50°25' / 19°26'
50°25' / 19°26'
The Town of Charsznica
by Yisrael Rogovski
Translated by Selwyn Rose
The Railroad Station
Before Charsznica became a place of Jewish settlement, it was a neglected agricultural area with no discernable produce; just a hilly area whose surroundings provided pasture to the farmers for their cattle and sheep.
Transportation was by horse and twowheeled carriages in the summer and sleighs in the winter. The farmers had no means of transporting their herds' and flocks' produce to commercial centers which were located in coalmining districts close to the GermanRussian border.
The development of industry in the towns of Zaglambia and their surroundings created a demand for agricultural produce in ever increasing amounts and the consequent need for rapid transportation became urgent. The Russian treasury agreed to finance the construction of a railroad between the centers of foodproduction and the consumers in the south west of the valley.
On a flat plateau in the valley a structure was erected that was to serve as the railroad station and on both sides of it, at a distance of some hundreds of meters, at the lowest areas in the valley, two high stone bridges were built to protect the tracks from the flood waters that flowed down the valley from the mountains in winter. Two tall levees of earth were built on either side of the station and these joined the two bridges together.
The earthworks and construction of the levees on such a scale required the employment of a large laborforce together with the workers and professionals brought in from the larger towns. All this together with the local dayworkers constituted a large workcamp needing significant food supplies and clothing. The Jewish traders and peddlers, always on the lookout for new sources of income in the surrounding farms and villages, found in the new railroad station an additional source of income. In time they transferred their homes from the surrounding villages and settled in the areas close to the station.
The railroad station was destined to become the area of settlement and commerce for both the Jewish and Christian villagers from round and about. The Jews became agents and intermediaries as traders in food and agricultural produce and a few of them opened shops there. As time went on personal and friendly relationships developed between the new settlers and the local Polish population from the villages and farms and when work finished on the station a few of the traders made the town their permanent home.
The nearest town was Miechów, about eight kilometers south of Charsznica. In the west and north were Wolbrom and Żarnowica and to the east Kielce the county seat with the small towns and villages teeming with Jews.
The first permanent settlers round the station (also known as Miechów station or MiechówCharsznica), were: Mr. Khamil Wadowice, Mr. Simcha Sztych, Mr. Alter Chudwar(?), Mr. Reuven Chudwar and others. (As was usual among the Jews at that time, in addition to their first name they often added the town they came from).
Charsznica was a small Christian village with few residents; they found their living in the small surrounding farms or as porters and in services. They were daily workers and their homes were dilapidated wooden shacks, their food poor and their water they drew from the wells that they dug with their own hands. The station was their gateway to the outside world.
Even the larger traders who, because the nearness of the Austrian border somewhat restricted their activities, began to operate via the station at Charsznica. The railroad carried them to industrial areas and factories and the coal and saltmines. Goodstrains laden with solid and liquid fuels and industrial materials unloaded there and then loadedup with agricultural produce. Warehouses and storerooms were built, vast unloading and vast storage areas for coal, salt, farm produce, fuels and timber. Some of the facilities were financed by the authorities and some by private merchants and entrepreneurs Jewish and Christian. The wholesale trade in fuel and food was undertaken by a few Jews and the rest of the Jews mainly lived from small trading and peddling in the surrounding villages. They would travel by horsedrawn wagon or on foot and their wares consisted of eggs, cheese, butter, chickens, goosefeathers, waxes, hare and rabbitskins all of which they carried in wickerwork baskets. Those among them who were able to acquire a horse and wagon also spread to the local villages and traded in waste metal, wrecked machinery, old clothes and rags and also decorative colored glass items and general haberdashery, to catch the eye of the farmers' wives and daughters. They rose early in the morning, before dawn saying the morning prayers for travelers, sometimes combining the morning and evening Amidah prayers together before eating their one hot daily meal prepared by the wives and mothers and waiting for them on their return.
The Station acquired the character of a country village. Additional homes were built, the area was leveled and any furrows or deep crevasses filled. The value of the land increased and several families purchased lots, building homes both of timber and brick and they became householders.
On the Shabbos, they would meet for prayer in one of the prayerhouses, dressed in their Shabbos finery, their children behind them carrying their bags containing their prayershawls. The womenfolk read their prayerbooks or the Tze'ina VeRe'ina, and on festival days they would sit in the Women's gallery reading prayers and supplications, dressed modestly, displaying their finest jewelry from their bridal days.
