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Who and Where
Biographies (cont.)

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[Page XLV]


[Translator's note: The names that appear below begin with a tes (tet in Hebrew) when written in Yiddish. They are transliterated with the spellings as they appear on Polish vital records.]

Yakov Dovid and Sara Czarny

(Née Szerman).Well known Czenstochower residents. Suffered the fate of the martyrs in the years 1939-1945. Their children met the same fate – Rojza Czarny-Salamanowicz and her husband, Pesa Czarny-Kuperszmid and her husband and child, Shmuel Czarny and his wife and two children, as well as Freidl and Grinya Czarny.

Honor their memory!

Avraham Czarny

Died in Czenstochow in 1938.


Chana Reizl Czarny

Died in Czenstochow in 1932.

Nokhem Czarny

Son of Avraham and Chana Reizl. Born in Czenstochow in 1900. He died on the 1st of January 1938 in New York.

Yakov (Jack) Czarny

Son of Avraham and Chana Reizl,

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born in Czenstochow on the 11th of October 1893. He married Andja Goldberg. Came to America in 1920.

Andja Czarny
(photo, caption: Yakov and Andja Czarny)

Daughter of Sholomh and Ester Goldberg. Born in Czenstochow on the 5th of April 1899. Came to America in 1920. She was active in the S.S. [Zionist Socialist] party and the educational union for Jewish workers in Czenstochow.

Fay (Feigl) Czarny

Daughter of Yakov and Andja. Born in New York on the 16th of September 1924. She is a student at Hunter College in New York.

Yitzhak Czarny

Son of Yakov Moshe and Miriam. Born in Czenstochow on the 7th of March 1888. He married Manja Zobszajn. Came to America on the 13th of September 1913. He is a member of the Czenstochower Educational Union in Chicago; holds the office of treasurer there. His son, Philip, served in the American army.

Shimkhah Czenstochowski

Son of Kalman. Born in Czentochow in 1860. Died there in 1941.

Mendl Czenstochowski (Kalmens)
Paterson, N.J.

Son of Kalman and Ruchl. Born in Czenstochow. Came to America in 1904. He is an executive member of the Lodz branch 140 Arbeter Ring in Paterson, N.J.

Feigl Czenstochowski

Daughter of Ruwin and Gela Abusz. She was a righteous woman and a worker for the poor. Died at age 52 in Czenstochow.

Her mother went to Jerusalem to die and died the same year in which she arrived there.

Abraham Czenstochowski (Kalmens)

Son of Mendl and Feiga. Born in Paterson, N.J. on the 15th of August 1910. Was a member of the Young Men's Hebrew Association and other Jewish communal organizations. Died in an accident on the 6th of February 1940.

Shoshona Czenstochowska
Tel Aviv


Daughter of Eige of the most aristocratic Hasidic family in Czenstochow. The spirit of a poet was awakened in her soul from her earliest youth and she began to write touching and popular songs. As a result, she quickly acquired a good reputation and was beloved by a widespread reading public. Her first songs were published in Czenstochower Tageblot. One of her songs was published in every Friday edition of this newspaper and always provoked interest and sympathy among the public. With their publication in the Czenstochower Tageblot, her songs became known in the entire Jewish press in Poland and even in America and she began to receive invitations to contribute to various literary and artistic journals. Her songs were also published, among others, in a special edition that came out in New York, in which only women poets took part.

Together with a proclivity to poetry, an inclination to pedagogy and children's education awoke in her and she began an interest – at the beginning of the First World War – in the then newly founded workers children's homes, children's schools, educational courses and was very close to the central Jewish school organization Tzisho and worked for a time in its institutions.

However, her parents did not see any great “practical purpose” in both of the “trades” and, according to the advice of their rebbe, they decided to marry her off to a respectable Hasidic young man, who the rebbe himself had seen as a true match.

Not being able to bear the stress and sorrow of her parents, whom, incidentally, she loved and respected very much, she decided to leave her home and went to Lodz. There she received immediate access to the Jewish literary and social circles, became a frequent visitor of Yitzhak Katzenelson, Tabenkin, Miriam Ulinower and other Yiddish writers, poets and teachers who befriended her. She began to diligently study the Hebrew language and in a very short time she acquired a reputation as a first

[Page XLVII]

class teacher and children's educator.

When the well known Jewish scholar and historian, Prof. Meir Balaban was given the position as director of the Jewish gymnazie in Czenstochow, he immediately hired Shoshona Czenstochowska as a teacher and as a nanny for his own children.

She worked at the Czenstochowa gymnazie for several years with great success and was very beloved by the children, as well as by the parents and the director and all of the teaching personnel who were first class educators, a number of whom are today found in Eretz-Yisroel, such as Yitzhak Szweiger, Dr. Szwarcbard, Perelka and others.

Her reputation as a teacher was widespread in Poland and she began to receive invitations from various cities describing their good conditions.

However, as a fervent Zionist from her earliest youth, she decided to go to Eretz-Yisroel, in order to plant her life and her work in the field of pedagogy and the education of children.

In 1924 she traveled to Eretz-Yisroel and immediately found a place at the largest kibbutz in the country, in Ein Harod. She was welcomed to Ein Harod with open arms and became one of the builders and founders of the children's educational institutions and schools in Ein Harod that later served as a models for all worker-settlement kibbutzim and collective agricultural settlements throughout the country.

She worked at Ein Harod for several years with great success, was sent to Western Europe in order to learn the newest methods and achievements in the field of pedagogic and childhood education. She spent several months there and collected new materials and fresh materials for her further activities in Eretz-Yisroel.

Returning from abroad, Shoshona Czentochowska regularly contributed to the various pedagogic journals in the country and joined the pedagogic council of the country's United Kibbutzim.

Today she holds the position of instructor of all the schools of Kibbutz HaMeuhad and travels around the entire country and gives lectures and lesson to teachers and kindergarten personnel and is considered one of the most distinguished pedagogic experts in Eretz-Yisroel.


Here is added that her parents, Reb Berish Czenstochowski and his wife, who were not pleased by the career of their daughter in Poland, today also live in Ein Harod. Reb Berish continues as the leader of prayer and Torah reader and lives in peace and at rest at the collective together with the community of Jews, kein ein hora [Translater's note: literally, no evil eye, said after something positive to prevent something bad from happening.], pious and Hasidic people, all parents of the comrades of the kibbutz, who live their characteristic independent life, free and undisturbed at Ein Harod. And not long ago, he, Reb Berish Czenstochowski, was delegated by his friends at Ein Harod to go to Jerusalem to have a sefer-Torah written for the synagogue of the pious Jews who live at Ein Harod, the largest Jewish socialist workers' kibbutz in Eretz-Yisroel.


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[Page XLVII]


Yakob Joselowicz (Salamon)

Son of Zwi Hersh and Feiga. Born in Kozienice (Poland). Came to America in 1921. Worked in the “Vulcan” foundry. His father, Hersh, was a soldier in Nicholas's army and served in the military for 25 years, beginning his service at age 12. He is descended from the family of Berek Joselowicz, the hero of the Polish rebellion in 1863. He was a very religious Jew until the end of his life. He died at age 76 on the 4th of October 1943 in Chicago.

Ester Joselowicz (Salamon)

Daughter of Shimeon and Perl Majerczak. Came to America in 1921. She was very religious. Charity was one of the chief mitzvus [good deeds] for her. She gave birth to and raised 10 children. Died at age 76 on the 29th of January 1943 in Chicago.

