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[Columns 277-278]

Posters of the Parties Standing
for the Community Elections of 1936

Translated by Yael Chaver




“Linas-Ha-Tsedek” To All Jewish Voters in Hrubieszow

Our task at this time: For our ailing brothers and sisters, Linas-Ha-Tsedek is the only philanthropic institution that helps our impoverished sick. We have been in existence for many years, and have saved thousands of the indigent sick, with the aid of physicians, prescriptions, medications, and even supplied milk free of charge.[1] We also extended aid on our own, such as overnight stays with sick people, etc.; this was offered to well-to-do sick people as well.

The years-long existence of the Linas HaTsedek institution is due solely to its energetic chairman, Simkhe Hipsh, and the board members, which have not shrunk from all the difficulties that have faced the institution over the years, and have applied all their strength to support the Linas HaTzedek. Its mission is well known to all the Jewish residents of Hrubieszow.

The Jewish population of Hrubieszow, which has its own hospital, does not take into account, and is not interested in, the need for a Jewish hospital to function at a time when many Jews are sick – poor and well-to-do alike – and cannot find a place to lay their suffering bodies, a place where their pain will be heard. The sick person lacks a familiar environment, a friend or an acquaintance. More than once, he, poor soul, must breathe his last among strangers. The Jewish population is unwilling to take itself to task in this matter.

Now is the time for you, the Jews of Hrubieszow, to make up for your failings. The day of community elections is nearing, and you must express your intentions. On the day you go to cast your vote into the urn, you must remember that by your vote bearing the list number, you are sending a representative to defend your interests. Remember, Jewish voters, that if you cannot care for the indigent sick, at least send the representative whose task it is to care for your poor, ailing brothers and sisters. Remember, the only list that will defend these interests is List no. 1

Everyone vote for List No. 1




To all voters for the Hrubieszow Community Council

On Sunday, September 6, you voters go to place your vote in the urn. But have you really thought about what you demand from your representatives in the community, and whether these representatives are capable of fulfilling their mission?

Voters, are you aware that the Community is the only legal Jewish public institution?

Do you know that now, when the Jewish population is on the brink of ruin, the community cannot be satisfied with its normal way of doing things and will have to (within the limits of possibility) ensure the existence of the Jewish population?

Have you considered that the community representatives will constantly have to be on guard to avert all the dangers that threaten the life and existence of the Jewish community, and intervene in a timely manner with the ---- organs in order to head off the dangers?[2]

Do you understand that during the terrible need that hangs over the Jewish community, the community must organize Jewish society, in order to relieve the need as much as possible?

Do you not realize that the community as such must also see to the future of the people, and therefore also help the Jewish masses to emigrate to the Land of Israel? ---------------a new, productive Jewish life, on healthy foundations, for our Jewish young people who are ------------ in Diaspora!

If you, voters, understand all the tasks of the community in regards to the Jewish population, take a few minutes and look over the list of candidates, and then see which of them is capable of carrying out these tasks, and which can be expected to fully carry out the task.

Voters, do not give your vote to those who don't care about the community, except for the rabbi or the ritual slaughterer, and neglect the ---interests of the Jewish community.

Do not vote for those who often say that they actually are unable to help the community. They go only to --------------- work ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------they only pretend to work.

Only the candidates on the Zionist List No. 2 are the capable, time-tested candidates, who will scrupulously carry out their mission as representatives of the public at this critical time.[3]

Only the Zionists distance themselves from the traitors and informers, and do not --------- the guilty, regardless of who they are.

All those who wish to set the community up on healthy foundations, and ensure normal functioning, vote for List No. 2.



The Elections Committee of the Zionist Organization, Hrubieszow

Remember, Only No. 10

If you agree that the Jewish community should be headed by the best social activists

You should vote only for the list of the United Jewish Bloc

No. 10

If you want the community to be led with honesty and thought

You should vote for this list: No. 10

If you value Jewish honor, if you understand the Jewish Torah, if you have a heart that feels, and agonizes over, the problems of the Jews, you must vote only for List No. 10. The first candidates of the United Jewish Bloc, No. 10, are council members, and longstanding activists in public matters, who do their work faithfully.

