, Mits, 1779, Responsum 88) [Forwarded from A. Y. Agnon]


To Our Master, Rabbi of all Israel, Delight of Our Era, Joy of Our Strength, Glory of Our Generation, Holy Seed Whom the House of Israel Glories In and Depends Upon, Servant of God, Holy Oracle, Most Holy Teacher, May his light shine. We needed an additional ritual slaughterer [shokhet] here in our congregation and there was a candidate for the post, A., in our area. The distinguished late head of the rabbinical court of Buczacz certified his qualifications. Our own illustrious rabbi thought to appoint him, for he had seen him use his knife and saw how swift he was both in slaughtering and in inspecting. But since the veteran learned Shimshon (May his light shine), son of the righteous rabbi of blessed memory of the holy congregation of Zabriz, intervened, his position was weakened. He then appealed to the local holy rabbi even though the presumption of his qualifications had not been invalidated according to our religion.

(Yosef Perl, Megale Tmirin, chapter 105. [This is an anti-hasidic satire.]


"This is the letter regarding his views about the Baal Shem Tov that Rabbi Rapoport wrote to his relatives in Buczacz. The letter lacks a date and at the head appears this addition by the misnaged Yisrael Leybl:

A letter from the honorable rabbi, gaon, illustrious paragon of his generation, and from his son, the great R' Shmuel Katz.

I hear that you intend to turn to the idolatrous physician that calls himself the Baal Shem. Never, never! He is awful and there is nothing to him. You would be throwing your money into the trashcan. It is impossible to put on paper the extent of his deceits, for he does no good, but only evil. Thus I advise you to turn from this path and God will be with you and will send you a complete cure if you will be innocent and do not turn to this idolatrous physician. Enough said, and may they not multiply in Israel.

Khayim Kohen Rapoport

Leybl was probably worried that people might question the authenticity of the letter and so added this remark:

We felt it necessary to state that the above letter was copied from the original, which is in the possession of one of our relatives in Buczacz. We still have relatives there from this important family. And we are completely confident of this great man, and if any evildoer so much as questions the authenticity of this letter and its writer, then he would show them the original letter and they would be convinced.

“When I first started writing this book in the sacred community of Buczacz situated in the district of Galicia, I was filled with great passion and enthusiasm and thus wrote quickly and intensively day and night. I would stay awake into the night until my eyes were too week to continue and could not see anymore. Eventually I became ill and my eyes ailed me greatly forcing me to spend all winter with treatments as all the citizens of Buczacz know.”

(Sefer HaBrit by R' Pinkhas Eliyahu of Vilna. Brin 1797. With a forward of one page.)

(cited in Prof. M. Balaban's History of the Frankist Movement, p. 308)

[Page 33]

A Letter to Agnon

Translated by Adam Prager

Written by Asher Barash, of blessed memory,
and published in HaAretz, celebrating Agnon's 50
th birthday

You have, thank God, reached your jubilee year [age 50] sound in both mind and body, and fortunate in having so many admirers who are celebrating this day in honor of you and of all the spiritual wealth you have bestowed upon them. I would like to speak briefly of the bounty I have witnessed from the day I first heard of you until this time. I offer you these words as a portrait of sorts, given to you on your birthday by the painter himself. Please do not pay too much attention to superficial facial defects, for painters delve into the soul of their subject.

I first heard of you about 32 years ago as S. Y. Czaczkes, a young man of Buczacz, a writer and poet in two tongues who published frequently in HaMitspe of Krakow, in the Togblat of Lvov, and in various other Galician periodicals. The poems were written in a popular Hebrew in the Ashkenazic poetical style of Hebrew poems in the Letteris Galician tradition. This verse was not particularly exact as regards meter and rhyme, yet it sounded pleasant and the content was moving. The poems dealt with Jewish traditions, reminding one of folk ballads. The stories were for the most part written in Yiddish. These were short tales in the style of Perets, abounding with tenderness and humor, with limited dialog, the author's voice dominating the story, and tending to a story-within-a-story structure (which you developed later on a wider scale in The Bridal Canopy).