Larry and Simon Yelin

[Translator's note: Although two separate names are given above, only the following biography appears and there is no indication whether it is for Larry or Simon Yelin.]

Son of Ahron Shlomoh and Chaya. Born in Czenstochow on the 27th of August 1886. Came to America on the 20th of August 1902.

Lipman Yellen

Died at the age of 74 in Kamyk, in 1936.

Ester Yellen
(Née Yakubowicz)

Born in Witkowice (near Klomnice, Poland). Died at the age of 70 in Kamyk in 1934.


Ester Yellen

Daughter of Avraham and Chava Pantofel. Born in Kamyk on the 24th of May 1907. She was active with the Jewish school system in Kamyk. Came to America on the 9th of April 1929.

Harry Yellen

Son of Lipman and Ester. Born in Kamyk (near Czenstochow) November 1898. He belonged to the Jewish socialist party, Fareinikte [United], in Poland. One of the founders of the Jewish school system in Kamyk. He married Ester Pantofel. Came to America on the 18th of April 1927.

Benny Yellen

Son of Lipman and Ester Yellen. Born in Kamyk in 1892.

Freidl Joskowicz

Daughter of Yosef and Feigl Landau. Born in Czenstochow in May 1885. Came to America in 1920. One of the active members of Czenstochower Regional Union and vice president of the Ladies Auxiliary of the Jewish Folks Union in Detroit.

Itmar Joskowicz

Son of Eliezer Lipman and Mindl. Born in Czenstochow. He belonged to various Czenstochower organizations. Died at age 78.

Moshe Joskowicz

Son of Itmar and Ruchl. Born in 1884 in Dzialoszyn. He lived in Czenstochow before coming to America in 1913. Now belongs to the Jewish National Workers' Union and Right Poalei-Zion.

Moshe Joskowicz is a distinguished member of Farband. He helped to organized branch 15 and has been involved with its work from the first day on. Since the founding of the branch, he has been one of the organizers of A.N.A.F. and a representative of the Farband on the general executive and on the New York State committee.

In 1945 branch 15 celebrated Moshe Joskowicz's 60th birthday and published a special book in his honor in which the most distinguished Farband workers took part.

Samuel (Joskierowicz) Josker

Born on the 30th of August 1893 in Sosnowiec. Came to America from Czenstochow on the 5th of August 1913. He is a member of the Jewish Fraternal Order in New York. His son-in-law, George Kaufman, served as a sergeant in the American army.

Samuel Josker was one of the founders of the Czenstochower branch 11 of A.F.P.A. in New York.

The Rabbi Meir Henokh Iszajwicz, of blessed memory

Born in Szrensk in 1872. At age 18, he married a niece of the Czenstochower Rabbi – Reb Nakhum Ash, of blessed memory. He became a rabbi in Czenstochow.

In 1924, he settled in Eretz-Yisroel with his family, where he died in 1940. He published many seforim [religious books], such as Ma'or Hadesh, also a thousand year calendar. At the time of the Beilis Proces [trial], he took part in debates against the blood libel baiters. He published an open letter in Freint, then published in Warsaw, in which he came out strongly against the Black Hundred that had instigated the Proces.

Comrade Iszajwicz was known as the child prodigy from Szrensk, where he took a significant part in Jewish education, founding a yeshiva that existed for two years and had to close due to a shortage of funds.

(photo, caption: Dr. Moshe Iszy [Iszajwicz)

In Tel Aviv, he continued to work in the scientific field; wrote a commentary on

[Page XLIX]

Berashis Raba; successfully publishing the first volume of the manuscript.

His children – sons and daughters – are spread all over the world. His oldest son lives in New York, as does a daughter. A second son – in Paris. Three sons and a daughter – in Eretz-Yisroel and two daughters – in the Soviet Union.


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[Page XLIX]


Sara Ruchl Chlopak

Daughter of Yakov Dovid and Rywa Laya Fiszman. Born in Czenstochow in 1871. Came to America in 1920. Lives with her children.

Dovid Chlopak

Son of Leib and Sara. Born on the 9th of July 1882 in Czenstochow. He married Malka Frydman in 1908. Came to America in 1913.

Leib Chlopak

Father of Dovid. Son of Dovid and Rokhma (née Frenkel). Died in 1909 in Czenstochow.

Alkhana Chrabalowski
Our Family
(photo, caption: Yosef Yitzhak Chrabalowski)
(photo, caption: Alkhana Chrabalowski)
(photo, caption: Lou Chrabalow)

The grandfather was named Zwi-Hirsh Charbolowski. The family name comes from a residence that is the village Charbalowki. He was a fisherman and ran an inn. Later, he lived in Belsk, Grodno gubernia. He had three sons and one daughter: the oldest – Yosef Yitzhak (Alkhana's father), Alkhana, Shmuel and Malka. Yosef Yitzhak was the educated one among them; the other two sons were blacksmiths.

Alkhana's father, whose name was shortened to Yoslitche, married Rywka (Alkhana's mother) of Zembrow. Her family name was Akselrod. Her parents were chandlers (made tallow Shabbos candles) and settled in a small shtetl –Janiszewo, Lomza gubernia. The children were born there, spent their childhood and matured, like birds in a nest they flew to all corners of the world.

In addition to their main source of income – teaching, Alkhana's parents were also chandlers and cigarette makers. This would be done in the early mornings or late at night, before and after kheder.

The family consisted of four brothers and three sisters, in addition to two who died as children. One sister, Chava, a grown girl, died in Bialystok. Those still living are, according to age: Yankl, Fanny (Slava-Feigl), Alkhana, Annie (Chava), Louis (Leima), Sam (Shmuelke). All, except Alkhana, live in Chicago.

Alkhana, his father and his grandfather

The oldest brother, Yankl, was a Beis-Midrash boy [Translator's note: he spent his time studying in the synagogue or house of study]. Alkhana stayed near his father; he helped him teach the kheder boys during the day and, at night, Alkhana taught the girls of Janiszewo to write in Yiddish and to do arithmetic. He was then about 9 or 10 years old. He also helped the kheder boys learn to write Yiddish and Russian. Alkhana knew almost the entire Tanakh [Torah plus the Writings and Prophets] by heart and, lehavdil [word used to separate the sacred from the profane], Russkaya Ryetch [Russian Speech]. He dictated or wrote down letters for girls from Blosztajn's letter almanac.

In addition to teaching and other trades, Alkhana's father was also a letter writer. He would compose letters for brides and grooms and write letters for women whose husbands were in America. When Alkhana's oldest brother, Yankl, was a groom in Ostrowe, his father wrote the love letters to his bride for him.

When the Jews lost the right to operate inns, great poverty descended on the shtetl, which drove Alkhana's father to seek teaching positions in other cities. At age 12, Alkhana left with his father for Lapes, near Bialystok where his father, Shmuli, had a cousin. Later, the grandfather also joined Shmuli and he and Alkhana – the grandfather and grandchild – slept together in the attic. The grandfather was in his 70's. He died at age 106. His

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eyes were undimmed and his hand did not shake; as in his youth, his handwriting was curved in old age.

Alkhana was already a rebel at eighteen and struggled against his father's old-fashioned Yiddishkeit [Jewishness]. And yet, of the entire family, Alkhana was the grandfather's and father's heir. He had the same ardor for his new Yiddishkeit as his father for his old beliefs. Of all of the sisters and brothers, he was the last to remain with his father in Czenstochow. The father died two weeks after Alkhana left for America.