Mr. Azri'el Finkelshteyn
Vice Chairman of the Mizrachi -- Zvi Bukhtreger
Vice Chairmans of the Merchants' Association --Yankev Perets
The Honorable and Noble -- Berish Rozenberg
The Director of the modern Jewish school, Darkhey No'am -- Yehoshua Vaynboym

The United Jewish Bloc, List No. 10, is not a fabrication, but the true representative of the Jewish public.

Remember, Only No. 10



Jews, Voters!

For years on end, a clique of “fine Jews” ruled over the community, without accounting to you.[4] They would like to continue to stir the community pot unhindered. But they are afraid of the new forces of the Po'aley-Tsiyen delegates, the only defenders of your interests. They know that they will have to give an account of their ongoing rule in the community; and mainly, because limits will be set to their power in the future. They are making great efforts and applying any illegal means possible in order to deny Po'aley-Tsiyen delegates membership in the council.

Thus, they disqualified the Po'aley Tsiyen list at the last meeting of the Elections Committee, hoping to be rid, once and for all, of any kind of control, and force you to accept their rule once again.

But it won't help thesefine Jews.”

The Po'aley Tsiyen Elections Committee will do everything it can in order to restore the list, which was actually disqualified illegally.

Turn away with disgust and contempt from these characters! Not a single vote! On Election Day, vote one and all for the Po'aley-Tsiyen list, No. 5.

The Po'aley-Tsiyen Elections Committee (combined with the Zionist Socialists) in Hrubieszow.

[Columns 279-280]


Appeals by Parties for the Community Council Elections of 1931 and 1936[5]

Away, Despicable People![6]

To the provocateurs and leaders of the “holy” falsehood presented in a poster for the rest of the Jewish population, concerning the dispute over the issue of the rabbinate.

For over a year now, our peaceful town has become inundated with disputes and evil gossip. In fact, about one year ago the atmosphere in our community of Hrubieszow became foul with incitement, evil gossip, and denunciations. We are already swamped with vile, scandalous announcements. We have already seen entire groups of informers stand in rows on Shabbes and holidays, ready for a fight. We need to unmask them as fake observant Jews, who make a denunciation and then say the least observant version of the blessing.[7]

The question arises: who is to blame? Who is responsible for the great outrage and act of sacrilege in our town? We also need to ask, “Where was this plant nourished?”[8] It is, first of all, a strong creature, which has in our relatively peaceful town grown so strong and possesses such evil energy. -------our town -------------- Why has the issue of the rabbinate, of all things, involved people who have never been seen in any religious or community work? It is indeed a wonder that the issue of the shtrayml suddenly impelled people to take part in this sacred conflict.[9] Are these few Jews of Hrubieszow really so profoundly religious and exaggeratedly observant? Do they have such a strong community instinct that they are willing to sacrifice their lives, money, and are ready to place religious and community life above everything else? These people were never involved in social and religious affairs.-----------

Where were they, these God------ , who are willing to work their mouths so hard for the calf?[10] Where have they been until now? Why did they not voice their arguments before, and only now come out so energetically? Where were they until now, all these cocky young guys? They secretly worked on some insignificant community matters, never even allowing them to assume power.[11] Why was this issue of the rabbinate the cause of their becoming observant? But who knows. They may have been somehow wronged by these elections. At the same time, the question arises for their quiet, deliberate followers, “how can one discard that which is certain and retain that which is doubtful?” The answer is quite simple, and therein lies the crux of the matter. It is these filthy elements which created the intense agitation. It is these people, with their crippled and corrupt souls, these, whose only property is thievery and robbery. They are not interested in those for whom denunciation and malicious gossip is only a means to an end. These depraved devils, who see everything through their corrupt souls, heard that there was something to be gained: there was an issue concerning the rabbinate in Hrubieszow. They immediately prepared to profit. Meanwhile, so as not to waste time, they became involved in other community matters; they enjoyed it all. When they eventually saw that it was not working, they took a different tack, with a good deed that is rewarded, from Radzyń.[12] This attitude spread, leading to the development of this dangerous holy wrath.