We were young readers and writers who wrote in secret in the Jewish towns; we saw you as a small rising star in the skies of our land. We were sheltered in the country of the Emperor [Austria-Hungary], warm and comfortable in our respectable poverty. And if our fellow Jews in Galicia complained of hardships and deprivation, this was minor compared to what resounded from the lands of malicious rule (Russia and Romania). And Zionist aspirations in Galicia were nothing but a means of pleasing the great leaders, the famous heroes whose love for Israel burned in their hearts and mouths, especially after the death of the truly admired leader, Dr. Herzl of blessed memory. We did not expect truly great literary figures to emerge in Galicia, for in years past Galicia had none. The opposite was true of our brothers beyond the border, the forceful Jews of Russia, whose misfortunes were as great as their formidable achievements.

The arrival of a few refugees from Russia who knew Hebrew was like a rude awakening for us. Shaken out of our stupor, we realized how narrow-minded we were and decided that something had to be done concerning our spiritual and intellectual enrichment. You were among the first to decide to turn the dream of the Return to Zion into reality. After the death of the Lion, we observed the foxes, his heirs, and we somewhat scorned them. We found it difficult to live among them, and wanted to flee from them and their followers. Then, on your way to Erets-Yisrael, you came to Lvov, where I first met you.

Surely you still remember that singular evening at the home of our friend, A. M. Lipshits, who spoke Hebrew in a heavy manner with a Sefardic pronunciation and was a source of encouragement to Hebrew speakers in our town. We were a small group, six or seven Hebraists, writers or teachers, and you were the young man from Buczacz on his way to the literary rostrum, the guest who was truly emigrating to Erets-Yisrael. Why? One did not need to ask. Each one of us was ready to emigrate to Erets-Yisrael and to subsist there on a pitta and two or three olives a day. We were prepared for a life of poverty, but a pure life, based on the principles of true nationalism and practical morality, engaging in agriculture, guard duty, or any task we knew of from the Mishna or from Hapoel Hatsair [The Young Worker]. However, there were still some delays. A. M. Lipshits, who was always eager to meet stimulating people, spoke that evening. As always, he ranged widely on a variety of subjects in an eloquent and humorous manner. At one point he turned to you and asked you read from your writings, and while doing so he discussed your work as well as that of great Jewish and gentile writers. You started to blush and your lips expressed both willingness and resistance; your dense hair pressed upon your worried-looking brow; your head was heavy and your back was slightly hunched over like that of a man who spends many hours reading. But, nonetheless, you walked over to your coat, a coat of a young man from a small town, searched through the pockets and also through a briefcase. You held a handful of small and large sheets, some in order and others turned upside down. You started leafing through them in a somewhat embarrassed manner, sifting and selecting until finally reading to us one story or poem after another, mainly in Yiddish, which lends itself to oral delivery. You read with a melodious voice with subtle emphasis and intonation. At one point you did not want to read anymore and intended to stop, but Lipshits urged you on. The rest of us were laughing and enjoying ourselves immensely, but your face constantly changed colors as you blushed. During an interval, things quieted down and refreshments were served. Our host once again spoke, comparing Jewish and gentile writers. He ventured to advise you somewhat obliquely and the rest of us added encouraging remarks. Once again our host urged you on, “I know you have written more. Let us hear.” You blushed yet again and insisted it was not a good idea and that really you had no more suitable items for reading aloud. Nonetheless, you once again went over to your coat and briefcase, pulled out a smaller packet than the previous one, and read us several short pieces of criticism. Written in an unconventional way, these were bold and sarcastic observations on several Jewish writers. I still recall that phrase of yours: “fingers inspecting a decomposed lung,” which you used in discussing Brenner's writings with mingled praise and censure.

You suddenly stopped in mid-sentence and refused to read further. All our pleadings were to no avail. It was as if you had locked your mouth and thrown away the key. We sat and spoke while you gazed at us as if a bit frightened and a bit curious, your eyes filled with a faraway sorrow or a dream of a foreign land with different skies. When it came close to midnight, we accompanied you to the Vienna Station. Outside there was a scent of cool spring, almost like a drizzling autumn. We stood there, five or six people with raised coat collars, while you bade us farewell. With a youthful Galician voice, you promised to write us from the Holy Land. We saw you set out into a night which would lead to a dawn of sun, mountains and fields. We returned somewhat sorrowfully to our dormant town and parted in a warmer fashion than usual.