From Janiszewo to Czenstochow

Alkhana was about 15 when his father took him to the Szczawa train station and traveled to Sonspow, a forest near the Krakow border where a relative – Yehuda Leib Landau – was a wald-schreiber [person who keep the register of the trees cut down]. This was Alkhana's first trip alone on the railroad. The trip took around three days. He traveled without a train ticket. He spent a couple of years in the gorgeous mountainous area around Ojcow, which is a branch of the Carpathian Mountains. Later he was in Olkusz, Krimolow, Zawiercie and Kaminsk. He taught Jewish children everywhere: Hebrew, khumish with Rashi, writing in Yiddish and other languages. This happened against his will – in his heart he hated it – he wanted to study in an artisan's school in Bialystok, but his father was afraid that he would become a non-believer… One summer he was in Warsaw as an employee in a shop. He lived there for the entire time without a passport that was impossible for him to obtain until he completed military service.

Alkhana's father came to Zarwiercze later and there was a malamed again. The whole family came to Zarwiercze together. In the summer of 1905, they moved to Czenstochow. The parents were died there and all of the children emigrated to America.

The Sister Fanny – The Mother's Representative

In 1908, Fanny was the first to emigrate from Czenstochow to America. To her came, later: Annie, Lou, Sam; then, Alkhana. From the time the family came to Zarwiercze, Fanny substituted for her always ill mother. In America, her house was the family home for a long time. In addition to the worries and the joys of peace time – she had to bear two world wars. The two brothers, Lou and Sam served in the American army during the First World War, and Alkhana in the Russian. All of Annie's three sons served in “Uncle Sam's” army during the Second World War, and Fanny had enough worry and enough work baking “cookies” and sending “packages.”

(photo, caption: Sam Chrabalow)

The father, it seems, placed great hope on Alkhana and Fanny… He would wake them at dawn and study with them…

Fanny – now Fanny Schwartz – also was active in aid work for Czenstochow. She was in the first group in Chicago that supported the children's homes after the First World War.

Reuniting of the Family in America

Alkhana traveled to America twice – once in 1923 when he remained in Chicago for a year and then returned [to Poland]; the second time – in 1926, he remained in New York in the large Jewish “exile community.” A large Czenstochower family is found here; the friends and comrades of 1905, from 1911 and younger friends and comrades from the First World War; friends and comrades from Bialystok, from Warsaw, from Noworadomsk; here are the kheder friends from Janiszewo, with whom Alkhana played at hobbies during the summer evenings, here are also the “further” family, his Uncle Alkhana's and Aunt Malka's children from Wysoka whom he did not even know at home.

His uncle, Alkhana, who took the family name Kaplan because of military conscription, brought 14 children into the world, sons and daughters. Five of the sons are in New York, one in South America. His Aunt Malka's three daughters – Etl, Friedka and Chaya are also in America, two of them in New York and the third, Chaya, in Los Angeles.

Who knows if any of the grandfather, Tzvi Hersh's generation survived there. However, here, in New York and in Chicago, his family grows, kein ein hora [Translator's note: may no evil eye occur, usually said after something positive to prevent something bad from interfering], and often celebrates weddings, at a bris [ritual circumcision], and at a bar-mitzvah. The entire family comes together at a celebration, they sit around the table with lots of good things, they drink a LaChaim [a toast to life], the music plays, “Star Spangled Banner” and the “Hatikvah” [Israeli national anthem]. “Barbaretto” and other jazz is played for the young generation. Then comes the mitzvah tenzl [traditional dance with a bride and groom], the sher [usually a dance tune played by klezmorim] and the hopke [circle dance]; then the Jews stand up from the tables – men and women – from Wysoka, Bialystok, Zembrowa, Zaromb, make a circle, lay hands on shoulders, lift a foot, clap with the hands, forget the broken English and again become Jews, like their fathers, mothers, grandfathers, grandmothers were. The children, the grandchildren, the great grandchildren are drawn into the freilekh [circle dance] and everyone hops happily.

No matter, Tzvi Hersh's great grandchildren in America will not know any Yiddish. However, they will long, long dance a Jewish circle dance, a mitzvah tenzl, a freilekh.


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[Page LI]


Helen Tempelhof-Chrabolowski

Max Tempelhof

Heniek Tempelhof

The Tempelhof family comes from Ozorkow. It then settled in Lodz. They were an extensive family consisting of about 200 people. In Lodz, they lived on Piotrkower Street, number 24. Helen's father, Shimkhah Tempelhof, may he rest in peace, ran a men's clothing workshop in Lodz. [The clothing] was sent

(photo, caption: the parents and brother and sister of Helen Tempelhof)

to Russia. They moved to Czenstochow in 1913. There were four brothers and three sisters. In time they came to love Czenstochow more than Lodz. Helen's closest friends were: Heltche Pelc, who lived in Belgium and now in London, Andje and Gutsche Win, Ramek Szwarcboim and Szmulewicz. She married Alkhana Chrabolowski in 1923. In 1929, she came to America with her then one-year old daughter, Chavele.

In 1932, her father died at the age of 83. Her two brothers – Max and Heniek – emigrated to Belgium. Her youngest brother, Pinkhus, took part in the march of the halutzim [pioneers] who wished to reach Eretz-Yisroel through Romania. At the start of the Second World War, he and his wife remained in Baranowicz. He became a tractor operator there and nothing has since been heard from him.

Her brother Heniek escaped to France during the Nazi occupation of Belgium. He later returned to Liege, Belgium, was dragged away by the Nazis to a concentration camp and perished there, leaving a wife Chavche (née Broder) from Czenstochow and a daughter. Her brother Max jumped from a train that was carrying him to his death and survived. The oldest brother, Moshe, married Dora Lederman and had four grown children. None of them survived. Her sister, Ita, lived in Lodz with her husband, Zelig Rapuk. During the German invasion, they escaped to Czenstochow. Of there children, four sons and one daughter, two sons – Dudek and Itzik and the daughter, Sonja, survived and are now in Bergen-Belsen [Translator's note: There was a displaced persons' camp in Bergen–Belsen after WWII]. Her [Helen's] youngest sister, Chava, stayed with their mother in Czenstochow and they both perished.

Of the large Tempelhof family in Lodz, almost no one survived.

May their sacred memory remain for all Jewish generations and their untimely, innocent death never be forgotten.


Charlie (Zechariah) Lewensztajn

One of the first original founders of the S.S. [Zionist Socialist] party in Czenstochow. Led the struggle against the Czarist order for freedom, for a more beautiful and better life for the Jewish masses. He was and remained beloved by all of his friends and comrades.

He came to America right after 1905. Here he continued his work in the struggle that he had begun in the old home. He was the secretary of the Czenstochower Young Men, also the recording secretary of Czenstochower Relief and the Ladies Auxiliary.

He died at age 50 on the 5th of January 1940.

Chone Lewensztajn

Born in Czenstochow in 1902. His mother died when he was two years old. His father, a Jew, a maskil [follower of the Enlightenment],

[Page LII]

was a correspondent for the Warsaw newspaper, Heint [Today], Moment and others.