These people began to spread various libels about the most virtuous people, that they had not been able to resist the great temptation. They incited savage jealousy and hatred, even within families, and attracted unstable people who do not understand ----------[13]. It is this sickness that gave rise to the actions of people who seek only their own good. This is the filthy source of their great agitation. These people thus lack any community ------ or responsibility. Now they want to do us a great favor and take care of us. There are gains to be gotten, and the community might become a source of revenue that could not be resisted.

Our response to all these people is very brief: Despicable people, you are greatly mistaken. Go back to your holes, deal with your own business. You will gain no profit here. Just as we did not know where you pests came from, so do we not want to know where you are going!

Back to your holes!

Away, despicable people!



Unions of Jewish Artisans and Retailers in Hrubieszow

Artisans and Retailers!

Attention! Discipline! Be Strong in Your Conviction!

No agitation! No fine slogans! No promises!

We are ready, and we understand our tasks!

May 20 will be proclaimed a holiday, with no work, a day of battle and victory for the artisans and retailers, in List No. 6.

Let every artisan and retailer vote on Wednesday, May 20, for the artisans and retailers list, No. 6.

Those who abstain are not with us – they are against us.

We must win, at any cost!

The artisans and retailers have already proved that they are a power, and as such we will continue to make demands on the community.

Our demands will be:

  1. Prevent a higher municipal tax.
  2. Strip the magistrate and treasury of tax-collecting responsibilities.
  3. Community creation of schools and professional courses for artisans, in order to make more productive [“productivize”] the Jewish masses.
  4. Community control of the various philanthropic institutions.
  5. Community-created clinics for poor and sick people; the impoverished population must get free medical help; etc.
Remember, artisans and retailers, that you and your sons who are over 25 must vote on Wednesday, May 20, for the Artisans' and Retailers' List No. 6

Your victory is victory for us all!

Our representatives will fight for our vital interests and well-being, as always.

Our first candidates are: Avrom Shayn, Hersh Shats, Ben-Tsiyon Aylboym, Moyshe Frigel, Noyekh Aykhenblat, Berish Bergrin, and others.

Artisans and retailers, do your duty , and vote for List No. 6




To All Jews of Hrubieszow

We know what a great responsibility it is to be a representative of the Jewish community at a time like the present.

We can well imagine how very difficult it is to act for the Jewish community in this time of catastrophe for the material life of Jews, as well as spiritual decline.

However, in spite of the hard work and everyday difficulties that confront us, and of which are well aware, we cannot sit idly by and watch how “Ammon and Moav” have united to insult Jewish honor, destroy Jewish national pride, and uproot the last shred of Jewish essence.[14]

Brother, we know only too well your terrible situation! It is that which moves us, the bearers of the age-old oath “If I forget thee, Jerusalem, may my right hand forget its skill,” to prevent the complete destruction of Jewish communities.[15]

We consider the entire Jewish community, regardless of social class and groupings, as too precious to be led by irresponsible meddlers.

Jews have no stepchildren!

Merchant, artisan, Hassid, and intelligentsia member – all are equal! All of them together constitute the Jewish people – and therefore our hearts feel pain when we see various hypocrites and rabble-rousers fight to be part of the community council, for their own purposes, over the heads of local Jewish society.

These characters, who are willing to abandon the reputation of the Jewish public in return for a smile from the “landowner” and other such “honors,” want to be our leaders.

We believe that you, Jewish voter, cannot and never will agree to this.