For several months I heard no word of you. Then one day there arrived from Jaffa an issue of HaOmer in which I found your first outstanding story "Agunot " [Abandoned Wives]. At first I didn't know whether you, Czaczkes, were the author, because to "S.Y." was added the unknown and somewhat strange name "Agnon." I suspected it was you, but did not know for sure until I heard from A.M. Lipshits. He spoke of you proudly and lovingly, as if it were his own son who had become famous in that far-off land (later he proved his love in an elegant pamphlet). My heart instantly succumbed to that scented blossom of a tale evolving around a wondrous Jewish theme. I was deeply moved by the succinct but multi-layered description of the Holy Ark falling backwards out of the window into the garden. All eyes focused on your work and many congratulated you, saying "Yishar koakh" [Well done!] as they would to a young man who had read the Haftarah [Torah reading from Neviim (Prophets)] nicely. We were proud of our successful friend, a rising star who might very well become a great one.

Then came "Tishri", "Be'era Shel Mayim, "and "Akhot" [Sister], as well as other marvelous poetic and reflective Hebrew-Scandinavian-Agnonian stories. We have since come to see you as one clothed in rich silk garb, turning secular into sacred, reality into fantasy. You have joined our literary hall of fame beside such figures as Perets, Berditshevski and other masters. The last story, at the time, "VeHaya he-Akov le-Mishor" [And the Crooked Shall Be Made Straight] was to us an ancient talisman you had polished and made to shine anew. It was a perfectly constructed epic tale in which the hidden-that-is-revealed more than balanced its emotional and rhetorical qualities. Even though we knew the story plot, your adaptation was woven anew with divine craftsmanship. We greatly supported Brenner's decision to become your publisher.

When, in Nissan 1914, I was fortunate enough to reach Erets-Yisrael, you were in Germany, I found several "fans" of yours who would speak of the young romantic lover of eccentricities and indulgences, loved by all and well acknowledged by writers. Shazar saw him as a friend, Sh. Ben-Tsion as a student and Brenner as a doer of wonders. Stories were told of you as if they had been taken out of a book of legends – all out of affection and faith in your future.

And you did not disappoint your followers: after the war appeared in succession Agadat HaSofer, HaNidakh[The Solitary],Maalot uMoradot [Ups and Downs] and the list goes on. Also given to us was HaOr Haneerav [The Evening Light] and, indeed, your light shines before you everywhere you go. And we also received Bi-Ne'areynu u-vi-Zekeneynu, a satire whose thin needles are buried in a wool fluff of humor and beautiful lyricism. For us, your fellow countrymen who were acquainted with the plot background, the enjoyment was twofold: that of art lovers and that of “accomplices.” Later appeared Bi-Demi Yameha [In the Prime of Life] in which western winds already blow, German culture leaving its mark. Yet your own wondrous weaving is present in every line. We were happy that you returned once again to the essence of literature: to life and reality. You were like the doe whose horns fan out as they grow. We understood your path in literature: you sought to reveal the light within the Jewish soul, heroism and spiritual devotion, love of the Torah and the yearning for Zion. Many of your stories praise Jerusalem, hasidim, people of action, and refined persons, and they denounce the ignorant, the assimilationists, the hypocrites and the misanthropes who help neither individuals nor community. In the new Yishuv [pre-state Jewish community in Erets-Yisrael], you loved the sons who were pleasing to God and nation, those who toiled to build the land while their souls aspired to the hidden light [haOr haGanuz 'saved seven days' light' for future tsadikim (Khagiga 12). Like a loving father who is engrossed in studying the Torah and communicates with his sons by signs, you tried to sing their song by allegory, exegesis, exposition and suggestion. And we witnessed how your language has been hewn from the marble quarry of our ancient and later literature, how you prefer the simple to the high-flown, how you revive words out of long-forgotten books. And we saw how you restore to public use words that people formerly would not dare to utter. You phrase your words clearly and rhythmically; you present ideas in a beautifully picturesque way that is always true to the sources. (We knew that you could not keep away from old books and parchment scrolls, and that you had become a great expert in finding all you needed.) We saw you, and I am not exaggerating, as a polisher of precious stones who chooses, polishes, and places his gems. We admired your work, although we knew of those who said that you over-embellished and sought to grow rich from mining old sources. These critics demanded that you speak like an ordinary human being so that they could plainly fathom who you were (M.Y. Berditshevski and others). For a time I too leaned towards this view and made a similar demand while referring to bi-Demi Yameha in an issue of Hedim. However, once I came to know your work as a whole and understood your style of writing (which has become second nature to you), I realized that no one may criticize you for what you lack. On the contrary, one should rejoice in the gifts that God has given you, gifts that enrich the human soul. Your oeuvre is plentiful; anyone may come and indulge in this literary plentitude. I also knew that no one should judge you for the few stories you wrote without divine inspiration (for who has not done so?) and for those which, though well-spiced, lacked the primary ingredients. But these are few compared to the many others that represent the essence of your work and that constantly reveal the vitality of your creative soul.

