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[Page 181]

Documents to the History of the Jews of Bucovina 1776–1869

Dr. N. M. Gelber (Jerusalem)

Translated by Berti Glaubach

Editorial assistance by Jerome Schatten and Bruce Reisch


I. Registration of the Jews

Year 1776, November. Number 5133. II, n. 2

l. Decree to the General Command in Galicia.

According to the attached instructions of the High War Council, about the manorial lands and settlements in the Bukovina district – with the instruction to watch over, so that the local subjects are not burdened too much by the many leases shown on this instruction. Further also because of the same instructions about the Jews there, it has to be assured to take care to make a distinction between those Jews who were already settled and those who had sneaked in during the disturbances or afterwards, and consequently, these others are to be kept separately in evidence.

November 23, 1776.


II. Number of Jewish Families

Year 1777, Number. 347, IV. T. 1 – January.

2. Decree to the Galician General Command

Regarding the two accounts about the Jews of the Bukovina District sent on January 4 current, remarking that, as it is evident from these, that the 206 Jewish families formerly in Bukovina had increased to 444, thus increased by a very considerable number, it is to keep up to date with the supreme resolution concerning the improvements to be made about tracking those sneaking in and getting rid of these foreign Jews, and after some time, to further report how the last influenced the admission to the district and especially of the Jews.

January 25, 1777.


III. Sneaked in Jews

Year 1777, Number. 836, IV, K. 6.

Decree to the Galician General Command.

About your report of February 8th current to the Imperial War Council concerning the improvements to be made in the Bukovina district and the Jews who sneaked in, the report reiterated that the measures taken are in perfect accord with the highest want and the utmost is done, that only the ban about the increase in leases of estates can assure that the leases are terminated. Moreover, it appears that the measures already taken, that no peasant should be lent in the taverns more than three florins per year. Also to take the special precaution the sneaked Jews should not, for example, lend money to the inhabitants, so that they could enter into such a relationship with them, which might stand in the way of a future request for getting rid of them.

1st March.


IV. Non–Approval of the Contract on Leasing the Drinking and Counter Rights in the Kimpulung District to the Jew Isak Abraham

Year 1780, Number. 1561, IV, T. S. Counter Selling Rights.

6. Decree to the Galician General Command.

The submitted contract from February 13 current about the lease of right of drinking and counter rights in the Kimpulung district can not be approved because of the fact that the same runs counter to the important legislation for improvement to this leasing situation, since the rights of this matter come into the hands of one, and thus consumers will be depending on his arbitrariness.

March 11.


V. Lease of Land Properties to Jews

Year 1777, Number. 1602, IV, K. 6.

4. Decree to the Galician General Command.

Concerning the report submitted to the High Committee of War, in view of the above decrees concerning the lease of leased property, as well as with regard to the ordered caution that the Bukovina habitants will not get loans from the sneaked in Jews to have immediately taken the necessary provision with mere reference to the under the issued order from date 1. of last month.

April 19 1777.


VI. Jewish Labor Aid In Agriculture

Year 1780, Number. 2230, IV, B. 1.

Decree to the Galician General Command.

That, on the circumstance, that the contract concluded with Isak Abraham in the district of Kimpolung is appropriate to the conditions of this district, and is such as to give the Treasurer a substantial benefit, its approval for a period of three years will not be contested. It is only necessary to take care that – after the tenant also obtains the permission to build the taverns – for labor he must not let foreign Jews come to the district, but must manage with the existing Jews.

April 15.


VII. Backing Prohibition

Year 1782112, Number. 3203, IV, T. 2.

Letter to the Gen. Major Enzenberg.

It is high time, in view of the circumstances that the Jews sell so much of their bread, that the district administration has to see to it that the towns of Bukovina be provided with such Christian white–bread bakers as would supply the inhabitants with bread of good quality and cheap price and be able to deliver reliably where then the Jews will be forced to cancel the bread baking for sale.

Decree to the Galiz. General Command with a copy of the above decree for his knowledge.

June 28.


VIII. The Emperor Wants to Change the Jews to Be Useful Inhabitants

Year 178Il10. Number. 5374, V, T. 2.

Decree to the Galician General Command.