Brother! If you hold dear the honor of the Jewish people, if you don't want to insult your own honor, set aside your day-to-day problems and concerns, and think seriously about whom to vote for next Wednesday. Don't be influenced by all the “chair-grabbers” who will do anything to get your vote.

A hypocritical Agudas-Yisro'el member will approach you with a pious expression, and will tell you stories in order to get your vote. You must realize that he has only his own everyday interests at heart.

A supposed artisan will also come up and want to convince you that he is the only one who will defend your interests. Don't believe him! Brother! Tell them that you remember their previous actions in the community, which helped to destroy our honor.

The only list that can bring some light into your ruined and desperate life is List No. 7.

List No. 7 is the only list that can defend your religious and national honor.

The candidates on that list are the only ones who are able to bring some order into the community; the only ones whom everyone knows thanks to their community work in various domains.

So, brother! Do your duty to the Jewish community, and go to the elections with a clear conscience, and vote for List No. 7. The candidates on that list will conscientiously fulfill their responsibility to the community and all its affairs.

The Elections Committee of the Zionist Organization, Hrubieszow

Translator's Footnotes:

  1. The letters of the word following “medication” (in parentheses) are partly broken and the word is impossible to read. Return
  2. Here, and to the end of this section, many words along the right-hand edge of the original image are too damaged or indistinct in the original to decipher, and are indicated by a series of hyphens. Return
  3. The writer uses the Hebraic phrase sheliekh-tsiber that refers to the cantor. Return
  4. The term “fine Jews” is commonly used sarcastically. Return
  5. The appeals for the different elections are not differentiated. Return
  6. Many parts of this passage are difficult to decipher for various reasons: typos, damaged letters in the original image, and a lack of punctuation. These are indicated in my translation by series of hyphens. The section is worded in esoteric rabbinical language that contains many quotes from and references to ritual, and nay incorporate local community customs. Return
  7. A blessing that does not incorporate the name of God and his role as king is sometimes considered to be wasted. Return
  8. The phrase, meaning “where does it originate?” is quoted from the Mishna's tractate Bava Matziya, 10, 6. Return
  9. Many rabbis traditionally wore the shtrayml -- a round fur-trimmed hat. Return
  10. A reference to the false idol of the golden calf (Exodus, 32). Return
  11. The reference is not clear. Return
  12. “A good deed that is rewarded” is a quote from commentators on Jewish law. The reference to Radzyń is not clear. Return
  13. The next phrase seems to be in Polish. Return
  14. “Ammon and Moav” are two ancient nations mentioned in the bible that were arch-enemies of the Israelites. It is not clear whom they refer to in the context of this election. Return
  15. The quote is from Psalm 137, 5. Return
  16. Note: The page of text numbered “Columns 281-282” has three columns of text on the page instead of the usual two but the page retains two column numbers in the book. Return
  17. Khevre-kadishe is the burial society. Return
  18. The names here apparently refer to persons well known in the community. Return
  19. The Hebrew Tel- chai means “hill of life,” and Tel-mavet means “hill of death.” Return
  20. This phrase is derived from the biblical passage in Numbers 25, 6-9. Zimri has sex with a Midianite woman, bringing the wrath of God upon Israel in form of a plague. Salu kills Zimri, stopping the plague, and is rewarded with a high priestly position. Return
  21. The reference to “the future national autonomy” is not clear. Return
  22. The Aramaic bar-nash is widely used in Hebrew, and translates as “human being.” Return
  23. Note: : The page of text numbered “Columns 283-284” has three columns of text on the page instead of the usual two but the page retains two column numbers in the book. Return
  24. Traditionally, those buried in the Land of Israel will be first to be resurrected after the coming of the Messiah. Placing soil from the Land of Israel in a coffin or a grave provides a measure of physical connection with the land. Return
  25. Talmud-toyre was the elementary school for boys. The Talmud is traditionally studied orally in a certain cadence and melody. Return
  26. The reference to 400 silver shekels quotes Genesis 23, 15; it is the sum that Abraham paid for the burial plot of his wife Sarah, in Hebron. The writer apparently uses this trope in reference to the sum earmarked for the two religious institutions. Return
  27. This pseudonym means “the observer.” Return
  28. The reference is to World War I. Return
  29. The bottom section is translated from the original Hebrew. Return