With the increasing economic stability of sections of the Jewish community came a certain but recognizable segregation between the elite and the simple folk. The status was determined according to appearances, manners, style of speech and behavior of each individual Jew. The simple folk centered themselves in the StudyHouse of Rabbi Reuven Ziegler (ZL) while the elite in the Study House of Rabbi Micha'el Zukerman (ZL). There were also a few established Steibls: that of Rabbi Mordecai Greitzer, of Rabbi Reuven Kleiner and sometimes, when the pride of one of the elite's congregants was hurt, he and his supporters would congregate in his own house until peace was restored. Those who had reached the age of common sense and understanding claimed for themselves special attention.
All the other decent people community leaders and others, claimed for themselves the status of a scholar or noble.
The differences in status caused a stir in the community sometimes reaching serious proportions that required the intervention of the town Rabbi, Rabbi Hanoch Scheinfrucht and the ritual slaughterer Rabbi Yisrael Lazer, also a community preacher.
The town of Miechów, whose excellent location was marred because the railroad track bypassed the immediate vicinity, was compensated by the paving of a roadway which joined it to the station and later by a smallgauge railway that was routed via Charsznica, Miechów and Działoszyce. These two arteries constituted supply routes that eased the transportation of goods to the wholesalers, industrial workers and artisans from the station Miechów. The Miechów residents sold the goods to the retailers of Charsznica, Ksiaz, Działoszyce, Skalmierzyce and Słomniki which was located close to Kraków whose border with Austria was closed. These towns contained small communities of Jewish residents and vibrant Jewish life flourished there.
For many years the cultural influence of Charsznica prvaded the route of the railroad.
During the First World War
With the outbreak of the First World War a period of great economic and social change began. Many centers of Jewish settlement throughout Eastern Europe became killingfields for the various armies of Nikolai II, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany and FranzJoseph of the AustroHungarian Empire, whose targets were Warsaw and Moscow.
Fear and panic gripped the population of Poland. The industrial towns of Zaglambia remained cut off on the western side where, behind the front was Wolbrom where bloody battles were taking place. Trade and workshops came to a standstill, the warehouses emptied. It was impossible to obtain industrial materials and fuel a great proportion of which was pilfered by residents who profited by the situation. Jewish war refugees began arriving in Charsznica seeking refuge and food.
All roads were full of an unceasing flow of military traffic of the Reserve Army carting injured from the front and the wounded were transferred to hospital via the railroad to the west, nonstop night and day.
The motto of the Russian Army of Defense was Beat the Jews and Save the Homeland and it inspired a terror among the Jews of Charsznica that froze the blood in their veins. They beat, robbed and snatched whatever came to hand. When they had finished pillaging the shops to the last item of value the Cossacks turned their attention to the homes of the residents. They conducted searches in cupboards, drawers and beds, filling their pockets with watches, rings, religious items everything that seemed of value that they could lay their hands on. And when they left they even stripped the doorjambs of the Mezzuzot. With the disappearance of the Cossack riding his horse, the people breathed a sigh of relief and thanked Gd on high that at least they had not been physically harmed. The Cossacks hurried to turn their booty in to cash. The Christian population grasped the goodies from the Cossacks and the Jews redeemed their property at double and triple the price lest the sacred and religious articles fall into the hands of the uncircumcised and become defiled.
The Jews of Charsznica shut themselves up in their homes and refused to take to the streets. When the situation of food supply within the home worsened only a few dared to take their lives in their hands and venture to a nearby village for essential supplies. Cossacks ambushed them taking everything they had sending them on their way after horsewhipping them on their backs.
There were Jews who were caught and accused of treason and cooperating with the enemy and the evidence telephone wires strung between the poles along the boundaries of their courtyards, after the wooden fences had been destroyed and the wood taken by the army to use as fuel for their fieldkitchens.
During these days of madness the teaching of Torah to the little children did not stop. They were collected together in the small room of Rabbi Yitzhak Yoel the teacher who awoke envy in the hearts of the needy women because his work was done without danger to his life, even though he had not received any salary since the outbreak of the war many weeks; they were appeased only because one night a rifle bullet came through the door into the laundrytub while the Rabbi's wife was working there. After that terrifying night the children dispersed and the lessons stopped.
