In Memorium of Salonike;
The Greatness and Destruction of Jerusalem of the Balkans

(Thessaloníki, Greece)

40°38' / 22°56'

Translation of:

Zikron Salonike; gedulata ve-hurbana shel Yerushalim de-Balkan;


Edited by: David A. Rekanati

Published in Tel Aviv 1972 (Vol I), 1986 (Vol II)



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Lynn Gazis-Sax


Our sincere appreciation to David A. Recanati,
for permission to put this material on the JewishGen web site.


This is a translation from: Zikron Salonike; gedulata ve-hurbana shel Yerushalim de-Balkan;
(In Memorium of Salonike; The Greatness and Destruction of Jerusalem of the Balkans), ed. David A. Rekanati, Tel Aviv.
Vol I: 1972, 524+72 pages; Vol II: 1986, 626+60 pages.

Note: The original book can be seen online at the NY Public Library site: Thessaloniki (1972)

This material is made available by JewishGen, Inc. and the Yizkor Book Project for the purpose of
fulfilling our mission of disseminating information about the Holocaust and destroyed Jewish communities.
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The Greatness and Destruction of Jerusalem of the Balkans

Volume I

The Saloniki Community Book Publication Committee, Tel-Aviv, 1972

Fifth Year to the Liberation of Jerusalem (that she should be rebuilt in our days, Amen.)

The Committee

Avraham S. Recanati, Chair
Avraham A. Ben-Aruya
Chaim A. Toledano
Hananel Y. Chasid
Shemu'el A. Recanati
David A. Recanati

Ladino Table of Contents

11 Preface
13 The Jews of Salonika by Itshac Ch. Emmanuel
38 The Maccabbee - A Heroic Epoch of Zionism in Salonika by Avraham Ch. Recanati
41 The Beginning of the Socialist Movement by Avraham A. Benaroya
42 Hatehia - Society of Women for Gymnastics and Jewish Culture by Doudoun Recanati and Tamar Massa
44 The Zionist Movement in Salonika and in other Cities in Greece by Acher Moissis
49 A. J. J. - Association of Jewish Youth by Itshak Ben-Rubi
49 The Zionist Society of Max Nordau by Moche Nadjari (Al-Ness)
50 The Mizrahi Organization of Salonika by Haim Toledano
54 The Zionist Revisionists by Avraham Ch. Recanati

Hebrew Table of Contents

The Task of this Book

Page Chapter Title
1   The History of the Jews of Saloniki , by Dr. Yitchak S. Emanuel
3 One From the Beginning of Jewish Settlement until the Spanish Expulsion, 3620 5252
(140 B.C.E. 1492)
8 Two The Expulsions and Establishment of “Kahals” (Assemblies) 5252 - 5335 (1492-1575)
14 Three The Golden Age, 5252 5350 (1492-1590)
25 Four Catastrophes and Attacks Extrication and Recovery 5267 5397 (1507-1637)
32 Five The Assemblies under Unified Leadership 5378 5411 (1618-1651)
39 Six Shabtai Tzvi and his Adherents in Saloniki
53 Seven The Spiritual and Moral Crisis after the Conversion of Shabtai Tzvi
63 Eight Rabbi Yoseph Kob”o and his Friends New Currents
72 Nine Troubled Time for the Community, 5500 5542 (1740-1782)
82 Ten The Chief Rabbies and their Rulings, 5501 5542 (1741-1782)
96 Eleven The Turkish Wars and their Effect on the Jews of Saloniki 5542 5590 (1782-1830)
107 Twelve The Chief Rabbinate, 5552 5600 (1792-1840)
145 Thirteen Major Changes Buds of Western Education 5600 5635 (1840-1875)
145 Fourteen The Activities of Allatini and Mode'ano
161 Fifteen A Jewish Republic, 5648 - 5672 (1888-1912)
194 Sixteen National and Spiritual Shocks, 5648 5682 (1888-1922)
216 Seventeen The Zionist Era Emigration and Aliya, 5685 5700 (1925-1940)
236 Eighteen The Destruction of the Community by the Germans
265 Nineteen After the Shoah

