« Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page »

[Page 141]

Activist Youth and Social Awareness


[Page 143]


by Yitzchak Burstein

For many years its meeting place was located in the home of Nota Goldman. Maccabee had more than 200 active members. It was founded in 1920. Its founders included Aryeh Zisla, Dvora Shoham, Shlomo Ber Meirovich, and Zeev Kirzner. Later, I was appointed as the chairman of the committee, and I dedicated most of my time to physical and spiritual educational activities among the youth. I was assisted in my work by the committee members Avraham Jochovsky, Mordechai Wolfovich, Shlomo Ber, Kirzner, and David Friedman. Moshe Ivensky worked in the spiritual realm. The following groups took place within the meeting place: light athletics, ping pong, basketball, chess, cycling, a choir, a percussion band, and an active dramatic club.

Do you recall the conductor Shlomo Ber? He had a red face, was calm, and had nerves of steel. He is active in the field of music in Vilna to this day.

Recall our basketball players: Meika who was partially mute, Yitzchak Rikless, Levika and Elka Kaper, Berl Segalovsky, Feivel Shapira, Efraim Frakt, Leizka the Gingi [redhead], Meirka Mechnik, Moshe Untershatz, Hershel Levin, the defenseman Motele Yaffa, and Yankel Klibansky.

Hershel Levin, Leibel Stern, and Zelig Epstein formed the members' justice system.

The athletic parties in the halls of the movie theater and the firefighters attracted a large group of youths. Do you recall the party in the firefighters' hall with the participation of Stumpel's jazz band? When Stumpel and Nota were in good spirits from glasses of liquor in the tavern of Nota and his wife, they began to kiss, and Nota bit Stumpel's nose until it bled. Nota's nickname was “Chalulim”[1].


The first group of athletes in Maccabee bidding farewell to Meira Zisla

Tzvi Opnitzky, Avraka Untershatz, Feivka Shapira, Shlomo Drogetzky, Aryeh Zisla, Ezriel Opnitzky, Mendel Dobiansky, X, Shlomo Friedman, X.


During the time of the Balfour Declaration and on Lag Baomer, Maccabee

[Page 144]

organized demonstrations on the streets of the town with the national flags, and riders on horses and decorated bicycles. They would walk with a show of strength, in the costume of the Maccabee organization, accompanied by Hebrew songs. Similarly, we organized gatherings and lectures on various topics through our own people as well as with the participation of people brought in from Kovno.
The pride of the Maccabee was the dramatic circle under the stage direction of Chone Katzenberg: He was thin, clean shaven, enjoyed to tipple, always with a leather jacket. He was talented as a stage producer. He was assisted by Itzik Dembo in forging the characters of the actors. Our “prima donnas” were Miriam Nochimovich and Hinda Levitz. To this day, the image of “Mirale Efrat”, as played by Miriam, is etched in the minds of many. Hershel Wolfovich, Abba Opnitzky, Yosef Chein “the wagon driver”, Peiska Shachor, Velke Opanik, Reping, Tzipa-Leah Weiner, Shifra Lomiansky, Batya Zandman and others stood out in main roles and in other roles.
Our performances, such as Mirale Efrat, Green Fields, Yoshke Charlatan, the Miser and others were also performed on the stage of Vilkomir [Ukmerge]. Chone Katzenberg ensured that the actors would drink a glass of liquor prior to every performance, which would contribute its share to the success of the performance; and that there would be a party after the performance. Our trainers, such as Chone Katzenberg, Itzik Dembo and Hershel Levin composed verses for our songs, which were heard from the mouths of the youths until the next party.

{The top of page 144 has an article entitled “About Hapoel and the Youth”, starting in the top half of 144, above the line. After page 144, there is a hiatus in the text, with 16 unnumbered pages of photos. The article and pagination resumes at the end of the photos. I included that article at the end of the unnumbered pages, so as to ensure continuity and not break it by the unnumbered pages.}

Translator's Footnote

  1. Holes or cavities. Return

[Page 144]

About Hapoel and the Youth

by Eliahu Kagan, Tel Aviv


[First unnumbered photo page – NYPL 219][1]

A meeting with the Zionist orator, writer and activist Shmuel Chernovitz (“Safog”)