At age 14, Lewenstzajn graduated from the Artisan's School in Czenstochow. A Yiddish professional theater group appeared in Czenstochow at that time. Because his father was a newspaper correspondent, he had free entry to the theater; Lewensztajn could attend presentations almost every day. This had a great influence on him and he began to dream about performing in the Yiddish theater. However, he first realized his dream in 1920. As a soldier in the Polish army, he became a Russian prisoner in 1920/21. Here he attempted to enter enroll in the dramatic studio that existed at that time in Leningrad under the leadership of Aleksander Kugel (Homo Nuvos). His first appearance was in the role of Holophernes in the play Yehudit by Hebel.

In 1922, he returned to Poland where he began appearing with professional troupes. He appeared in a series of roles such as: Yankl Chapshawicz in Gut fun Nakumahi [God of Revenge], Mishka Cyganiak in Di Zibn Gehangene [The Seven Who Were Hanged], Jean Valjean in Gbur in Keitn [Conquered in Chains].In 1930 he was hired by the Vilner Troupe and appeared as Yankl Boile in Dorfs-Yung [Village Youth] and in the role of the golem in Golem [a human-like creature made of clay].

He was successful in escaping to Russian territory in 1939 and reached Tarnopol and, here, he was hired by the Jewish State Theater. He appeared in the role of Tevye in Tevye der Milkhiker [Tevye the Milkman] and in the role of the landowner in Oifstand [Uprising] by Dr. Ciper. Here he received an award for playing various roles.

With the outbreak of the Russian-German War in 1941, he escaped to far Russia. Since he knew the Russian language, he was employed in one of the best Russian theaters, played important roles in many Soviet plays and received the Stalin Award.

He appeared in a series of Soviet films, among them: Against the Darkness, Revenge Taker and Riga Ghetto.

He returned to Poland in 1946. Today he appears in the Yiddish Theater in Lower Silesia.

Yeheil Lewensztajn

Born on the 8th of July 1900 in Czenstochow. Son of Moshe Leib and Dwoyra Danciger-Lewensztajn. He studied in a kheder until age 13, as well as in a Polish elementary school. At 15, he began acting with the famous character actor Shlomoh Hershkowitz, with Zhelazo and so on. 1919/20, he acted in Germany. Came to America in 1920. In 1923 he joined the Yiddish Theater Society under the name Undzer Teater [Our Theater], under the leadership of M. Elkin, Peretz Hirshbein, Dovid Pinsky and the famous German-Jewish actor, Egon Brecher. In 1928 he joined Artef [acronym for Arbeter Teater Farband or Worker's Theatrical Alliance]. Later, he appeared in concerts in various characterizations. In 1944, he began to appear with the Yiddish Theater Ensemble under the leadership of the famous director, Benimin Zemakh.

Yakov Lewit

Born in 1888. He was one of the most famous manufacturers in the textile industry, one of the first in this field in Poland.

He worked with the Jewish kehile [religious community], was one of the founders of the Manufacturers and Merchants Bank, co-founder of the Jewish gymnazie that in recognition of his contribution named a room for him and his wife. He took part in almost every communal undertaking and aid activity that was organized in Czenstochow.

He came to Eretz-Yisroel in 1939. Here, he and his son founded a factory for spinning and weaving wool in Ramat Gan, a division of Zwirn-Rey.

Here he remained the same communal worker and donor as he was in Czenstochow and there he spent the greater part of his life.

Bernard Lewkowicz

Son of Yakov and Dora. Born on the 22nd of September 1921 in Boston, Mass. He died on the 18th of November 1944.

Sam (Shmuel) Lewkowicz

Son of Pinkhas and Nakha. Born 1857. The family consisted of nine children – five sons and four daughters. He was the oldest of the sons. He studied to be a tailor. After he returned from the military, he married Perl Libgot. Then emigrated to Paris; he was there for four years and then came to America.

At the founding of the cloakmaker's union, he was one of the first members. The same for Czenstochower branch 261 of the Arbeter Ring; there he held several offices. He was also a member of the Czenstochower Aid Union and Relief Committee and did good work.

His three sons and two grandsons served in the American army.

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Meir Yona Litman, may he rest in peace

Born in Moscow in 1860 and brought home to Noworadomsk as a young man by his father, Reb Zawel (a soldier in Nicholai's army, who was caught as a child in Noworadomsk and served Czar Nicholai for the entire 25 years) home to Noworadomsk as a young man. In 1880 he married Beila, the daughter of Nisen Zelik Kalka of Noworadomsk, with whom he lived for 50 years and who bore him four daughters and four sons. In 1900 he moved to Czenstochow, where he lived until he emigrated to America in 1920, right after the First World War.

In his youth, Reb Meier Yona Litman was carried away by the Hasidic movement that enveloped the Jewish masses in East Europe. He became an enthusiastic Hasid and follower of Hasidic rebbes. In Czenstochow, he was the shamas for Reb Avigdor Szapira whom our landsleit remember well.

(photo, caption: Reb Avigdor Szapira, May the memory of a righteous person be blessed)

While in the Rabbi's court, where the poor Jewish masses would come to tell about their problems and “pour out their bitter hearts,” Meir Yona became a great lover of the poor people, of the suffering Jews who searched for help when in need and for consolation in time of trouble.

When he emigrated to America with his family in 1920, he did not forget the poor masses who remained in the old home, Czenstochow. Not for one minute did he break the thread connecting him to those in need of help. He constantly stood bound to the Czenstochower Rebbe, Reb Nukhum Asz, may the memory of a righteous person be blessed, with the Jewish hospital, with the Linat Hazadek [medical aid society], Beis Lekhem [bread for the needy organization] and with the Talmud Torah Machzikei Hadas [Translator's note: traditionally, a Talmud Torah is a tuition-free school for needy children]. Not only did he collect money from his children, landsleit acquaintances and friends, but he even interested other Jews – Lithuanians, Russian and Galicianers – in the needy in the city of Czenstochow.

It can truly be said about Meir Yona Litman “that he himself was an aid committee.” Every year he would arrange a concert in a shul and the receipts would be sent to Czenstochow for the institutions that were dear to him. When the khazan in the shul (a fervid Litvak), who would give a concert without cost, complained that he is not a Czenstochower and he does not even know where the city is located, “So why should I abuse my throat without payment?” Reb Meir Yona, with a good-natured smile, answered: “The poor little children in Czenstochow need food and shoes…” The khazan immediately became softer and replied: “If you are the 'ambassador' of the poor little Jewish children in your Polish city, Czenstochow, I cannot refuse and I will sing with great heart and without a groshn payment…”

That is how our distinguished landsman Meir Yona Litman tirelessly worked for our birthplace Czenstochow. He had the suffering luckless Jews in Poland and in the ghettos in his mind until his last breath and did everything that he could to help them. In his home, there was always talk about how to help those suffering in Czenstochow. He, himself, collected clothing and shoes, made small packages and sent them to Poland. His rooms were always filled with packages, things, about which he would say with pride: “They will keep the people at home alive…” This was all done quietly, without noise and without asking for recognition.

In America, too, in the shul at which he was the shamas, he was beloved and respected by everyone. When he turned 80, the shul gave a banquet in honor of his 80th birthday. The banquet was a great success and brought in over two hundred dollars in cash. The shul decided to give the money to Reb Meir Yona as a gift. However, he did not want to accept the gift. “It is better to give it to a Talmud Torah, for the poor little children,” he answered and this was actually done.