After perceiving the nature of your stories and how much you invested in them, I realized that all the praise you have won is well deserved. You, however, tended to underestimate your own work. I noted the exceptional way in which you compose your stories, for you do not aim to develop interest by plot alone. Rather, you try to reach the imaginative reader through serious substance that provokes thought. You use beautiful descriptions in epic style, portraying not by colors but by colorful dialogue. Your pen creates wonders as you concisely introduce traditional and sacred symbols in the language of scholars and believers [leshon khakhamim vekhasidim veyereim]. This vivid style is also seen in the Scandinavian Hamsun, the Frenchman Anatol France, the Jewish Yosef Perl and Glikl Hamlen, and in the works of the Bratslaver, Franz Kafka and other masters of mystery in the realm of literature. Your way of borrowing from old texts is as important as creating anew, for you take a bronze coin and return a gold one. I recall a passage in one of your short stories "Al Even Akhat" [Of One Stone]:“If we have entered this world in order to set right what previous generations have left undone, I can say that in certain respects I have succeeded in doing so.” I believe this passage describes an essential element of your work and its value. In this matter I refer especially to your bookPolin [Poland], first published by Hedim. Its beginnings go back to the book you edited in German during the war that beautifully portrayed the Jewish people in our native Poland. You found such a lovely motto for it in the Slikhot [supplicatory prayers recited before Rosh HaShana]: “Gentle Poland was destined to be kind to Torah and its practice from before the time the Jewish Commonwealth split into two (since Ephraim left Judah)." [see Isaiah 7:17]. The most beautiful sections are: "Maase HaEz" [Story of the Goat], and" Maase HaMeshulakh MeErets HaKodesh" [Story of the Emissary from the Holy Land," in which Poland and the Land of Israel are intertwined and where you reveal the way that leads from the one to the other.

We could not imagine greater courage and determination when we saw you working on an epic tale of the Jewish people. We were glad that the short version of The Bridal Canopy turned into a two-volume epic. Even though the seams are obvious in some places, we saw that you wonderfully combined all the materials into a homogeneous whole. You raised R' Yudl the Idler to new heights, turning him into a symbolic figure. You created a brother for Binyamin the 3rd and the rest of the idlers in the world who in their time were a gold mine for their owners. Even though the symbolic element in your idler is somewhat narrow, it is still richer and more complex than one sees at first glance. Due to his flimsy, weak, and almost wraithlike existence, you sentence him to bear many experiences, characters, fairytales, words of wisdom, Torah and anecdotes. Laden to the breaking point, he even carries the central character, R' Israel Shlomo Parnas, on his back without faltering. I only regret that you repeated a large part of the plot in a somewhat long and dry chorus.

Later on you added two more volumes to the four: one of them, A Simple Story,was completely new. However, title notwithstanding, the story is not simple, though it portrays simple Jews in everyday circumstances. Here you return to your wondrous weaving of human material, as can be seen in Be-Demi Yameha. Your fine filigree writing here shows acute perception of human nature. A single phrase brings the world to a standstill, a by-the-way remark illuminates a dark soul. One can find many fine picturesque and humorous passages. At one point, in the insanity episode, the story runs off track somewhat. Your cart wobbles for a while but finally arrives home safe and sound.