Page Title Author
275 National Awakening The Zionist Movement
279 The “Maccabi” The Heroic Period of the National Movement in Saloniki Avraham S. Recanati
305 Youth in “Maccabi” Miriam Venezia
307 The Jews of Saloniki Founders of the “Maccabi” in New York Yitzchak Brudo
308 The “Maccabis” in the Greek War of Independence S. Yitchaki
309 The Beginning of the Socialist Movement among the Jews of Saloniki Avraham A. Ben-Aruya
321 An Attempt to Establish Saloniki as an Independent City a Scribe
328 The Jews of Saloniki in the Political (and Diplomatic) Life of Greece S. Recanati
331 Jews in the Greek Army Asher Moises
334 The Struggle for the Sabbath David A. Recanati
357 The 28th and 29th of June, 1931 Chaim Toledano
361 The “Maccabi” the Campbell Riots Asher R. Moises
366 The Zionist Movement in Saloniki and in the other Greek Communities Asher R. Moises
394 The Activites of the Keren Kayemet L'Yisrael D. A. R.
397 The Association of “The Children of Zion” Shabtai Shealtiel
398 “The Association of Young Hebrews” (A. J. J.) Yitzchak ben Rubi
401 The Association for Zionism and Sport “Max Nordau” Moshe Al-Nes (Najari)
403 The “Artzenu” Association  
404 “HaKo'ach” the Hebrew Union for Gymnastics D. A. R.
407 “Pro-Israel” Impressions and Evaluations of a Large Zionist Newspaper Dr. Uriel de Mendosa
416 “HaTechiya” Women's Association for Gymnastics and Hebrew Culture Dodon Recanati and Tamar Masa
423 How the “Eastern Zionist Association” was founded in Saloniki Hananel Yitzchak Chasid
424 The Mizrachi Union in Saloniki The Great Popular Movement for Torah and Tzion Chaim Aharon Toledano
455 “Bnei Mizrachi” (and Beita”r) in Saloniki Leon Pilosoph
461 The Association of “Young Mizrachi” D. A. R.
463 The Revisionist Zionists in Saloniki Pioneers of Political Activism, Founders of The International Movement, Harbingers of the Revolt in England Avraham Shmuel Recanati

Page Appendix Article
491 A: Jabotinsky in Saloniki
495 B: “An Important Greek Revisionist Blazes a Path through the Tzaha”r”
497 C: Jabotinsky's Suggestion to found “Herzl's Order”
Page Article
500 Zionist Songs (in Hebrew and Espaniol)
507 In Everlasting Memory of our Martyrs


Volume II

Ladino Table of Contents

Page Title Author
9 The Suburbs of Salonika Michael Molho
12 The Jews of Portugal in Salonika Mercado Covo
12 Marranos Living in Salonika Cecil Roth
13 Rabbi Levy Ben Haviv Itshac Molho
14 Rabbi Yoseph ben Lev and the Guevir Baruch Mercado Covo
14 Purim in Pesach Avraham Haviv
15 Rabbi Chaul Molho David A. Recanati
16 Rabbi Chabetay Gavriel Yeochua Rabbi Hizkia Yeochua
16 The Emissaries of Eretz Israel Itshac Emmanuel
18 The Destruction of the Cemetery Haim Ezrati
18 81 Inscriptions of Tombs  
20 The Institutions of the Community Daout Levi
22 City Mother in Israel Rabbi Benzion Uziel
23 The Community During Its Final Years Alfonso Levi
24 Letters of Veissi (1935-1939)  
24 Report about the Community Schools  
24 The Teachers of Hebrew Haim Toledano
26 The Alatini and Modiano Families Daout Levi
28 The Jews in Commercial Life Haim Toledano
28 Jewish Artisans Mentech Bensantchi
29 The Jews in the Maritime Trades Yoseph Bourla
29 Jewish Doctors Uriel de Medonsa
31 Printing Presses and Printers Itshac Emmanuel
31 City of Publications Joseph Nahama
32 Jewish Poets in Salonika David A. Recanati
33 Music and Religious Poetry David A. Recanati
33 The Society of Alel Vezimra David A. Recanati
34 The Society of Neim Zemiroth Haim Alvo
34 Hazanim and Hazanut Chimon Uziel
35 The Conquest of the Sea in Eretz Israel Avraham S. Recanati
37 The Destruction of the Community Eliahu Hassid
39 Flight from Greece Yaacov Assael
41 Salonika - Auschwitz - Jerusalem Itshac Cohen
43 The Resistance Movement Avraham Ben Aroya
45 Acts of Resistance David Broudo
46 An Encounter Pessah Borchtein
46 Camps of Death David Haim
47 After the Catastrophe Avraham S. Recanati