The orthodox Morgen Zhurnal [Morning Journal] in New York wrote the following about our landman, Reb Meir Yona, after his funeral:

“Reb Meir Yona Litman, may he rest in peace, one of the nicest types of the old generation, died on Tuesday, the 17th of November 1942 at the age of 83.

“Immediately after his arrival from Czenstochow twenty-two years ago, he joined the Young Men's Hebrew Association Synagogue, Fulton Avenue and 171st St., the Bronx, where he was the shamas until the last day of his life.

“Reb Meir Yona Litman was beloved and popular in all of the Crotona Park neighborhood in the Bronx. He made himself beloved with his good heartedness and charity. Every morning after praying, he would give loans to dozens of people who would turn to him for help and no one left empty-handed. He regularly supported dozens of rabbinical families in America and in Poland with money and packages.

“He was also the founder of an interest-free loan fund and dozens of businessmen and workers were helped by it.

“The funeral took place Wednesday and the large shul was overflowing with hundreds of men and women.

“Eulogies were given by Rabbi Zalman Reikhman, Rabbi A. Y. Khato-

[Page LIV]

wicz and by a young friend of the deceased, Rabbi Wajntroib.

“All of the rabbis spoke about the rare personality of the respected deceased and about his extraordinary virtue and honesty.”

Beila Litman

Born in 1861; died in 1931.

Dovid Litman

Son of Meir Yona and Beila. Born in Czenstochow on the 15th of June 1894. Came to America in July 1913. He is a member of the Noworadomsker Society. His son Wolf served in the American army.

Shmuel Linch
(photo, caption: Asher Linszicki, the father of Shmuel Linsch)

Son of Asher and Ruchl. Born in Czenstochow on the 5th of August 1892. Before coming to America, he lived in Tashkent, Astrakhan, Persia and Bukhara. Came to America in 1906.

Ruchl Linszicki

Daughter of Leibish and Chaya. Born in Czenstochow in 1907; died there.

Sam Lash

Born on the 1st of March 1873 in Piotrkow. Came to America in 1913.


(photo, caption: the Levys parents)

Yakob (Jacob) Levy

Son of Mordekhai and Ester Cesznjewski. Born in Przedborz (Poland) on the 15th of April 1886 and came to Czenstochow as a child with his parents. Here he studied carpentry at the artisan's school and he studied at the Talmud Torah. At that time, he studied together with Khone Kalekharje, Shmuel Noren, Avraham Apter, Haim Win and Yankl Wajsbard. The first director of the school was Menachem Josef Szrajber; he was also the one who opened evening courses for adults and every Shabbos afternoon also gave various lessons in the form of lectures that were very interesting and were heard with great thoughtfulness by the students. The first carpentry meister [master] was Eliezer Bimka.

Later Levy was active in the Bund until leaving for America in 1906. Here he was one of the organizers of the organization, Progressive Young Men, and in 1908, with his friends Meir Gleber, Moritz Kyak and Benyimin Wolhendler, he returned to Czenstochow. During the time he spent there, he was a member of the artisan's club and of the library.

In 1913, he came to America for the second time. He was then a member of the Czenstochower Arbeter Ring branch 261 and, also, of the Cz. Aid Union. He was also a member of the organization, Adler's Young Men; he was one of the most active members of United Czenstochower Relief in New York and of the Czenstochower Yidn book committee.

Yitzhak (Isidor) Levy

Son of Mordekhai and Ester Cesznjewski. Born in Przedborz (Poland) on the 15th of July 1882. He came to Czenstochow at age 13 to study as a painter with an uncle. In his youth, during the summer months, he helped his uncle – the meister [master]. During the winter months when there was no painting work, he worked in various little factories, such as with Godl Wajnberg in the chair back factory and so forth. He hut gegesn teg [Translator's note: literally, “he ate days” – ate with families that provided him with free meals] at the home of the meister and, finally, had to return to his family in Przedborz. After a certain time, Yitzhak returned to Czenstochow because he felt that he had capabilities for painting and entered the employment of the famous sign painter, Haim Josef Cim-

[Page LV]

berknopf, who was probably the first sign painter in Czenstochow. He took on Yitzhak for a year and paid him thirty rubles a term. Later, [Yitzhak] brought his parents to Czenstochow, where they settled and they took over the work in the Talmud Torah.

Yitzhak Levy became a friend of Yakob Silver and the latter began to come to visit him in his room. They even began to dress alike. After a year or two, they began to think about working in the theater because Yakov Ber was a great reader of books. They decided to revise and stage the story, Shimkhah Plakhte. They produced Shimkhah Plakhte together with other colleagues, Haim Leib Szwarc, Josef Hirsh Grajcer and Kasriel Rotbard (Stadole). Yitzhak painted the scenery and played the role of Shimkhah Plakhte's wife himself, a comic role. He was then 18 years old and the greatest tragedy for him then was that he had to shave his whiskers and later was ashamed to be seen on the street without them. The theater piece was staged by Yankl Sibirski in Winer Hall. The presentation was a great success. He was freed from Czarist military conscription and decided to enter the world.

He worked for Cimberknopf for a year and a half; he then worked as a painter for Okrent and Gastinski. On his way to America, he also worked for Gastinski's brother in London. He brought his brother, Yankl, and he worked as a painter.

He married Chana Fiszkowicz in New York in 1907. Six years ago, he began to attend the Art Students League in New York and today he paints various nature landscapes such as flowers and fruits. He has painted several oil paintings and with watercolors. He has not given up the abilities of his youth.

Yitzhak Levy is a member of the Cz. Br. 261 Arbeter Ring, the Vilner Society, United Czenst. Relief Committee and of the Czenstochower Yidn book committee. His son, Benjamin, served in the American army.

Leibl Landau

He was known in Czenstochow as a malamed, warden and gabay in the synagogue. Died in 1936 at the age of 75 in Czenstochow.

Chana Gitl Landau

Wife of Leibl Landau. Born in Czenstochow; died there at age 60 in 1929.

Rajzl Lakhman
(née Rajzl Rikhter)


When the rooms of the Workers' Home in Czenstochow were filled with young, self confident song – it was known that this was Ruszke's voice. However, in life and in party work, she was earnest, loyal and devoted with her whole heart. For all of her years, she worked at home and when she came to Eretz-Yisroel with her husband and two children, she became ill and the last two years of her life, she lay in the hospital or at home. Her comrades and friends – Abraham Gotlib, Shimkhah Rajkh, Yudl Dancijger, Yakov Gotlib (her brother-in-law), Godl Frajtag and others – stood watch at her bed in the last weeks before her death. During the last days of her life she would say: “I have suffered to live and thus I suffer to die.”

She died in 1942 at the age of 42.

Dr. Leopold Lazarowicz

Son of Dovid and Tziviah (née Gurski). Born in Czenstochow in 1895. He graduated from the Rusita gymnazie in Czenstochow in 1914 and later studied medicine in Warsaw. He received a degree as a medical doctor in 1922. As a student he was a managing committee member of the Jewish Academic Circle in Czenstochow.

From 1922 until 1939 he practiced in Warsaw as an independent specialist of in internal medicine; he also worked in the Jewish hospital in Warsaw and was a member of the chief managing committee and vice president of the Warsaw division of TOZ in Poland. Later, he occupied the office of secretary of the Jewish medical society in Warsaw.

Came to America in 1941. Passed the medical exams and opened an office in Manhattan as a doctor of internal medicine.