1. Chaim Moshe Slomin 2. Chana Pesia Glazer 3. Rivka Dembo 4. Yosef Intriligitor 4a. Eidel Burstein 5. Avrum 5a. Sheina Abramson-Antes 6. Alta Rubin 7. Ethel Katz 8. Zlata Rosenberg-Janusovich 9. Alter Monitz 10. Tzila Untershatz 11. Henia Farber 12. Teibl Stein 13. Miriam Merbianski 14. Tzipora Shoham 15. Miriam Burstein 16. Henia Blumberg 17. Chaim Levin 18. Yatkonski from Kovno 19. Nadia Granovich 20. Nota Valchokovsky 21. Hershel Levin 22. Mordechai Itchikovich 23. the teacher Rosenberg 24. Kolbianski 25. Chernovitz 26. Yosef Abramson 27. Leib Wolfovich 28. Leiba Pogirski 29. Shimon Rubin 30. Pesach Shachor 31. Noach Stern 32. Shmuel Goldshmidt 33. Tzvi Yaffa 34. Moshe Fried 35. Moshe Ivensky 36. Shaul Keidanski 37. Dr. G. Ran 38. Lula Vilkomirsky 39. Chana Davidovich 40. Nechama Levin 41. Yitzchak Perevoznik 42. Moshe Sack 43. Shmerl Stern 44. Liber Farber 45. Yonah Katz 46. Menachem Mendel Gorfein 47. Meir Goldshmidt 48. Chaim Goldshmidt 49. Vilkomirsky

[Second unnumbered photo page – NYPL 220]


The card for the delegate to the Convention of Zionists in Russia
No. 212
Mr. Yosef Katz
Elected in Aptorka
Name: Mr. Yonah Katz
City: Jonava
22 of Tammuz 5686 (July 4, 1926)
{signature cannot be made out}
Secretary {signature cannot be made out}
The Organization of General Zionists in Jonava)
The Zionist Organization of Lithuania
The city committee in Jonava
Members Card
No. 2
Zionism. Aspiring to ensure a safe refuge through open justice for the Hebrew nation in the Land of Israel (The Basel Program)

[Third unnumbered page – NYPL 221]

Maccabee Jonava 1925

[Fourth unnumbered page – NYPL 222]

Yitzchak B, Miriam Berzin, Golda Friedman, Malka Untershatz, Grishovich, Shlomo Ber Meirovich, Sanel, Rabiner, Chana Goldshmidt, Perla Lopiansky, Miriam Burstein, Reibstein, Lantzman, X, Charna Goldshmidt, Yonina Gurvich, Anna Gurvich, Bogia Wolfovich, Miriam Levin


With the Maccabee athletes:

Yosef Rikliansky, Yitzchak Dragachki, Dina Perlstein, Yonina Gurvich, Moshe Baron, Lipsha Boz, Chana Shachor, Shoshana Friedman, Rabiner, Lantzman, Chaya Katz, Miriam Berzin, Shlomo Friedman

[Fifth unnumbered page – NYPL 223]

The Maccabee Football Team of Jonava

Shlomo Friedman, Moshe Untershatz, Yaakov Klibansky, Tzvi Levin, Aryeh Stern, Aryeh Zisla, Micha Mechnik, Meir Zopovich, Yitzhak Nuchimovich, Feivel Shapira, Aber Untershatz, Efraim Prakt


Shmerl Shapira, D. Friedman, Berl Segalovsky, Y. Klibansky, P. Shapira, Levi Kaper, M. Mechnik, G. Goldshmidt, Efraim Baten, Shoham, Shlomo Silberman, P. Shachor, Y. Nuchimovich, Z. Epstein, B. Shabtai's

[Sixth unnumbered page – NYPL 224]

Hershel Bankkutsher, Y. Klibansky, L. Kaper, M. Mechnik, B. Segalovsky, Berl Fein, Shaul Milner, P. Shapira, Elka Kaper, Shlomo Friedman, Zelmanovich, Yaakov Novikhovich, Berka Aiker, Abba Fein


The Maccabee basketball team

[Seventh unnumbered page – NYPL 225]

Maccabee parade
The railway bridge to Chigonka
In the background, the Kemach factory and the Girialka factory


The parade on Breizer Street

[Eighth unnumbered page – NYPL 226]

The group of actors in the play “Green Fields” (“Di Grine Felder” by Peretz Hirshbein (in Yiddish)


The actors and members of the Maccabee with the set in the background:

Y. Nuchimovich, B. Shabtai's, P. Shachor, Vidtzky, Sh. Goldshmidt, Avram, D. Friedman, Efraim Prakt, A. Stern, A. Goldshmidt, B. Segalovsky, Moshe Sulsky. Yitzchak B., Tz. L. Weiner, Abba Opanitzky, Ivensky, Chone Katzenberg – producer, A. Kagan – the artist, G. Stern, Z. Opnik, X, N. Goldshmidt; Shifra Lomiansky, Miriam Nuchimovich