Your sixth volume (the last to date), Be-Shuva va-Nakhat,[In Return and in Rest – (see Isaiah 30:15)] – lives up to its name: legendary tales leisurely and tastefully told. It openswith Bilvav Yamim [In the Midst of the Seas – (see Jonah 2:4)] a tale on whose beauty many have commented. It is truly a fine hasidic story, a subtle work of art in praise of the first hasidim who emigrated to the Holy Land. It overflows with love for the Land of Israel; however, your magical pen does not transform all the miracles in the story into moving experiences – which miracles must be. This volume contains a number of legends of the greatest charm.

I have here surveyed almost your entire harvest, quickly examined your tools and implements at close hand, and I can say: May you be blessed for these bounteous gifts that so richly fill your granary: six handsome volumes, excellently edited and proofread, and bound in the best taste.

Whenever I take a volume of yours in hand and read any of its stories I immediately imagine you as I saw you that evening in Lvov. I see your blushing face and know what lies at the base of your work: your poetry originates from a youthful innocence of the soul. What blessing shall I wish you? I wish that that same gentle and sensitive soul who bursts forth from your writings will continue to do so in future volumes. You have been privileged to become a teller of tales in Israel; you have perfected your art uncompromisingly; your seal of originality is immediately detected. All those who try to imitate you are epigones. May you be blessed for many years to come.

I shall continue with my blessings and pray you find peace and solace with the Jewish people and in Erets-Yisrael. May our literature flourish like a fruitful garden. You will be placed among our greatest authors enjoying your art which in turn will bring joy to others. May our people be safe and sound and may they enjoy the teachings of their teachers. Amen.

My letter has become far too long and I have not even told you half of what is in my heart, but there will be time for that in future jubilees.

Yours truly, with love,

Asher Barash Ab, 1938

Photo Captions:
Shmuel Yosef Agnon
Yehuda Farb Hacohen, Agnon's grandfather
Gitel Reisa, Agnon's grandmother

[Page 39]

Buczacz - A Geographical Account

Translated by Adam Prager

1. The Name

Buchach in Ukrainian, Buczacz in Polish, according to which it was named in Western European languages, and the Jews called it B'tshuetsh (bet with shva na and the mlupim long [/u/], followed by a short segol [/e/] as in Buenos in the name Buenos-Aires). In Hebrew imprints, as in the names of subscribers or patrons (in Yiddish called prenumerantn [those who subscribe to a book prior to its publication – see the classic work, Sefer HaPrenumeranten, by Berl Kagan] – A.P.), the name in most cases is pronounced Buczacz. The origin of this name may be in the name of the forest buk (the beech tree.) If you look at a map of the distribution of this tree, you will find its eastern border near the town. Likewise, Bukovina was named after this tree. However, there is no sufficient explanation as to why the town was not named Bukacz. It is possible that the name originates from a non-Slavic ancient tongue. We know that in this area there existed a settlement dating back to the Neolithic period, long before the arrival of the Slavs. Perhaps the Slavs incorporated the name into their own language. The name of the Dnestr River, which is situated 21 km. from Buczacz, is without doubt of Celtic origin. (This view is supported by the fact that on the Siret River of Moldavia, about 169km. southeast of Buczacz, there is a town named Bucecea. In Poland and Russia no similar name is to be found. In the Czech Republic there is a Bucica).

2. The Geographic Situation

Buczacz is situated above the western bank of the Strypa River, 49 degrees 6' latitude north of the equator and 25 degrees 25' longitude east of Greenwich. It is 55 km. as the bird flies from Tarnopol (today Ternopil) the district capital today, and about 130 km. from Lvov, which was Galicia's capital in the time of the Austrians, and the capital of Red Russia in the Polish period prior to the first partition (1772). During the restored Austrian and Polish period, Buczacz was 62 km. from the Russian border, which for the Galician Jews was like an iron curtain. Buczacz is a typical bridge town, i.e. a settlement that developed into a town because it was on a river at a convenient point for crossing over on a bridge. It is one of twelve towns built in this fashion in the area north of the Dnestr.