The Cossacks disappeared over the horizon but the Wolbrom Front continued to claim victims. The army continued to stream towards the front. All the roads were clogged: the infantry and cavalry, artillery and horsedrawn wagons loaded down with military gear. The movement continued night and day. Suddenly, as if by a magic wand, the whole thing went into reverse, the army turned round and headed east. The sound of artillery ceased, only occasionally in the far distance the sound of explosions was heard. The reddened skies cleared and even the nights became less threatening to the residents' hearts. The roads and courtyards emptied of Russian soldiers who ran for their lives and silence reigned over all. The last train made its way eastwards with the few injured that had managed to find their way to the station; the others were abandoned to die of thirst and hunger, where they lay on the battlefields, the corpses became food for the crows and other predators.
Since Friday morning a deathly silence spread over the town and the smell of gunpowder was in the air. The people who lived close to the railroad and those whose apartments were built of timber left their homes and sought shelter between stone walls. Mr. Teiwel the baker lived in the house of Mr. Pan Leiman, It is a twostoried, brickbuilt house with a cellar and the cellar was now packed with frightened mothers with their children. Suddenly an enormous explosion split the air…
The big stone bridge on the east of town had been blown skywards and all the bricks cascaded back down onto its foundations and made a hill of rubble.
With the Shabbos Eve Kiddush approaching the families sat around their diningroom tables over a loaf of dry bread, waiting for what will happen next; thus passed Shabbos with that question hanging on everyone's lips. Early Sunday morning the approaches to Charsznica became choked with the soldiers of the invading army. They greeted the people with a friendly Good morning.
The battles moved eastwards and Congress Poland fell into the hands of the Austrian army. The Jewish population, Yiddishspeaking, understood the language of the Germanspeaking conquerors. Life became routine quite quickly. Industrious and enterprising women under financial stress turned their livingrooms into teasalons. Soldiers, residents and armyemployees paid well for the cakes and pastries and donuts supplied together with the tea and rum. The youngsters busied themselves on the streets selling cigarettes that they had made themselves and the menfolk sold farm produce that they had brought in from the surrounding farms and villages.
On the heels of the invading army came an unending stream of smugglers making their way to Charsznica from the hungry towns and villages of Zaglambia. They bought up all the available food supplies that they could get their hands on, out of sight of the Austrian police force. The Austrian Koruna became the trading conversion currency which the farmers gladly accepted and in which they had confidence. Silos for storage were erected and filled and foodtrafficking flourished. The farmers' pockets bulged with Korunas which eventually found their way to the pockets of the traders in Charsznica.
A rumor spread among the towns and villages of Zaglambia that there were food supplies in Charsznica and the local landscape began to fill with new faces and the town found itself hardpressed accommodating the growing population.
During those days a family of four arrived: Rabbi Baruch, whose appearance alone inspired confidence, his wife and two sons. The children of Charsznica had remained without Torah instruction from a teacher. Rabbi Yitzhak Yoel, their teacher, since the crust of bread so to speak had been snatched from his mouth, opened a small teasalon and supplemented his income with foodtrafficking, which damaged in the minds of the fastidious his reputation and prevented him from retrieving his place as the teacher. The men also stopped holding public prayers during this period and the womenfolk were no longer to be seen in the women's gallery, nor were the sounds of study and dissertation heard in the Beit HaMidrash.
The Staff of Office of teacher passed to the hands of Rabbi Baruch; the women's gallery was used as a residence for the family and a classroom for tens of children at one and the same time. The large hall, in the past the study room of the men was given to his son, Moshe, a most pleasantly mannered man, wellexperienced in the ways of life, who spread his spiritual personality over the older boys. In addition to Torah studies time was also set aside for external (secular) studies, Rabbi Baruch taught them to write in Yiddish using black clay tablets and red markers. When necessary the slate could easily be wiped clean and reused. The youngsters, under the care of Moshe, achieved learning to write using a foreign alphabet. In time, the Metukan school staff added to its strength a new member a German teacher: a young, religious Jewish woman from Zaglambia elegantly dressed and wellmannered. She quickly became wellliked by the parents who welcomed her into their homes inducing the children, too, to enjoy her lessons, learning assiduously the rules of German grammar: the nominative, genitive, dative and accusative cases… the parent's hearts warmed within them and without understanding the significance of the words were certain that without them their children would be held back from advancement.
The sounds of the war grew more and more distant. The military restrictions on trafficking of food supplies were loosened and transport was renewed. The levees were repaired and strengthened and trade broadened. Products of good quality from Austria and Germany appeared in the market and local farmers, who had never seen the like, envied them and paid well in products from their fields and henhouses.
Passover was on the horizon. The Jewish people felt blessed in their hearts from what little rest they had and hoped that the Russian terror would never return ever.