Associated as a staff member of the hospitals: New York Postgraduate School and Hospital; Metropolitan City Hospital.

Also active here in New York in the communal realm: 1) Executive member of the American “OZA;”; 2) delegate to the American Council of Voluntary Agencies for United Service; 3) Veteran Service – member of medical staff; 4) medical advisor to the relief committee of

[Page LVI]

Polish Embassy; 5) secretary of the American-Polish Medical Alliance.

Simon Lipszic

Son of Moshe Meir and Pesa. Born in Praszka (Poland) on the 14th of June 1885. Came to America in June 1902. During his time in America, he visited Poland and the Soviet Union twice. He is a member of the Czenstochower branch 11 of the Jewish Fraternal Order in New York.

Mauricy Lipski

Son of Wolf and Stefa. Born in Piotrkow. He was one of the largest wood merchants in Czenstochow. Died at the age of 83 in 1936 in Czenstochow.

Felicia Lipski

Daughter of Bernard and Chana Hamburger. Born in Czenstochow. She was the wife of Mauricy Lipski. Died in Czenstochow at the age of 72 in 1929.

Ludwig Lipski

Son of Mauricy and Felicia. Lipski was born in Czenstochow in 1885.

Kopl Lederman

Born on the 7th of May 1915 in Czenstochow. His father, Fishl Lederman, was a shoemaker, just like his grandfather, Shimeon Lederman and his grandfather's brother, Moshe. Shoemaking was then an occupation that went from generation to generation. His mother, Manya, (n”Manya (née Szwarcboim), was a simple, honest woman. Her two main goals in life were: to raise her children to a better life than she had (a goal that she only partly achieved) and to help her husband in earning a living. The Ledermans saw meat in their home only twice a week; fish – only to brighten the Shabbas table. Now, Kopl is in America and when he thinks of his deceased mother, she appears before his eyes as a symbol of Jewish women, ignoring the heavy burden that they had to bear, they always dreamed about a better life, if not for themselves, then at least for their children. And they looked to the bright little corner that is named America.

Like all Jewish boys, at the age of four, Kopl began to study in a kheder. There he learned Hebrew, Rashi-Khumish and Gemara. Many times, Kopl's rebbe explained a portion of the Khumish by hitting him on his full bottom. Kopl's grandfather, Reb Mendil, hoped to see his grandson as a teacher of the very young boys or, perhaps, even a shoykhet [ritual slaughterer].

In 1921/22 new winds began to blow in Czenstochow. The secular Jewish Folk School was born on Krutka Street that was one of the most beautiful chapters of Jewish life in Czentochow. Kopl remembers with pride the Jewish school where he and other Jewish children were raised as class conscious Jews, who knew to struggle for their rights and never bowed under the Fascist rod.

In remembering the Czenstochower Jewish Folk School, K.L. does not forget to give honor to all of those who helped to build the school.

However, more than anyone else, he remembers the workers and teachers who worked and struggled for the Folk School in Czenstochow itself – Comrade Rafael Federman, Comrade Brat, Waga the teacher (now Mrs. Rotman), Comrade Leibush Berkowicz, Moshe Lederman and many other dazzling personalities from Czenstochow who devoted their time and health to our school.

After graduating from the Folk School, K.L. began to work as an apprentice to a tailor, in order to learn the trade. The Czenstochower garment workers union was founded then. The purpose was – to demand an eight-hour workday and that the owners should treat the journeymen and apprentices better. The struggle for an eight-hour workday was very difficult. However, thanks to the unity in the ranks of the workers, the struggle was won. Thus, the life of the poor tailors became a little easier.

With the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, K.L. was lucky to come to America. After a very great effort and much work, his two uncles in New York succeeded in bringing him over, for which he is thankful to this day.

It was difficult for him to find a job in the first months because he was not a member of a union and he had to be satisfied with 12-15 dollars a week. Ignoring this, he worked diligently and he was happy to be in America. He remembered the Czenstochower landsleit who had come to America 20-30 years ago and who had worse conditions to fight.

When the war broke out in Europe, the terrible news reached him that his father, Fishel Lederman, was one of the

[Page LVII]

first victims of the Nazi beast.

The attack on Pearl Harbor came two years after his arrival in America. Lederman entered the American army. Three months later he was sent to the South Seas. He was in Australia, New Caledonia, in the Fiji Islands and he took part in the difficult battle of Guadalcanal in 1942/43. The six months on Guadalcanal were the worst that he lived through and he remembers them often with pride. Kopl L., a young man from Czenstochow, took part in the most beautiful chapter of the struggle of the American army – that was the first victory of the Second World War.

Now he is back in America. His health has been undermined by tropical malaria, but the spirit of freedom and brotherhood, the willingness to help create a freer world, a world for which we, the Czenstochower youth and the fallen heroes of Guadalcanal, fought is not broken.

K.L. lived to see the complete defeat of the yellow, brown and black beasts, but at the same time, the extermination and annihilation of all of the Jewish communities in Poland, the death of our fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters and friends. This places on us, those saved from doom, a heavy debt to work together to help the surviving remnant of brothers on the other side and not to despair, not to tire of working further and to struggle for the survival of our people.

Yisroel and Ester Lenczer

Born in Lelew (Poland). They died in 1914.

Parents of Yeshayahu (Charles) Lenczer.

Yeshayahu Lenczer
(photo, caption: Yeshayahu and Ita Lenczer in their youth)
(photo, caption: Yeshayahu and Ita Lenczer in their middle years)

Son of Yisroel and Ester. Born in Lelew (Poland) on the 18th of November 1881. Came from Czenstochow to America on the 13th of April 1906. He is a member of the Zaloshiner (Dzialoszyn) Erste Chevra Anshei Bnei Achim and the chairman of its loan fund. Also a member of the Williams Avenue Synagogue. Very active in United Czenstochower Relief Committee in New York.

Ita Lenczer

Daughter of Feiwel and Chana Herszlikowicz. Born in Czenstochow in 1885. Came to America in 1906. Married Yeshayahu Lenczer.

Belonged to the following organizations: New Lots Ladies Aid Society (former president); New Lots Pennsylvania Talmud Torah (former trustee); Ezrat Yetomim [orphan's aid organization] in Brownsville (former vice-president), Beth-El Hospital Auxiliary (former chair-lady); Jefferson Nursing Home (member); East New York Y (member); American Jewish Women Volunteers (member); Zaloshiner Chevra Anshei Bnei Achim Ladies Auxiliary (one of the founders, now chairlady); Hadassah in East New York (member); Czenstochower Ladies Auxiliary (chairlady); Czenstochower Relief Committee (vice president); book committee, Czenstochower Yidn (executive member).

Her children are: Moshe Lenczer and Perl Lenczer, married to Mory Shatz, a lawyer.

Frances Lederberg

Born in Czenstochow. Married Harry Lederberg in New York. Living in Lindenhurst, Long Island.

Yitzhak Lesser

Son of Anshel and Matl. Died at age 70 on the 10th of April 1925 in Czenstochow.

(photo, caption: Yitzhak and Zelda Lesser with family)

Zelda Lesser

Daughter of Efroim and Chaya Reizl Garbinski. Born in 1863 in Praszka (Poland). Came to America on the 18th of September 1923. She was a member of the Czenstochower Regional Union in Detroit. Died on the 19th of October 1938 in Detroit.