[Ninth unnumbered page – NYPL 227]

Yitzchak Gurvich, Shlomo Silberman, Moshe Untershatz, Pesach Shachor, Reping, Tzipa Leah Weiner, Miriam Nuchimovich, Elchanan Katzenberg, Hinda Levitz, Shifra Lomiansky


Four men around a table

The caption is superimposed on the photo and is unclear. It seems to refer to a gathering of the Jonaver chapter of an organization after the slaughter in Wilkomir [Ukmerge].

[Tenth unnumbered page – NYPL 228]

The Maccabee committee:
David Friedman, Nisan Goldshmidt, Baron, Berl Segalovsky, P. Shachor, Shmuel Goldshmidt, Shlomo Friedman, M. Ivensky, Efraim Prakt, Moshe Baron


Yerachmiel Dobiansky, Bernstein, Z. Epstein, Yosef Grossman, Pinchas Burstein, Yosef Rikliansky, Yerachmiel Blumberg, Ezriel Opnitzky, Yaffa, Morr, Sarka Goldshmidt, Levi Kaper, Reping, Sh. Friedman, Avraham Jochovsky, Y. Klibansky, Moshe Lantzman, Moshe Untershatz, Etka Landman, Tzvi Wolfovich, Tzvi Levin, Hinda Levitz, Shlomo Silberman, Chona Kagan, Yosef Klibansky, Efraim Baten, Michel Mechnik, Avraka Untershatz, Feivel Shapira

[Eleventh unnumbered page – NYPL 229]

The flags of Hapoel in Jonava at a sporting gathering, 1935


The leadership of Hapoel at a farewell gathering for A. Sirkin, Passover 1936:

Avraham Klotz, Aryeh Perchik, Tz. Perevoznik, Dov Rikless, Elimelech Perchik, Zelig Yudelevich, Tz . Josefs, Aryeh Sirkin, Eliahu Kagan, D. Friedman, Yitzchak Goldman


A regional gathering of Hapoel, Jonava, 1938

[Twelfth unnumbered page – NYPL 230]

The Tzeirei Zion – Hitachdut organization in Jonava at the fifth anniversary of its existence, Passover, 5686 (1926)

Greenblatt, Tz. Opnitzky, Malka Solsky, Leah Kronick, Chaim Blumberg, Trivish, Golda Sirek, Zev Kirzner, Feiga Klibansky, Baten, Leibel Burstein, Tzipora Klotz, Moshe Ivensky, Vinitzky, Freda Gold-Mines, Tzila Untershatz, Rivka Atkatz, Leizer Levin, Prakt, Yehudit Weiner, Yitzchak B., Riska Grossman, Chana Davidovich, Rivka Sesitzky, Tzvi Resnick, Freda Libertal, Yonah Shaltuper


Hitachdut chapter in Jonava, 20 Iyar 5787 (1927)

Greenblatt, P. Libertal, Mila Shpilansky, Y. Weiner, Nechama Levin, G. Sirek, Shliomovich, Tz. Klotz, Reizel Janusovich, X, L. Kronik, Shaltuper, Davidovich, Gold, Untershatz, Atkatz, Sesitsky, X, Ivensky

[Thirteenth unnumbered page –NYPL 231]

On the day we took leave of Ch. Zlonker before he made aliya to the Land, 23 Av {year is unclear}

(Four top people are not identified)
Epstein, Tzipora Klibansky, Tzipora Grossman, Yosef Klibansky, X, X, Baten, Tzipora Shoham, Michael Zlonker, Yaakov Dembo, Alter Monitz


Hitachdut Tzierei Zion in Jonava, 8 Elul 5685 (1925)

Sheina Tzipa Katz, Menashe Lantzman, Shlomo Meirovich, Strum, X, Moshe Klachman, X, Henia Blumberg, Chana Pesia Glazer, Zalman Kurskisik, Elchanal Glaz, Shmuel Kaplan, Alter Sandler, Yitzchak Zlonker, Menashe Weiner, Perchik, Yosef Shoham, Aryeh Stern, Golda Friedman, Yerachmiel Teitelbaum, Levin, Dvora Zlonker, Zelig Stein, Alter Monitz, Mendel Dobiansky, Tzipora Grossman, Hinda Perlstein, Yitzchak Resnick