The Russian language, that had been the lingua franca of everyone, was discarded and people trained their tongues to speak German and correct Polish. On the night before Passover, when homes were cleansed of all remains of leavened and other forbidden foods, all reminders of anything from Tsarist Russian were consigned to the flames. Among the items destroyed were portraits of Tsar Nicholai the First, Tsar Nicholai the Second and Nicholai Nicholowicz, the failed commander of the great Imperial Army. On Passover night, when families sat at their festive tables to relate the Exodus from Egypt, they spoke too of the exodus of the Russians, their hatred of the Jews and the antiSemitic deeds of their former leaders.
But their days of peace and quiet did not last long.
The Hallerczyks' Mistake
It is 1918. The end of the war between the opposing armies is approaching. Rebel movements are organizing in all the Polish villages under the very noses of the Austrian army and removing their uniforms and hurrying to return to their homes in the overcrowded trains.
The administration of the town fell into the hands of Polish patriots, who treated the local population as if they owned them and financed their expenses by extorting donations from the residents.
In the footsteps of the new administration came groups of youths not from the local population, who had come to Charsznica at the outbreak of war from larger towns and the surrounding villages. They were poor youngsters sent away to save their lives and survived mainly by stealing anthracite from the railroads and selling it to the residents. Because of this they were nicknamed snatchers. Since there was no way to obtain coal during the war their presence became tacitly essential and their name was known throughout the region. Even the police force was helped by them especially in spying.
With the cessation of hostilities the transportation eastward of coal by rail also stopped. The streetgangs who, in the meantime had grown and matured, found themselves without the means of sustenance; they turned to robbery and looting, spreading their terror among the population, particularly the Jews.
Another negative element operating in town in those days were the Hallerczyks. They were much admired and praised soldiers from the liberating Polish army, highly trained soldiers, taking their name from that of their Commander Józef Haller. These soldiers, the pride of the Polish people, found for themselves a unique form of amusement: catching the Jewish men and pulling their earlocks and cutting off their beards. When they realized that the onlookers enjoyed the spectacle they widened their activity: no longer satisfied with simply pulling the beards together with the flesh they began throwing Jews from moving trains in full view of the population and the authorities.
Fear and terror returned to the Jewish street. Again the Jews were fearful of travelling on the roads and many were afraid to even leave their homes. About 80 people were harmed or injured, some seriously and there were those who died from their injuries.
Rabbi Leibush Mendel, who had a striking beard, had his beard tied up and wrapped in a large kerchief, maybe because of a toothache, and didn't move from his doorway. His children kept watch alongside and when they heard the sound of heavy footsteps of the Hallerczyks approaching rushed to climb the ladder in the house leading up to the attic and hid there.
One Sunday morning, people who lived near the pharmacy were filled with anxiety on hearing bloodcurdling screams outside in the street. The screams continued repeatedly accompanied by heartrending groans. The few Jews who dared to peek outside through the cracks of shuttered screens, saw an atrocious scene: the figure of an old grayhaired man, half his beard hanging from his cheek and the other plucked; his jaw covered in blood, his eyes expressing terror and his lips seeming to tremble in prayer. Two Hallerczyks released their victim from their grip and, completely helpless, he collapsed on the sidewalk. The Jews rushed to help the injured man and as they approached heard him murmuring: Jesus, Mary save me! and while they were dressing his wounds in the pharmacy where he had been taken, they discovered the cross, drenched in his blood, hanging round his neck. After they had attended to his needs and nursed him, they sent him on his way. He had simply been a passerby, a poor Christian who had the misfortune to grow a beard…
That same day the Hallerczyks disappeared from the streets of Charsznica. Rabbi Mendel and the rest of the Jewish people of the town began to walk freely again in the town, proudly displaying their bearded faces.
Searching for Ways Forward
The three years of war the first two for the independence of Poland, opened the eyes of Polish youth, and allowed them to see clearly and their hearts filled with longing, and they began to weave for themselves dreams of a new life.
The movement for the liberation of the whole of Poland began to achieve its targets and became responsible for the administration of state affairs. Economic and diplomatic connections were formed and there were many ignorant Poles who were inclined to see the Jews as interlopers snatching positions.
The official authorities adopted Grabinski's policies, impoverishing the Jews and excluding them from any commercial standing; antiSemitism became open and reached a peak in a bloody pogrom on 3rd of May 1919.
The Jews of Charsznica began selling their goods and chattels. A few of them dreamed of going to America, and acquire wealth there; others had wider dreams, of expanding their knowledge, or a quiet corner somewhere, their own independence. Those who were still held by their forefathers' ways, married, had families, made flimsy homes and delayed the fulfillment of their dreams for some misty future.