Hebrew Table of Contents

Page Title Author
  The City
5 Jewish Neighbourhoods in Saloniki (Greece) Michael Molcho
32 Portuguese Deportation to Saloniki (Greece) Mircado Yosef
38 Saloniki absorbs compelles Bezalel Ruth
40 Rabbi Levy BenHaviv: Spain - Saloniki - Jerusalem Yitzhak Molcho
49 Rabbi Yosef Ben Lev and Gvir Baruch Mircado Yosef
52 Purim at Pesach Avraham Haviv
56 The Rabbi Shaul Molcho David A. Rakenati
66 My father Rabbi Shabtay Gabriel Yehushua Hezkiya Shabtay Yehoshua
71 Messengers from Israel (list, all generations) Yitzhak Emanuel
81 Kovo family and her rabbis, masters Yitzhak Emanuel
86 Saloniki Jews in Yemen Mircado Kovo
88 Jewish Battalions in “Young Turks” Revolution Yizhak Ben Zvi
91 81 Inscriptions of tombs, copied by Mirkado Kovo From D”AR
118 Expropriation of the cemetery and its disaster Chaim Ezrati
  The Community
127 Overview of Jewish Institutions in Saloniki David Levy
143 City and People in Israel R' Ben Zion Meir Chai Uziel
147 The Community and its people in last years Alfonso Levy
168 The journalist Eliyahu Kiasi's letter on the community's condition Chaim Toledano
177 Saloniki Jewish Community's Education Project Report Z. Kon
189 Jewish Teachers in Saloniki schools Chaim A. Toledano
198 Jewish activity in commercial life David (Davud) Levy
202 Jews in industrial and commercial life of Saloniki Chaim A. Toledano
208 Professionals in the Saloniki Community Mentesh Ben Sangi
211 Saloniki Jews in the naval shipping and transportation business Yosef Burla
216 Vegetable wholesalers and The Shabbat Yitzhak Brodo
218 Renting an Apartment Ytzchak Barudo
219 Jewish doctors in Saloniki Uriel De Medonsa
  The Life
230 Printhouses and printworkers Yitzhak S. Emmanuel
250 Saloniki city publishing Yosef Nehama
261 Rabbi Yehuda Nehama and the Salonikan “wisdom” David Benvenisti
277 Hebrew poetry in Saloniki for the last generations David A. Rakenati
322 Shlomo H. Shalem, A valiant of Ladino poetry Moshe Atias
337 Holy poetry/songs and singing in Saloniki David A. Rakenati
348 “Hillel and Zimra” Society (or “Praise - Melodies Society”) and before David A. Rakenati
354 Songs and praises which were in Saloniki Eliyahu Yitzhak Halevi
355 “Naim Zmirot” poet society (or “Society of Religious Poems”) Chaim S. Alvo
359 Cantor and cantillation Shimon Uziel
364 Traditions and popular customs Yitzhak Brodo
372 Salonikan Ketubah  
376 Honor to The dead Yitzhak S. Emanuel
382 Justice Trial Michael Molcho
383 Excommunication of Jalibi Rubin
385 Accepted Wisdom from midrash (homiletic interpretation) “La Plasa”
388 Charity will rescue from death Alasini and the old
389 The Shlomo Trial Yakobaci Kovio
391 Popular songs in Ladino
393 Chants for Purim
403 Chants for Pesach
409 Dirges for Nine Ancestors
415 A Jewish City with no comparison in the world David Ben Gurion
416 My visit & Meetings with people from Saloniki Rachel Yanait Ben Tzvi
422 Memories of Salonika D'r Zev Fon Viizel
425 Emigration from Saloniki to Jerusalem in the previous century Ya'akov Yehushua
434 Conquest of the sea in Palestine - Pioneers from Saloniki Avraham Recanati
  The Men
448 R. Mose - the Cohen Hasid  
449 Yosef Gategno
450 R. Emanuel Yitzhak Broudo
450 David Matalon
451 R' Moshe Aharon Malach
453 R' Shelomo (Salomon) Tzion
454 Avraham Yitzchak Gategno
456 Emanuel Caruso
456 R' Shaul Amario
457 Advocate Emannuel Shalem
460 Mercado Yosef Kovav
462 Rabbi Chaim Chaviv (zikaron tzadik l'bracha)
Tzadik = pious, virtuous, Z.”L. = his remembrance to be blessed
464 R' Moshe Tazartes
464 Baruch Ben Yacov
466 R. Yitzhak Hasid
472 Daout Efendi Levi
476 R' Eliyau Moshe Fransis
476 Rafael Chaim Manasseh
477 R' Mordechai Saias
477 Mair Pinto
480 R' Leon Yosef
482 Mose (Mois) Barzaili
483 Leon Gategno
484 Albert Tchenio
485 Avraham Orfel Haviv
485 Yitzhak Cohen
487 Yehuda-Leon Recanati
494 Yitzhak Arosti
496 R' Sol Molco
496 Chaim Yosef Capoun
497 R' Mose Yosef Cohen
498 R' Yehuda Frachiya
499 Yacov Elihu Cohen
499 Chaim Esrati
502 Asher Malach
503 Doctor (Dr.) Jean (Jan) Alalouf
505 Yosef son of (ben) Pinchas Ouziel (Uziel)
506 Yitzhak Aaron Toledano
508 Doctor Yitzhak Samuel Emanuel
511 Avraham S. Recanati
  The Ruin
531 The ruin of Salonikan Jewry Eliyahu Hasid
541 Escape and emigration Yaakov Asael
552 Greek Jews' resistance to Hitler's oppression Avraham Ben Aroya
565 Anti-Nazi underground David Mordechay Brodo
569 Chasson Gang trial
575 Trial of War criminal Max Marten
577 Saloniki Auschwitz Jerusalem Yitzhak Cohen
600 Heroism and sacredness of Greek Jewry Pesach Borstein
603 Lists from death camps David Chaim
610 Blast of Crematorium 3 in the death camp Birkenau Moshe Shmuel (Nono)
614 Rescued Firebrands from Greece's Shores Yaa'akov Tzur
621 Greek Jewry after ruin - attempts to revive it Avraham S. Rakenati
623 The report on Jewish property in Greece after the Holocaust Avraham S. Rakenati

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