[Fourteenth unnumbered page – NYPL 232]

The Sirkin Group bids farewell to Tzvi Ulpasky, 1930

X, Landsman, Reibstein, Strum, X, A. Monitz, X, Heiman, P. Shachor, Naftali Gurvich, Golda Glaz, Yehudit Rikless, Daniel Rikless, Y. Teitelbaum, Strum, Tz. Grossman, X, Tzvi Perevoznik, Miriam Berzin, Dov Rikless, Chaim Teitelbaum, Mordechai Yaffa, X, Zelig Yudelevich, Reizka Friedman, Tzvi, Chaya Portnoy, Mordechai Katz, Rachel Shabtai's, Elimelech Perchik, A. Khasid, V. Abramovich, Rivka Itzkovich, Yaakov Katzav, Yechezkel Kotler, Tzvi Josefs, Avraham Portnoy, Baruch Shabtai's, Yitzchak Nuchimovich


Members of the choir of Chevra Sirkin, including female members of Hashomer Hatzair

The conductor – Shlomo Ber Meirovich. Perevoznik, Perlstein, Gans, Yoska (the Schwalb)[2], Monitz, Rikless, Portnoy, N. Gurvich, Opnik, Abramovich, Tzvi Atkatz, Giga Plasker, Lantzman, Tzvia Berzin, Sara Opnik, Miriam Berzin, Malka Klotz, P. Shachor, Kazansky, Chaya Baten, Tz. Glinsky, Shlomo Ber [Meirovich], Sara Baten, Sh. Shachor, Golda Glaz, P. Kazansky, Chaya Portnoy, Dvora Berzin, Tzipora Zandman, Sh. Klibansky, L. Yudelevich

[Fifteenth unnumbered page – NYPL 233]

The Hechalutz chapter bids farewell to Shimon Sack and Daniel Rikless before they make aliya

Z. Yudelevich, D. Josefs, Berl Rikless, X, Breznikov, Strum, Heiman, Moshe Wolk, Shanel, Perchik, Reuven Jurman, Ch. P. Glazer, Gurvich, Lantzman, Teitelbaum, Batya Zandman, Zev Kirzner, Moshe Dembo, Sara Friedman, X, Zuska Atkatz, Z. Abramovich, Y. Dembo, Ch. R. Davidovich, Shimon Sack, Dina Perlstein, D. Rikless, A. Monitz, Avraham Pimstein, Golda Glaz, P. Kazansky, David Friedman, Leibka Perchik, Yehudit Rikless, Yitzchak Goldman


Young Zion – Hitachdut chapter in Jonava on the occasion of the aliya of our members Perlstein and Sack. September 1, 1934.

[Sixteenth unnumbered page – NYPL 234]

Members of Young Zion and members of Hashomer Hatzair

Berka Rikless, David Friedman, Strum, Yechezkel Kotler, Sara and Chaya Baten, Zev Abramovich, Sara Opnik, Ulpasky, X, Daniel Rikless, Yitzchak Zlonker, Elimelech Perchik.
The “consul”, Shlomo Ber, Rivka Itzkovich, X, X, Tzvi Perevoznik, Zalman Sesitzky, Moshe Friedman, Strum, Yerachmiel Teitelbaum, Tzipora Grossman, X, Shoshana Friedman, Glaz, Linda, X, X, Miriam Berzin, Leah Lantzman, Rabiner, Izik Reibstein, Alter Khasid, X, Shlomo Gerber, Pinchas Shapira.
Baruch Shabtai's, Baruch Jalinovich, Leah Yudelevich, Sheina Klibansky, Mordechai Yaffa, Yaakov Katzav, X


The mandolin band of Chevrak Sirkin, 1933

Alter Monitz, Rachel Kushilevich, Daniel Rikless, Chana Jalinovich, X, X, Yasha Vilkomirsky, Avraham Portnoy, Mechnik, Yudka Katzenberg, X, David and Hadassa Friedman, Rivka Kushilevich, Eliahu Baron, Meirovich – the conductor, Chaya Portnoy, Aryeh Perchik, Nobichovich, Leah Klibansky, Lantzman, X

[Page 144 resumed]

In 1931, the Hakoach sports club of the Socialist-Zionist Youth (Hanoar Hatzioni-Socialisti) of Lithuania joined the Hapoalim sports movement and changed its name to Hapoel. From that time, Hapoel of Lithuania became an inseparable part of Hapoel in the Land of Israel. Its goal was to enable the community of workers to engage in sports, under the rubric of Eretz Yisrael Haoevedet (Working Land of Israel).