The economic possibilities grow less and less and the stranglehold on Jewish life increased. Only a few succeed in uprooting themselves and fleeing the country that was rejecting them. The number of those needing some community assistance grew and the coffers always empty. The teacher and StudyHouse beadle, and his family, suffered extreme hunger and the social aid services able to help by obtaining a franchise to sell yeast and raisin wine for Kiddush were unable to save him; for the majority of the Jews only coarse challot are available while raisin wine is no longer seen on the table even though it is being sold legally by the teacher.
The last of the first generation of settlers and the two following generations were deeply concerned. The maturing generation hung on to the faintest shadow of hope looking for a future with the Bund, in communism, in assimilation. There were those who fell into the arms of their Yiddish origins and despair gnawed at their hearts; others still hoped for a miracle.
The Zionist activity in town increased. The number of houses accepting KKL collection boxes which are viewed with favor increased. They hang on the wall next to the collection box of Rabbi Meir Baal HaNess, so favored and blessed by countless generations of mothers and grandmothers.
On Sabbath Eves, before lighting the Sabbath candles, they stand before the boxes hanging on the wall, their fingers tightly holding on to the few coins they managed to save and drop half of them into the box of Rabbi Meir Baal HaNess and half into the KKL box. Then they turn to the lighted candles and their lips whisper a prayer moistened with their tears, asking for salvation.
At the end of the ‘Twenties, the first two youths went to training kibbutzim; the first of them was the Israeli writer Israel Zarchi (Zerach Gertler).
by Israel Rogovski
Translated by Selwyn Rose
Mr. Reuven Rogovski (Chodów) was one of the first Jewish settlers in Charsznica. The beginning of the construction of the railroad station the future Jewish Charsznica found Mr. Reuven Rogovski who dwelt in the village of Chodów, a community of prosperous Christian farmers just one kilometer from the station. From there he conducted his business with the rest of the villages in the area, and from that he made his living and supported his wife Malka (née Matizansky), from Ksiaz.
Before that, he had lived in Brogowa, a village close to Ksiaz. From there he moved to Chodów. He acquired a good name and reputation among the villagers because of his fair dealing and honesty and he was nicknamed Truth Speaker.
Reuven was convinced that there was a good future for him if he moved to the Station so he took his wife with him for help and put down roots in the new place. He opened a shop, supplying haberdashery and textiles Emil Woitowitz, his neighbor, living in the same house, was similarly engaged; the house was rented from one of the local dignitaries who had abandoned it because of the distance from the town.
At the start of the family's integration in their new home, their income from the shop was not sufficient to cover their household expenses and when their first son, Mendel was born, their expenses also grew. Then Mr. Reuven began his business as a tailor, a profession he learned as a soldier in the Tsarist army it happened like this: One day standing on parade, the officer cast a glance along the row and saw to his surprise a thread of cotton hanging from a soldier's collar. He walked over and pulled at the thread and found at the end a shining sewing needle… the needle and thread had been put there by the soldier's mother on his departure so he would have the means of sewing on his shirt buttons so he shouldn't Gd forbid catch cold.
The following day, the soldier Reuven was designated as tailor'…
Reuven served in the army for four years and was registered officially as Tailor. The whole of his service was spent sewing on buttons his hands never touched the sewing machine.
Now the idea of being a tailor caught Reuben's attention and he thought he could see a promising future and hoped to build on it. He bought a big sewing machine, a pair of tailor's shears and a thimble and his wife took on the job of managing his dealings with tradesmen and negotiations with buyers.
One day a villager came in with a request: I want you to make me a sheepskin coat for the winter! The words sheepskin coat fell upon his ears and filled him with fear. The thimble fell from his finger, the tapemeasure round his neck seemed to choke him and his voice shook…when his wife Malka realized the degree of his expertise as a tailor, she didn't despair. She took courage and said: A tailor of women's garments it shall be and why? First of all the Christian women are very modest in their dress and the quality of work on undergarments need not be high since it will not be seen publicly and secondly it will give a lot of work.
At first, on hearing the words women's undergarments Reuben shouted: What have I got to do with women's undergarments!? I'm a men's tailor! But when he reminded himself of the man's serious requests he relented and surrendered to his wife's suggestion and thus he began to make long warm winter underwear for the Christian women. Malka his wife spoke with her regular women clients who came to the shop and convinced them to order their underwear from her husband Reuben and occasionally succeeded in increasing the turnover by selling extra material, suggesting to a young pregnant woman jokingly: Perhaps they're twins?