[Columns 281-282][1]

Press Notices of 1927-1930
Concerning Community Activities

Translated by Yael Chaver

It's been four years since our community [leaders], headed by the “chairman,” have taken up their positions and have no thought of relinquishing them. They are probably dreaming of the bygone days when they had the final word and, praying to God, wrapped everyone around their little fingers. Even the supposed “modern” people among them were hardly interested in the real needs of the folk masses.

The community has turned into a morgue. Unfortunately, it is located in the middle of the town. It should have been closer to the location of all the paraphernalia, from the Khevre-kadishe to the old and new ritual baths…[2]

By all means, let them show us what they have accomplished during this time. Which practical institutions have they created, and which have they supported?

On the contrary: they have led to the decline of that which was still surviving. We all still remember when, during a city council meeting, a Polish delegate of the Polish Socialist Party described conditions in the Old-Age Home. “How can your conscience allow you,” addressing the delegates, “to take elderly people and confine them in such filth, letting them die of starvation?” The shamed faces bowed down. This is their work on behalf of social aid!

And what's new with the public health institutions? How does our Jewish Hospital look? This is one of the most important establishments. After all, we know how unhappy a Jewish patient is in a non-Jewish hospital, where he does not get proper respect and does not understand the alien language. Is the Jewish hospital in good condition? Did many Jewish patients die there prematurely?

And what did our Orthodox leaders do in the field of national education? They placed a few elementary school teachers within the cold walls of the women's hospital to teach basic prayers to a few indigent children. That is all they taught.

Do they want to raise a healthy Jewish generation with that training?

What do our council members care if hundreds of children go to Polish schools, do not receive any Jewish education, and grow up disconnected from Jewish culture? They are satisfied with the fact that a bit of religious studies is offered in Polish, twice a week, and no more.

Yes, they have succeeded: after the death of the starved rabbi, they brought a rabbi who was ostensibly modern, with citified gestures, offered him nothing but the best; and together with the newly minted “town leaders,” the Rayfers, the Fiksmans, and Reb Zindelekeh he leads a hate campaign against those who would infuse new life into the dead bones.[3]

And if a certain movement invested much effort and work, and created a Jewish national - secular school, where a child will receive proper national and social education, become acquainted with all our cultural treasures – from the Bible all the way through modern Yiddish and Hebrew literature–and with Jewish life in different countries, and forge connections with various historical heroic achievements of the Jewish worker community in the Land of Israel - they are not content with not paying the limited subsidy earmarked for the school, but seek to undermine it completely.

The rabbi and his followers carry out violent incitement against the Tel-Chai school; in his sermons, he berates the school, calling it Tel-Mavet.”[4] Are the cheders and the Talmud-toyres, where Jewish children are crippled spiritually and physically, really Tel-Chais? They try with all their might to force parents to remove their children from the Tel-Chai school.

It's possible that they miss the old days, when each town rabbi had his loyal group of adherents who followed him blindly. The entire gang would follow him at dusk to the alleys and lanes, in search of sins. If a “sinner” was spotted, they would poke his body with their filthy hands, and chain him up in the anteroom to be mocked and shamed.

But those days are over now. No one believes them any more. The audience evaluates them on the basis of according to their deeds. People know that the principle of “acting like Zimri and expecting a reward like that of Pinchas” is no longer applicable. “[5] They speak of relations between God and Man, but in actual fact they are completely immersed in worldly matters.

Everyone tries to pay less taxes, placing the entire burden of the community budget on the indigent population. Instead of the budget being sustained by direct, proportional tax payments, the income usually consists of indirect income from the sale of staples; the poor are the first to suffer.