The practical connection with the youth in Lithuania was established after a representative of the Hapoel activists of that time from the Land of Israel came to Lithuania. This was Yosef Carmi (today a senior official in the office of labor in the employment department).

When Y. Carmi came for the duration of one year, the center of Hapoel was set up in Lithuania, and the main branch was strengthened in Kovno. At a later stage, chapters in the outlying cities were established.

The sporting activities were expressed primarily through common sports, football[3], basketball games, volleyball, gymnastics, weightlifting, boxing, swimming, ping-pong, and of course social-cultural activities based on Socialist Zionism. In order to facilitate the broadening of activities, a national course for sports leaders was organized. The writer of these lines, Eliahu Kagan, a native of the town of Jonava, was one of the participants in this course.

After the conclusion of the course, I became one of the activists and organizers of Hapoel in Lithuania, and a member of its center. Through my general activity on behalf of Hapoel in Lithuania, I dedicated some of my time to establish a chapter in Jonava, particularly during the summer, during the university vacation, when I resided in my home in Jonava. My parents lived in that home until their last day, at the beginning of the Second World War and the expulsion of the Jews.

[Page 145]

The Uniqueness of the Youth

The Jewish youth of Jonava were slightly different from the youth in other towns. Jonava was a town of about 4,000 people. The majority were Jews and the rest were Christian Lithuanians, Pravoslavs and Poles, who lived for the most part at the edges of town. The Jewish residents lived in the center.

Jonava, a town close geographically to the capital Kovno, is situated on the banks of the Vylia River. It is a wide river with a swift flowing current, with green meadows and forests on both banks. The beautiful surroundings, the river with strong, tall bridges, the railway line that passes close to the town – all bestow the character of natural beauty onto the region.

In Jonava itself there were many carpentry workshops, owned for the most part by Jews. There were also smithies, flourmills, and a significant number of stores and other businesses. The gentiles were primarily occupied with agriculture, cattle farming and fishing. In general, they were calm citizens. The town lived its life serenely and quietly, in full harmony with the beautiful surroundings. The forests of the regions, the green meadows, and the picturesque valley imbued the residents with calmness of the soul, mutual understanding, and orderly communal life.

Jonava was much better known in Lithuania, primarily due to the manufacture of furniture and its being a center of the furniture trade. This was also due to the unique trades related to floating barges along the Vylia and Neiman rivers. This was a unique trade, with family expertise passed from father to son. Its practitioners were known in Yiddish as “di vasser menchen”, that is to say, “the water people”. To this day, the echoes of those Jews who floated barges from the thick forests along the Vylia echo in my ears – commands issued from one side of the barge to the other side. This work demanded of its practitioners agility, knowledge, and great physical strength. These were simple, strong and brave Jews whose name went before them.

The Jewish youth were raised in this background, and became healthy, vibrant, and developed from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.

Thanks to the wide river, most of the Jewish youth knew how to swim, dive, and row in boats. This differentiated them from the youth in “dry” towns.

There were a number of Zionist youth organizations in Jonava as well as a longstanding sporting club called Maccabee, around which gathered primarily the general Zionist and revisionist youth. Most of them were from well-to-do families. Jonava was lacking a sport club that was appropriate for the working circles.

Upon looking back, it seems ridiculous when we mention today the political debates based on differences in outlook that pervaded the rival camps in the Jewish community. There was no shortage of political youth organizations in the Jewish towns of Lithuania, and the political wrangling was intense. Whoever lived during that time in the unique atmosphere of Lithuanian Jewry, Zionist in heart and soul, understands naturally the debates among the Zionist groups of the different factions in the background of the renewal that arrived from the Land of Israel at that time. This was the prime expression of cultural life in the town.

During that era, the Zionist activities of the various factions were overly provincial, but they imbued valuable content into the communal life of the local Jewish youth.

Two sports clubs, Maccabee and Hapoel, operated in this environment.

[Page 146]

The Organization in the Rubric of Hapoel

No small amount of struggle, deliberation and debate passed over the youth activists of Jonava during the time of the deliberating over the question of the establishment of Hapoel. There were those who were opposed to the establishment of an additional sporting organization over and above the longstanding Maccabee. On the other hand, others claimed that there was a need for a special sporting framework for the workers, so they went ahead with the establishment of Hapoel.