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Benny Lesser


Son of Yitzhak and Zelda. Born in Czenstochow in 1894. Came to America in 1922. His son, Sidney, served as a sergeant in the American army.

Leib Lesser

Son of Yitzhak and Zelda. Born in Czenstochow on the 17th of March 1883. Came to America in 1914. At first, he lived in Galveston (Texas), then in Detroit. He has been in Chicago for twenty years.

Leib Lesser was one of the members of the Czenstochower Independent Union that was organized in Chicago in 1938. He always took part in all of the important work that was carried out by the Czenstochower Independent Union; he also was secretary of the cemetery committee of the Czenstochower Independent Union. He also belongs to the Czenstochower Educational Union and to various other charitable community organizations.


Return to Index

[Page LVIII]


Chana Monowicz

Daughter of Henekh and Ruchl Beila. Born in Pilica. Came to Czenstochow as a child and graduated here from Madam Kyak's Folk School. Belonged to the Bund. Was active for several terms as a committee member of the Bundist organization in Czenstochow. She was the treasurer of the Professional Union of the Clothing Industry for a few years; one of the founders of the Medem Library and its first librarian. Was an executive member of the cultural office of the professional unions and took part as a delegate in meetings “for the right to work” of the Jewish workers in Poland.

In the many faceted activity of communal life, she became known as a modest and conscientious comrade.

In 1933, she moved to Warsaw and was active in the Bund there and in the professional movement, etc.

At the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, she left Warsaw and made her way through Pinsk, Vilna, Moscow, Vladivostok, through Iran, to America where she arrived in New York at the end of 1940 with the help of the Jewish Workers Committee.

Gershon Monowicz

A gaiter maker by trade. Belonged to the United S.S. Was one of the founders and, later, managing committee member of the Leather Union. In later years, belonged to the Bund and was active in the Jewish secular school system.

Died during the Second World War in the Hasag concentration camp in Czenstochowa.

Leon Monowicz


Son of Henekh and Ruchl Beila. Born in Pilica (Poland) on the 21st of August 1906. Came to America from Paris on the 30th of July 1942.

Nekhemia (Harry) Monowicz

Born in 1895 in Pilica. Lived in Czenstochow from childhood. Was a member of the professional union of the nutrition industries and active in the Bund. He was deported to Germany for forced labor during the First World War. On his return to Czenstochow, he was badly wounded during the 1919 pogrom. Came to America in 1923. Supports the aid work of the Czenstochower Relief Committee.

Chava Manishewicz

Daughter of Yitzhak and Pesl Zharkowski. Born in Czenstochow on the

[Page LIX]

20th of July 1885. Came to America on the 15th of June 1904. She is a member of the Kamenets Podolsker [Kam”yanets'-Podil'skyy] Society and of the Czenstochower Ladies Auxiliary in New York where she was vice chairlady for a time.

Zigmund (Shlomoh Zalman) Markowicz

Son of Mordekhai and Salomea. Born in Czenstochow. Was in America as a visitor in 1928. He was the chairman of the managing committee of the three Gnasziner factories of the Gnasziner Manufacturing Action Society in Czenstochow, member of B'nai Brith, managing committee member of the Jewish gymnazie in Czenstochow, member of the managing committee of the New Synagogue in Czenstochow, of the council of the Jewish kehile [communal organization] in Czenstochow, council of the województwo [province] in Kielce, managing committee member of the merchants and manufacturers union in Czenstochow, managing committee member of the Jewish sports organization, Makabi and of a whole series of secular organizations in Czenstochow.

He died on the 17th of February 1939 in Otwosk and was buried in the Czenstochower cemetery.

He was the son-in-law of Isidor Sigman.

Anna Markowicz

Daughter of Isidor and Regina Sigman. Born on the 15th of September 1892 in Strzemieszyce (Poland). She was the wife of Zigmund Markowicz of Czenstochow. Came to American from Poland through England in May 1943.

An active member of all worthy active Jewish organizations in Czenstochow, such as: orphan's house, old age house, and so on.

Her son, Morris, served as an engineer in the Polish army.

Helena Markowicz

Daughter of Zigmund and Anna. Born on the 24th of May 1925 in Czenstochow. Came to America from Poland through England, May 1943.

Moshe Makrojer

Born 1869 in Czenstochow. Comes from a family that lived there for 200 years. He was one of the first Zionist leaders in our city and distinguished himself with his communal activities. He helped considerably in spreading the Zionist ideas in Czenstochow. He was chairman of the Zionist Committee for many years and delegate to the Fourth Zionist Congress in London. He worked in the kehile as a consulting member, was a managing committee member of the Talmud Torah and artisan's school. Councilman in the Czenstochow city council from 1917-1920; one of the founders of the Jewish gymnazie and chairman of the managing committee.

In private life, he was the director of Grosman's button factory for many years. In 1924, he and his family emigrated to Eretz-Yisroel and settled in Tel Aviv.

He was the honorary chairman of the Czenstochower Union in Tel Aviv.

Recently, he is busy writing a history of the Zionist movement and activities in Czenstochow.

Yitzhak Meir Minc, may he rest in peace

Born in Czenstochow in 1867. Distinguished himself with tzadekah [charity] and help for the poor. Was a member of the managing committee of the New Synagogue. Known as an industrialist in the celluloid industry.

Died in Czenstochow on the 28th of June 1942.

Louis Miller

Son of Henekh and Beila. Born in Koniecpol (Poland). Came to America on the 30th of June 1914. He is a member of B'nai Brith, Zionist organization, Anshei Emes Synagogue and is active in the Czenstochower Educational Union in Chicago. His son Barton served in the American army.

Abraham Shlomoh Miska

Son of Shmuel Wolf and Leah. Born in Czenstochow on the 16th of December 1891. Came to America on the 26th of February 1907. He married Ita (Edna) Hantwerker. Is a member of B'nai Brith and one of the most active members, former president and secretary of the Czenstochower Educational Union in Chicago. He is also an active member of the Relief Committee. His son, William, served in the American army.

Leibl Miska

Son of Shmuel Wolf and Leah. Born in Kamik. Came to America in 1905 from Czenstochow. He is a member of the Czenstochower Educational Union in Chicago. His son-in-law, Heimy Lebicki, served as a sergeant in the American army.

Abraham Mentkow

Son of Yeshayahu and Shifra Mientkowicz. Born on the 1st of November 1882 in Czenstochow. Came to America on the 18th of December 1903. His sons-in-law, David Roshef, a lieutenant, and Dr. Stefan Levy Weis, a captain, were in the American army.

[Page LX]

Zisman Miska

Son of Shmuel Wolf and Leah. Born in Kamyk (Poland) 1888. Came to America 1906. One of the founders and former president and active member of the Czenstochower Neighborhood Educational Union in Chicago.

He died on the 16th of October 1946 in Chicago.

Sara Hinda Miska

Daughter of Meir and Malka Szilit. Born in Kamyk on the 23rd of February 1888. Came to America 1905. She is second vice-president of the Czenstochower Educational Union in Chicago; member of the Czenstochower Aid Society; trustee of the shul and a series of other humanitarian organizations. Her son, Milton, served in the American army.

Yeshayahu Ber Mientkowicz

Died in Czenstochow 1930.

Shifra Mientkowicz

Died in Czenstochow 1929.