As we see, the Community leadership cannot include a single positive act in its account. Instead of acting as the fund for the future national autonomy, it has become transformed into a small Hasidic synagogue, dealing only with matters of rabbis and ritual slaughterers.[6]

Is this the kind of leadership we need? Are its tasks these and no others?

No, this is not what our community leadership should look like. The spirit of the old community should be eradicated, and its leadership should be held by those who are concerned with the well-being and needs of the Jewish masses everywhere.

We should also not forget that the current voting ordinance robs women and all who are younger than 25 of their rights, in order to prevent the younger generation, the bearers of new developments, from leading the community.

This is precisely the reason why the battle must be strong and harsh. The old shadows must be driven out. Those who have fenced the community into the very small space of matters linked with the synagogue, the rabbi, and the ritual bath must vanish, so that our community can be recast as a body that will be connected with everything that lives and breathes in Jewish life, and meets the real needs of the Jewish masses.

Signed: Barnash[7]

Unzer Vort, No. 1, Hrubieszow, April 20, 1928.

Translator's Footnotes:

  1. The page of text numbered “Columns 281-282” has three columns of text on the page instead of the usual two but the page retains two column numbers in the book. Return
  2. Khevre-kadishe is the burial society. Return
  3. The names here apparently refer to persons well known in the community. Return
  4. The Hebrew Tel- chai means “hill of life,” and Tel-mavet means “hill of death.” Return
  5. This phrase is derived from the biblical passage in Numbers 25, 6-9. Zimri has sex with a Midianite woman, bringing the wrath of God upon Israel in form of a plague. Salu kills Zimri, stopping the plague, and is rewarded with a high priestly position. Return
  6. The reference to “the future national autonomy” is not clear. Return
  7. The Aramaic bar-nash is widely used in Hebrew, and translates as “human being.” Return

[Columns 283-284][1]

A Stormy Meeting of the Community

Translated by Yael Chaver

The head of the community sits at the head, the rabbi next to him, and the council members stand around. These are the notorious town busybodies., who act for the the community: khevre-kadisha, leaders of Agudas Yisro'el, and pious Jews. All the lifeless faces are unusually bright today, for some reason.

The head stands up and says, “As you all probably know already, our meeting today is really important. We have a ‘fat’ deceased person today. We must take a thousand. We'll figure out what to do with it. I believe that after many years you are aware of my practical talents. I want to know – what should we do with the money? Do you agree?”

“No,” a council member calls out, apparently a member of khevre-kadisha. “Let's decide right now! We need the money right now for the cemetery.”

“Of course, the cemetery deserves a fine sum,” answers the community leader. “We have always prepared for cemetery needs. It was not in vain that we kept the hospital shut for so long. Besides, who should look after the needs of the dead if not we, members of the lifeless synagogue? After all, we are almost friends.

Do you really think we should look after those living insolent guys? We're as distant from them as they are from us. I am sure that the dead are our intimates.”

“Maybe for the Land of Israel?” the quasi-Zionist council member calls out timidly. “After all, it's customary to place soil from the Land of Israel into a grave.”[2]

“No!” yells a leader of Agudas-Yisro'el. “Do you think we'll send money from a bequest to the present-day Land of Israel, with its thousands of young heretical workers, with the women workers?”

“God forbid,” the council leader interrupts him.

“Gentlemen,” a Talmud-Toyre[3] Jew starts swaying as he talks with a talmudic cadence, “remember that we have a thing as holy as the Talmud-toyre. I don't need to explain what the relationship is between the Talmud-Toyre and the cemetery. They are closely akin to each other. You know that the materials taught in the Talmud-Toyre are totally useless to the living.

“”Moreover,” yells an insolent artisan, “the children are buried alive there.”

“Have respect,” the first man shouts at him, and goes on, “everything I say is as real as the deceased himself, may his memory be for a blessing.”

“Real, real!” everyone joins in. “We agree!”