I recall the patrons of Hapoel in Jonava: Leibel Stern, Y. Monitz, Daniel Rikless (today in Tel Aviv), Tzipora Grossman (today in Haifa), Yerachmiel Teitelbaum, and me, who had an official position as the representative and member of the Hapoel headquarters.

Finally, a decision was made to establish Hapoel in Jonava. This was done with the support and assistance of the members of the Hapoel headquarters, especially Ben-Zion Moirer (who was among the first to be murdered by the Germans at the time of the liquidation of the Jewish leadership of Kovno at the Ninth Fort), and Aryeh Sirkin (today Aryeh Sarig, a deputy director-general in the department of security [in Israel]). An active committee was established, which later became the leadership committee of the chapter. Members of the Tzeirei Zion youth organization participated, including: Davidka Friedman, the Perchik brothers, Berl Rikless, Hershel Perevoznik, Elka Abramovich, and Hershka Josefs.

The modest sporting activities began slowly. At first, a football team and gymnastics team were set up. At a later time, when we rented a field (a large field on the outside of the town), the members began to participate in light athletics, volleyball and basketball.

The youth became involved in these activities very willingly. Despite the meager means at the disposal of the organizers, there was vibrancy and a great deal of activity. The activities took place for the most part during the summer months, when the pleasant weather facilitated the playing of sports in the open air.

At times, the members of Hapoel of Jonava took part in national and regional events that were organized through the efforts of the Hapoel headquarters. The members particularly enjoyed the trips to neighboring towns (Wilkomir, Keidani and others) for football tournaments, joint regional gatherings, or friendly meetings. These events introduced a competitive spirit and were challenging. They prepared for such gatherings with great energy.

I recall the regional gathering of Hapoel in Jonava (1938) that took place in the form of a camp outside the town, the regional gathering in Karmelava (1933), and the national convention of all Hapoel chapters of Lithuania that took place in Kovno, in which Hapoel of Jonava took part with a large representation of athletes and competitors in light athletics and football.


The Importance of the Activity from a Social and Sporting Perspective

Indeed, we were not blessed with sporting achievements, but the meetings with the Jewish youth from other towns provided a great deal of meaning for the youth. This enabled Zionist crystallization, activity on behalf of Israel, training in pioneering, and sublime aspirations for the building of the old-new homeland. Now we can note that many of the youth of Jonava were saved by this blessed activity, for they succeeded in making aliya to the Land of Israel under the rubric of Hechalutz, while there was still time, prior to the destruction of Lithuanian Jewry, as well as at a later time as refugees from the concentration camps or the remnants of the partisans.

This group of people arrived in Israel after various tribulations, after the ghettos, exile in Siberia, or after participating in the war against the Germans in partisan units.

At this time we can state with certainty that thanks to that Zionist activity under the auspices of Hapoel, Maccabee, and other Zionist organizations, we instilled a desire for the Land of Israel into the hearts of the youth. Instead of scattering throughout the far reaches of the earth, they always desired to reach the Land of Israel. We had to fight strongly against the Communist propaganda that attempted to attract the Jewish youth to its ranks. All of those who joined the Communist youth were eventually lost. Most were murdered, and a very small number remain in Russia. In any case, they did not come to Israel.

Translator's Footnotes

  1. The NYPL numbers on the unnumbered pages refer to the scan numbers from the digitized version of the original Yizkor book available at the New York Public Library website (http://yizkor.nypl.org/index.php?id=2236) Return
  2. The nickname “the Schwalb” means “the sparrow”. Return
  3. Probably in the European sense – i.e. soccer. Return

« Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page »

This material is made available by JewishGen, Inc. and the Yizkor Book Project for the purpose of
fulfilling our mission of disseminating information about the Holocaust and destroyed Jewish communities.
This material may not be copied, sold or bartered without JewishGen, Inc.'s permission. Rights may be reserved by the copyright holder.

JewishGen, Inc. makes no representations regarding the accuracy of the translation. The reader may wish to refer to the original material for verification.
JewishGen is not responsible for inaccuracies or omissions in the original work and cannot rewrite or edit the text to correct inaccuracies and/or omissions.
Our mission is to produce a translation of the original work and we cannot verify the accuracy of statements or alter facts cited.

  Jonava, Lithuania     Yizkor Book Project     JewishGen Home Page

Yizkor Book Director, Lance Ackerfeld
This web page created by Max Heffler

Copyright © 1999-2024 by JewishGen, Inc.
Updated 27 Jan 2019 by LA