Their commercial activities were a success and Malka, in their new home brought them much business. Their shop prospered, their family and their apartment expanded and their reputation spread. They acquired a plot of land and a twostoried wooden house with a well and front yard their first proper dwellingplace since they first came to Charsznica. After many days, his commercial contacts multiplied with wholesalers and his business expanded significantly, his work as a tailor ceased and the sewing machine fell into disuse.
Reuven was familiar with the Holy books and his studies drew much for his spiritual nourishment from the writings of our learned men throughout his life. While still in his middleage, he fell ill with sugar diabetes and when he was only fortynine he died from his sickness after the enlightened doctors of Vienna were unable to cure him. He was buried in Miechów because Charsznica had no cemetery of its own.
He left behind him two sons and four daughters, he lived to see thirteen grandchildren and after his death were added a further twenty. His offspring survive to this day, a few in America and Argentina and seven in Israel.
Mr. Mendel Rogovski, the eldest son of Reuven and Malka, inherited from his father the same superior qualities and even exceeded them. His reputation preceded him in all the surrounding villages and was nicknamed Mendel the Pleasant and known to all by that soubriquet.
At the age of seventeen he married Rachel'eh Zonshain of Olkusz and together they brought into the world five sons and three daughters.
He made his living from the shop in which one could buy everything: needles, shoelaces, marinated fish, pitch, oil, bridles and whips, violins and batons, women's stockings and men's socks, shoerepair kits and woodglue, sewingmachine needles, plows, foodstuffs and herbs, colored paper to make decorative flowers, horseshoes, decorative colored glass balls for Christmas trees and many other things. Apart from all this, he bought eggs from the villagers, cheese and butter and sold them to the traders from Zaglambia in large quantities. In exchange for the produce of their farms the farmers' wives would take sugar, tea, coffee, salt and soap and also buttons, sewing needles and articles to decorate themselves and their homes.
Jewish customers would also come and purchase wares some for cash and some on credit; they paid if they had the money or deferred payment until they had earned it. Mendel would also supply them knowing they hadn't the money to pay because he was goodhearted and understood their position.
All this broadbased and increased trade was not sufficient to support the large family and when his children grew Mendel opened another shop and that, too, was insufficient to cover their needs, even though Mendel, his wife and children worked to exhaustion from dawn to dusk.
Rachel's assistance in the shop was made possible by having an honest Christian woman, who served the family faithfully for many years, manage the home. The woman freed Rachel from many kitchen and other householdchores, and over the years fulfilled the role of the housewife; she fed and dressed the children, sent them to the Heder, reminded the children to say their prayers at the appropriate times, put them to bed at night, etc. But one day the woman was caught with the stolen money on her person and Rachel'eh was surprised and unbelieving: Is it really possible that such a woman would steal?
The children of Mendel were called Rubenki in the name of their grandfather.
On every Erev Shabbat the whole family would gather round the table with Mendel sitting at the head and by the light of the Shabbos candles would sing the Sabbath hymns. When they reached The Sabbath Day is Holy Mendel would raise his eyes and look at Rachel'eh, who had changed her dress in honor of the Sabbath, and sing the hymn to her and tranquility would enwrap the whole family.
Mendel continued to walk the same path as his father, Reuben; the doors of his home were open before all who came, among them nonJews. Farmers among his acquaintances who chanced to come to Charsznica on cold winter days found a dish of tcholent and a blazing fire waiting for them. His home was especially welcoming to collectors from other villages and towns making the rounds and taking donations for the needy and poor. His good deeds were performed modestly, with others he dealt honestly, greeting all in peace. At the time of his first daughter's wedding all who entered his shop, without exception, were greeted with a glass of cognac.
He raised his five sons and educated them in the spirit of achievement; he taught them trades so that in the future they could live by the toil of their hands, and be dependent neither upon the gifts of mortal men nor upon their loans, with Racheleh's help at his side.
Charsznica the town that was his home, he never left; there he was born and there, at the hand of the Nazis (may their names be blotted out), he and his growing family and their bones dispersed together with the rest of the Jews of Charsznica and the place of their burial is unknown to this day.
May their memories be for a blessing.
Mendel and his wife left behind them one surviving daughter and three sons with their families, three of the parents with five grandchildren and six greatgrandchildren three boys and three girls (may they be fruitful and multiply), alive and growing in the Homeland.
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