“Maybe a donation to the orphanage, for the children of the deceased?” a young rascal asks.

“No,” the respectable people say. “What do orphans have to do with respectable deceased people? And, besides, what do they lack? Did you see how they behave? They dance all day long? And as to relying on this young rascal, may your children rely on him!”

“True,” says the council leader. And the rabbi says nothing.

Then, there are loud arguments about taking money from the heirs, 400 silver shekels (400 d.) and dividing it between the two dead institutions: the talmud-toyre and the cemetery.[4] Both are partners of the deceased man, each serves death in a different way: one takes care of the dead bodies, the other of the dead soul, and honor the synagogue of the dead.


Unzer Vort, No. 2, Hrubieszow, May 24, 1928.


The Local Community Leader's “Honesty”

Two weeks ago, an important householder of the community died; he was a distinguished member of the community council and a public acvitist, Mendl Shtikh (may his memory be for a blessing).

He left several married sons and daughters, who occupy an important position in local society, as well as a son who is a physician in Vienna, who completed his high-school studies in Tel Aviv during the war.[6]

His children donated 1000 złoty to the community, specifically: 300 to the orphanage, 200 to the talmud-toyre; 100 to the womens' committee to aid the impoverished poor, and 400 to the community.

It is interesting that the community found it necessary to deduct 100 złoty from the orphanage fund and 50 złoty from the womens' committee.

It is rumored that the children of the deceased, as well as the chairman of the orphanages, Fishl Zilbershteyn, are planning to sue the community. We will have an interesting trial.

Hrubieszower Lebn, No. 50, November 1930.


At The Meeting of the Community Council[7]

An aid committee for to Jews who are in need of credit has recently been created in our town, thanks to the retailers. Thanks to the help of the town's rabbi, Rabbi Verthaym, the committee has collected a fine sum from the wealthy of our town, in order to carry out its important work.

The community council recently met in order to discuss its 1927 budget. The first issue discussed was giving the ritual slaughterers a raise in pay. Most of the members supported the slaughterers' request, and the proposal of Mr. Brand, vice-chairman of the community, was adopted by a large majority.

There were strong arguments in the discussion of financial support for the only Hebrew school in town, and the orphanage. Most of the council members, the majority of whom are ultra-religious, voted against support for the Hebrew school. The Zionist proposal was turned down, and the Zionist members left the hall in protest.

At the next council meeting, the discussion of support for the Hebrew school was taken up again, at the suggestion of Mr. Brand. The ultra-religious members did not change their minds, though after the strong protests of the Zionists they agreed to budget a very small amount for the school.

Mr. Brand also proposed support for the JNF in the amount of 300 złoty. The proposal was voted down by the majority. The local JNF committee lodged a complaint with the council, and requested that a certain amount be allotted to the JNF. In fact, there was considerable debate on the matter at the first council meeting. The proposal of the council chairman, Mr. Perets, to budget 200 złoty for the JNF was accepted.

Ha-Tsfira, No. 54, Friday, March 4, 1927.

[Columns 285-286]

Announcement of submission date for candidate lists for elections to the community council, 1936



The Elections Committee for the Jewish Community Council in Hrubieszow, based on Article 29 of the regulation dated October 24, 1930, Regulation No. 75, ---------------, requires voters to submit Candidates Lists during five days, from August 24 to August 29, 1936, inclusive, between the hours of 11 a.m. and 2 p.m., and on Saturday between 8 -11 p.m., for 12 members and 12 substitutes.[9]

Each list must be proposed by at least 50 community members who possess active voting rights, listing their first and last names, their occupation, and their address (Section 30).

Each Candidates List must include 24 council members, their first and last names, locations, and occupations. One column contains successive numbers. Indicating candidates by signs or location groupings is permitted, but not necessary (Section 31).

The Candidates List must be accompanied by a ----------------, occupation of each candidate, according to the best of his knowledge, -------------------------- agrees to be a candidate, and in case he is elected he takes the ----------------------- of the candidates according to the successive number in the list is permitted (Section------)

After presenting the certificate to the commission, any withdrawal of the agreement will not be considered.