Yeshayahu Yakov Menkow
Los Angeles

(photo, caption: the mother of Yeshayahu Yakov Menkow)
(photo, caption: Mrs. Menkow)

Son of Yitzhak Aizik and Chaja Ester. Born in Klojnz? (Miebawer? Powiat). The brother-in-law of the Gerer Rebbes was his sandek [man holding baby during circumcision]. When Menkow grew up, he studied with his sandek in the yeshiva and ate his meals at his home. After his father's death in 1903, Menkow came to Czenstochow. At the beginning, he strove to study further for half a day and simultaneously to be an assistant in a wine business at the old market (the owner, I think, was named Reb Yeshayahu). However, the needs of his family, a mother and three sisters, forced him to be a worker in Wajnberg's factory.

In 1905, he joined the S.S. party. His teachers were Ahron Singalowski, his brother Nakhum, later – Josef Number Two and Aleksander (Leibush the teacher).

[Page LXI]

He again had to leave Czenstochow in the summer of 1908 and to emigrate to Vienna, then to Zurich (Switzerland) where an S.S. group was located with Dr. Josef Kruk at the head. He returned to Krakow in March 1909 and there married his acquaintance from his young years, Gutshe Granek. They then, with the help of the ITO [Jewish Territorial Organization] Emigration Committee traveled to Galveston (America) and arrived in Lincoln, Neb., where his wife gave birth to two sons. Later, they moved to Chicago, then to Los Angeles where a daughter was born.

In America, he joined the Jewish Socialist Union, Arbeter Ring International, Ladies Garment Workers Union, Independent Order of Foresters [a fraternal organization] and the Jewish Workers Committee.

He is vice president of the district committee of the Southern California Arbeter Ring and secretary of the Los Angeles Workers Committee.

Kalman Merkazin

Son of Shlomoh Meir and Sura. Born in Koniecpol in 1908. He has been in Eretz-Yisroel since 1932. Served in the army since 1940. He is a son-in-law of Berl Pataszewicz of Czenstochow, may he rest in peace.

Jay Mendelson
New Rochelle, N.Y.


Born in Warsaw in 1886. His mother died when he was 10 and his father handed him over to a purse maker (handbag worker) as an apprentice. At 12, a Czenstochower manufacturer brought him to Czentochow. At 16, he was already a member of the Bund and carried on a struggle against the terrible exploitation. At 18, he joined the S.S. [Social Zionists] and was active in the transporting propaganda literature and as an agitator in the “arena of ideas.”

In 1908, after the suppression of the Russian revolution, he was one of the active workers in the Czenstochower division of the “Literary Society” and in 1910, he co-founded Linat-HaTzedekh [hostel-like institution] in Czenstochow. Mendelson was also involved with community work such as creating kitchens to feed the poor and organizing bazaars whose income went to the needy. In 1911, he left for Germany and, later, from there to London where he founded his own factory and employed many landsleit [people from the same city], taught them the trade and helped them in every feasible way. In 1914, after the outbreak of the First World War, he came to America. At first, he spent his time in Boston. In 1916 he came to Chicago and there joined the Czenstochower branch 261 of the Arbeter Ring with others, to which he belongs to this day. Together with other landsleit, among them Moshe C., he founded the Czenstochower Aid Union, of which he was the first president. His lucky marriage to a wife who bore him a son took place there; his son is a college student studying accounting and law.

In 1918 he and his family returned to New York and in 1923 he settled in New Rochelle, N.Y., where he still lives as an independent leather goods manufacturer. He has remained a devoted helper in the aid work for Czenstochow the entire time. He has given material and moral support and he has remained an idealist who strives for a more beautiful and better life for the Jewish masses and is bound to his birthplace, Czenstochow.

Abraham Merowicz
Montreal, Canada

(photo, caption: Abraham Merowicz with his family)

Born in Przyrow near Czenstochow. He received his education from his uncle, Reb Shlomoh Wajcman, known as a moyel [ritual circumciser] in Czenstochow. Abraham Merowicz studied in Makhzikei Hadas and during his childhood he would assist his aunt in helping the sick in the Jewish hospital in Czenstochow.

Now he lives in Montreal, Canada. He is a founder of the Czenstochower Society in Montreal and one of its most active members.

Berl Mertz

Son of Grunim and Fradl. Born in Rudnik (Kalisz gubernia¸ Poland). He married Ruchl Slawni. Came from Czentochow to America on the 5th of June 1914. He is a member of the Polish Synagogue and of the Interest Free Loan Union in Detroit.


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[Page LXII]


Sara Nakhtigal

Born in Plawno in 1866. Died on the 30th of October 1939.


Abo Nakhtigal

Son of Wolf and Leah. Born in Krzepice near Czenstochow in 1857. He married Sara Epsztajn. Came to America in 1902. He is a member of the First Zaloshiner Chevra Anshei Bnei Achim in New York.

Moshe Nakhtigal

Son of Abo and Sara. Born in Czenstochow 1888. He perished during the First World War as an American soldier in France on the 30th of September 1918.


Yitzhak Wolf Nakhtigal

Son of Abo and Sara. Born in Czenstochow in 1885. Came to America in 1903. He married Doba Lazarus of Czenstochow. He is president of the First Zaloshiner Chevra Anshei Bnei Achim in New York.

Shimeon Nidjinski
(Photo, caption: Josef Nidjinski)

Son of Josef and Reizl. Born in Radoszyce on the 16th of May 1887. Was one of the organizers of the illegal bakers union in Czenstochow that was founded by both Polish and Jewish workers. He belonged to the S.S. party. Was placed in prison due to the denunciation of the bosses: Auerbakh, Itshe Khusz Kozewoda, Pontshe Beker and Aupner. He was exiled to Piotrkow. In 1907 Pontshe Beker was shot. Nidjinski served a year and in 1908 he was exiled to Siberia, where he served three years, until 1911. He returned to Czenstochow and again began party work. In the same year, 1911, on the 19th of September, he came to America.

Here he belongs to the bakers union, is a member of People's Order br. 307 (bakers branch). He is an executive member of the union and treasurer of his branch.

His son, Harry, born on the 9th of February 1916 in New York, served as a sergeant in the American army.

Lola Nidjinski

Daughter of Pinkhas and Riva Ejzner. Born in Czenstochow on the 15th of May, 1897. She is a member of the Jewish Fraternal People's Order.

Melekh Nidjinski
(Photo; caption: San Jose, Costa Rica, Central America)

Son of Shmuel and Rywka. Born on the 1st of January 1908 in Czentochow. Came from Belgium to Central America in 1933. A member of the Jewish Center in Costa Rica. Former managing member of the Center and of the synagogue committee. Married Masha Liberman.

Masha Nidjinski

Daughter of Leib and Miryam Liberman. Born on the 16th of March 1911 in Czenstochow. Came to Central America from Belgium in 1933. She is active in and was the secretary of the women's committee of the Jewish Center in Costa Rica.

William Nirenberg

Son of Josef and Nakha. Born in Czenstochow on the 14th of July 1887. Came to America in 1905. He is a member of the Czenstochower Young Men's Society in New York.

[Page LXII]

Julian Nirenberg

Son of Josef and Nakha. Born in Czentochow on the 31st of March 1894. Came to America on the 18th of June 1913. He is a member of the Czenstochower Young Men's Society in New York.

Abo Nirenberg

Son of Josef and Nakha. Born on the 18th of July 1891 in Czenstochow. Came to America in 1905. He is a member of the Czenstochower Young Men's Society in New York.

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