There are several strategic advantages to Buczacz's geographical structure that helped in defending the town against the Tatars and the Turks, as well as during World War One. The Strypa River defends the town's eastern and southern borders. A forward line of defense is created by small lakes, pools and swamps through which the Olchowiec River streams. This river runs parallel to the Strypa 6 km. to the East. There was a fortress (Zamek) in the town and a small one (Podzameczek) in the north. To understand the town and its origins, one must study the structure of the southwestern area of the Podolian plateau on which Buczacz is situated.

3. The Geology of the Town and Vicinity

Podolia lies on a high plateau ranging from 350 to 400 meters in height. It slopes slightly towards the Dnestr River Valley situated approximately 200 meters below the plateau. Next to the plateau's northern border runs the watershed of the river networks descending southward to the Dnestr, the network of the Wisla tributaries heading northwest and the rivers of the Dnepr heading northeast. The road leading from Lvov to Brody is near that watershed. Due to the fact that the plateau slopes southward in a uniform manner, all its rivers and streams flow south. They are almost parallel to each other, creating a striped landscape between the streams and river valleys of western Podolia. Since the Dnestr, the largest and chief river, receives water in plentitude from the eastern Carpathian Mountains, it has created a deep valley at the southern edge of the plateau. Also, its rivulets have deepened the valleys beneath the plateau. The deepening of the rivulets grew as they neared the Dnestr, the main river's estuary. The plateau above Buczacz is approximately 375 meters above sea level on both sides, whereas the town's Strypa River channel is no more than 260 meters above sea level. One must therefore descend 115 meters in which not only the railroad track but also the road lengthens its route in order to lessen the incline. From the south of Buczacz all the way to the Dnestr the slope is steeper and the channel is not suitable for a bridge. The Strypa River starts out southeast of Zolochev, about 78 km straight from northern Buczacz. Its estuary is about 21 km south of the town. The river winds the most at its lower end. Due to narrowness of the valley, there is no connecting road with the other settlements. The connection is at the plateau above and not in the valley. Between Buczacz and the town of Zborov (birthplace of R' Benyamin), situated at the beginning of the Strypa, there is but an indirect connection. Traffic in Bucacz is principally east to west and vice versa, and not north to south.

The top layers of the Podolian plateau consist of rock sediment of the Triassic Period. Beneath them are Mesozoic layers (intermediate geological age) and Paleozoic layers (ancient). All the layers are almost evenly balanced and parallel to one another. In the river valleys the layers that are beneath the Triassic are revealed and as one gets closer to the Dnestr one finds earlier layers. In the Strypa Valley where Buczacz lies, Devonian layers (a period in the Paleozoic Age) were discovered which consist of hard chalk and hard sandstone. According to one tradition, sand with gold deposits was found in the Strypa Valley. Gold veins dating back to the Devonian Period were found in other places in the world, and it is plausible that gold was found here as well. Above the Triassic layers lies a thick layer of black earth, the Podolian and Ukrainian chernozem, known for its fertility throughout the world by its Russian name.

4. Climate, Flora and Agriculture

Buczacz's annual average temperature is close to 9 degrees Celsius. In January it averages 4-5 degrees below zero; in July, 20-21 degrees above zero. The frost lasts 3 to 4 months. An average temperature of over 20 degrees lasts a little over a month. Rainfall reaches an annual 450 millimeters, most of it in the summer. However, there are no rainless seasons. The amount of rain is less than in Tel-Aviv, but due to the low temperature the evaporation rate is lower than the rain quantity. Thus, in the Buczacz district, forests of deciduous tress extend over several km. on both sides of the Strypa all the way to the Dnestr. On the plateau above are left only small stands of trees. Wide fields of grain replaced the forests. Buczacz belongs to a region where the trees suffice for its own use, with some left for export. Nearby to the south lies a large district with a shortage of trees. The agricultural land makes up almost three-quarters of its area. Wheat, barley, oats, potatoes and all kinds of pulses are the major produce and much is for export. Fruit trees are of poor quality, therefore apples, pears, plums and cherries are grown for local consumption only. Cattle raising came to the fore prior to World War Two, with almost one head of cattle for every two people; horses, pigs and sheep followed in importance. Poultry-raising was common, but the chickens were inferior, as were the geese and turkeys. However, Buczacz horses were famous for their excellence.