One of the undersigned must be appointed as trustee for the Candidates List, and the other as a substitute, in case the first appointee cannot serve (Section 36).

If a Candidates List is submitted after the specified time, or does not conform to the above-noted legal requirements, it will be considered invalid.

Hrubieszow, August 21, 1936.

Chairman of the Elections Committee
Azriel Finkelshtayn


Hrubieszow Community Council Members, 1703-1710

In 1703, the following men were members of the community council: Nisan Berkowicz, Yosef Nachmanowicz, Efroyim Shmulewicz, Avrom Ayzikowicz, Leyb Herszkowicz, Reynish Meirowicz, and Arn Leybowicz.

In 1710, the council members were Hirsh Pyetruszka, Ber Manis, Yudl and Leyzer Oszejevicz and Yankev Fayvuszewicz.


The Elections Committee invites the Jews of Hrubieszow to examine the voters' lists for the Community Council, 1931



The Elections Committee for the Jewish Community Council in Hrubieszow, based on Article 29 of the regulation dated October 24, 1930, Regulation No. 75, subsection 592, states that the

Voters' List

has been compiled on the basis of the permanent list of community members, created by the community board, and is freely available in the community's office daily, between 8 a.m. and 8 p.m., for the examination of every community member who has the right to vote; that is, Jewish men over 25 who have resided without interruption in this community's county for at least one year.[10]

Community members may examine this list until March 30, 1931.

In addition, be aware that only those who are included in the voters' list have the right to vote, and all those who were dropped from the voters' list have the right, until the above mentioned date (March 30, 1931), to demand that they be included in the list. Following that date, no requests will be considered.

Chairman of the Elections Committee
Shakhne Brandt
Hrubieszow, March 16, 1931.


The Community Council Protests Against the “White Paper”[11]

Our entire town is deeply affected by the protest strike against the British “White Paper.” Movement within the town was almost completely stopped during the strike. Shops and workshops were closed, and hundreds of people gathered in the large synagogue, where speeches were held by Rabbi Tversky, I. M. Shapira, Z. Krayd,and I. Merenshteyn. At the close of the assembly, the community chairman, Shmuel Brandt, proposed a protest resolution, which was unanimously adopted.

Following the meeting, the community council sent a protest telegram to the British Prime Minister; the telegram expressed the protest of the Jewish population against the “White Paper.”

Haynt, June 4, 1939

Translator's Footnotes:

  1. The page of text numbered “Columns 283-284” has three columns of text on the page instead of the usual two but the page retains two column numbers in the book. Return
  2. Traditionally, those buried in the Land of Israel will be first to be resurrected after the coming of the Messiah. Placing soil from the Land of Israel in a coffin or a grave provides a measure of physical connection with the land. Return
  3. Talmud-toyre was the elementary school for boys. The Talmud is traditionally studied orally in a certain cadence and melody. Return
  4. The reference to 400 silver shekels quotes Genesis 23, 15; it is the sum that Abraham paid for the burial plot of his wife Sarah, in Hebron. The writer apparently uses this trope in reference to the sum earmarked for the two religious institutions. Return
  5. This pseudonym means “the observer.” Return
  6. The reference is to World War I. Return
  7. The bottom section is translated from the original Hebrew. Return
  8. Some of the words of this announcement are too damaged to decipher. I have indicated them by series of hyphens. Return
  9. The missing words are abbreviations of references to the relevant government regulations. I was unable to correlate the Yiddish abbreviations with the original Polish. Return
  10. See note 9. Return
  11. The White Paper was a policy paper issued by the British Government in May 1939. It limited Jewish immigration to Palestine to 75,000 for five years and ruled that further immigration would then be determined by the size of the Arab majority. Jews were also restricted from buying Arab land in all but 5% of the Mandate's territory. Return


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