5. Industry, Crafts and Trade

As in all of eastern Galicia, Buczacz and vicinity did not have a developed industry except for the manufacture of liquor from potatoes on the large estates. This industry requires the rotation of sown land (one must not grow grain for three consecutive years in one specific field) and the by-products from potatoes that are used to make alcohol (which serve as feed both for dairy and meat herds). Scarcity of good roads made it easier to bring cattle and liquor, rather than grains, pulses and potatoes, to market. In town there were small food-processing and beverage plants, as well as workshops for clothing, footwear and furniture. Buczacz buckwheat groats were known throughout southern and eastern Galicia, and were even marketed in Bukovina. These groats, also known as kasha in Slavic and Yiddish, would be served in soup at the Jewish table, especially at the second meal of the Sabbath. The packing-paper industry that once existed disappeared by the end of the nineteenth century. An old cottage industry dealt in carpets for beds and sofas and tapestries for walls (in Polish makaty, kilimy). The excess agricultural produce of the surrounding villages was brought to the city, distributed to the urban population, to the rest of the country and exported abroad; goods for local use were imported from abroad, especially from the West. Exports, which were few in kind but large in quantity, were shipped directly to their final destination. Imports, however, were of many different kinds, each in small quantity, and thus were imported by small jobbers who in turn dealt with large wholesalers in Stanislav or Lvov.

6. The Economic and Social Role of the Jews

Podolia is part of Red Russia (Reisin in our sources). The Red Russians are part of the Malorussians (the people of Little Russia), Rusinim in Polish and Ruthenians in German. In the twentieth century people started to call the Malorussians Ukrainians.

Buczacz lies in a Ukrainian region. The owners of the large estates were Poles. The town, like most eastern Galician towns since the seventeenth century, was largely Jewish. Trade, except in pigs, was almost exclusively in Jewish hands and most of the craftsmen were Jewish. The Polish population grew in the days of the Austrians due to the bureaucratic apparatus that was introduced. Buczacz was not a royal town, but belonged to the landed nobility. Up to the sixteenth century, the town was owned by the Buczaczki family, followed by other families. In the seventeenth century it was owned by the Potockis, one of the great Polish families, whose power exceeded that of the monarch. Nobles preferred the Jews to the urban Christians, for they could exploit them more readily. Moreover, the urban Slavs (Poles and Ukrainians) were no competition for the Jews in financial matters, and they loved to drink no less than did the peasantry. The Armenians, who were the only competitors to the Jews, succeeded not only in gaining wealth, but bought land, joined the nobility and abandoned commerce. Potocki patronage proved expensive to the Jews; however, merchants who enjoyed such patronage could be assured of safe passage in transit and of security from the rapacity of the lesser nobility. In the first years of Austrian rule, which began in 1772, the town was in the hands of a cruel master, Michael Potocki; however, thanks to the Austrian sovereignty, the Jews were able to stand up to him and to prevent his interference in communal matters. The nobleman protested to the authorities and the dispute reached Vienna. Josef the Second's Vienna decided that the Jews, unlike the peasants, were not serfs of the estate owner. Vienna was interested in the Galician markets for its goods, and the Jews were favored dealers. The Jews, moreover, were the first to become accustomed to speaking German.

The emancipation of the serfs on the estates in 1848 posed a great economic problem for the landed nobility. They found a way out of their difficulties by leasing their estates to Jews. Once Jews were allowed to buy agricultural land in the 1860s, Jewish leaseholders and other wealthy Jews began to purchase estates. Prior to World War One, most of the large estates were in Jewish hands, whether by ownership or leasehold. In the Buczacz region, approximately one-fifth of the owners of large estates were Jews. Up to 1907, estate owners elected representatives to the Parliament as a special bloc. A score or so of estate owners was held equal to 12,000 taxpayers.

The Jewish percentage of landowners was higher than their percentage in the general population. In the Tarnopol region, the Jews constituted thirty percent of the landowners. At the beginning of the twentieth century, Polish newspapers bemoaned the shrinking of the homeland, claiming the land was passing into Jewish hands.

Prior to 1915 Buczacz was surrounded by Jewish large-estate owners and leaseholders, and by gentile estate tavern leaseholders and rural dairymen who had contracts with both the Jewish and gentile estate owners. The six or seven thousand Jews in Buczacz owed their livelihood to their agricultural surroundings. The Jews were the catalyzers of productivity in the agricultural estates. Besides grain, alcohol and cattle, which were export products for generations, Jews encouraged cultivation of pulses, as well as poultry-raising for export (first of eggs and later of meat). In German newspapers a dozen years before World War One, Buczacz Jewish merchants advertized live fattened chickens, two or three in a cage, for sale to private buyers, with the health of the fowl guaranteed. When Ukrainian peasants joined the keen competition among these merchants, they undermined the Buczacz standards. They prevented the advertisers from keeping their word by shipping live "carcasses," thus tainting the name of Buczacz throughout western Germany. Butter purchased by the Jews from estate dairymen and, in small quantities, from peasants, was also exported. With the reunification of Poland, the farmers' cooperative took most of the trade away from the Jews. Just as export trade was in Jewish hands, so was import trade. Jews were agents for Austrian, Czech and German commercial and industrial firms. Thanks to connections with western countries, many emigrated to the West. Before 1915, craftsmen who lost their jobs, as well as bankrupt traders and storekeepers who could not reopen businesses under different names, emigrated to foreign lands. (A common trick before 1915 was for a bankrupt husband to reopen his business in his wife's name.) Competition between Jews and Poles and between Jews and Ukrainians was already in evidence under Austrian rule. At first the Christian craftsmen and tradesmen failed. Of one nobleman who opened a nail factory and a noodle factory, it was said that his noodles were as hard as nails and his nails were as soft as noodles. The Jews could overcome competition with private Christian entrepreneurs; however, a dangerous enemy of Jewish commerce arose in the guise of a Polish-Ukrainian cooperative movement. The nationalistic press preached severance from the dispensable Jewish middleman. This propaganda had an anti-Semitic coloring as early as the Austrian period. It was highly successful in the reunited Polish Republic, especially among the Ukrainians who were more closely bonded to the territory than were the fewer Poles. The Polish government settled peasants on the estates of large landholders, Jewish estates being the first to undergo agrarian reform. This land, the source for Jewish livelihoods for four centuries, was gradually pulled out from under their feet. Emigration to any country willing to accept Jews (including Erets-Yisrael) grew.

7. Buczacz Town Plan and Sites

Buczacz was surrounded by a wall, a rampart (waly) and a mote. When the threat of the Turks and Tatars passed, the town spread beyond these barriers, which eventually disappeared. However, the educated eye will recognize the nucleus of the town that was once surrounded, even if examining a small-scale map of the town. This nucleus was situated at the angle between the west-bending Strypa and a small stream that runs into the river in the northwest. There, at the point where the river valleys meet the stream, lies a plain part of which was used for the town market, known as Rynek in Polish, Ring in German and ringplats in Yiddish. Mikolai Potocki built the town hall here in the 1860s, one of the few distinguished edifices that Podolia can boast of. About one hundred years after it was built, the building burnt down and was later restored, but it lost its original splendor. The church that was built by the same nobleman is notable for its images of the Virgin Mary, regarded as works of art, and for its wood carvings. Besides the square area of the market, the old nucleus consists of only a few small streets. The new town and its suburbs spread into the valley on both sides of that same small stream named the Potok, to the west of the Strypa, and along the crossroads connecting to Buczacz: to the west the road and the railway lead to Monastrishtsh (Monasterzyska in Polish), to the east the same road leads to Chortkov, to the southwest the road leads to Podhayits (Podhajce in Polish) and to Berezhan (Brzezany in Polish), to the northeast it lead to Strusov, Mikolintsa and Tarnopol. Due to the narrowness of the river valleys and the stream, buildings in the town were constructed on the valley slopes. Houses were built close to each other and few had surrounding gardens, especially in the Jewish neighborhoods. This density is well mirrored in the Shbush (Buczacz) descriptions in the tales of S. Y. Agnon, the great son of this small town.

M. Y. Braver

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