To remind addressee of the outline of the under 4. current month regulation regarding the Jews in Bukovina, that the supreme disposition of His Majesty concerning the Jews was not directed to a substantial change in their faith, but merely to make them useful members of the state. How this most high–minded intention with regard to their distribution to landlords and retention for agriculture is most suitably to be achieved, is already contained in the General Command Order recently issued for improvements in Bukovina , where are also attached the measures and principles prescribed for the Jews, and therefore you have to send us a suitable draft, or to take measures that the beggar Jews who sneaked illegally into Bukovina will at the earliest be brought outside the districts and an end will be put to their usurious commerce, oppressing the inhabitants of the country and that unauthorized leases will no longer be permitted.

August 29.


IX. On the Draft for the Improvement of the Jewish People in Bukowina

Year 1781, Number. 7400, IV, T. 1.

24. Decree to the Galician General Command.

by which is pointed out that by the general draft for the improvement of Jews in the Bukovina, which was included in the report of October 3 to the Imperial War Council, His Majesty's intention was not to spread more the Jewish nation , or to introduce them to places they are not tolerated but to leave the Jews only where they are, and to the extent that they are tolerated, and to make them more useful to the state, and to abolish the Jewish beggars, who since the occupation of Bukovina have sneaked in, in an unauthorized manner, and have caused damage to the country and its inhabitants. Therefore, it is only the task of the General Command and the Bukovina Administration to see how the latter, according to earlier orders, Jews who should have been long ago removed from Bukovina, are at the earliest, removed in such a manner in general, and especially so because of their very unlawfully made purchases and leases and other inconveniences that might arise.

Incidentally, both the communication by the Bohemian–Austrian court chancellery, and the order which was published in public in press in Bohemia, contained the means to educate the Jews and to work with them to establish the purposed aim, which also includes the Bukovina Administration which should act accordingly and hereby make known the necessary in limitation to everyone's knowledge and imitation.

November 24th.


X. Sneaking in of Jews

Year 1782, Number. 3727, IV, T. 1.

Letter to General Enzenberg.

On his recent questions of 13 July a. c. about the creeping in of foreign Jews during the disturbances inflicted on Bukovina, that the district Administration of Bukovina had already been so clearly informed of the necessary instruction, that it was only the outing of those foreign begging Jews, who sneaked in there, partly during the war between the Russians and the Turks, partly after the secular possession of the Bukovina, and that therefore among these Jews who are to be cast out, can not be understood as those who bring benefits to the district. According to this, the Administration had the full conviction that Jews who had been in Bukovina before the outbreak of the war between the Russians and the Turks should not be confused with those Jews who had sneaked in illegally, with those latter who distinguish themselves by their application for the level of contribution. In what manner and under what conditions His Majesty took the Jews under highest protection has already been explained by the expressed supreme opinion of his will in public press as well by successive ordinances and have thereby pre–empted complaints of how much the Jews suck the subjects and in general oppose the intentions of improvements, and counter–tinkering and actually ruining the country and so to be able to transform these Jews into such a way of life and labor of food supply that comply with intentions of His Majesty.

As far as the leases are concerned, the Jews have to be according to H. Majesty's Resolution, as already repeated many times, be in the class of excluded civil servants and founders excluded from the right of lease, in such a way that the Jews could only be granted leasing to the extent that it is according to the Law and that their education corresponds to the requirements of the new institutions.

Letter to the commander in Galicia, G. M. L. Schröder, with annexed copy of above Order to his acknowledgement and execution.

July 27th


XI. Eviction of the Jews Elieser Joel, Aron Joseph of Suczawa and Pesko Wolf of Sadagora

Year 1782, Number. 704, IV, T. 1

15. Decree to the Galician General Command.

The report of the 10th of these investigative files of the Bukovina district administration against the probably out–of–county Jews Elieser Joel and Aron Joseph of Suczawa –also Pesko Wolf of Sadagora– which only with the 27th current provide further proof of their adversarial behavior, according to the present method of proceeding, shows that the administration has had neither a genuine description of the soul of the Jews, nor a practical knowledge of their alimentation, nor even understood the meaning of the ordinances which have often been issued in this matter limiting, that only the Jews who sneaked into the district during the Russian riots and did not have the reputation of usable inhabitants, are to be evacuated without further ado, whereas the natives, even when they are poor, are entitled both to their native country, as well as to make claims on a branch of food accorded to them. In view of the legal opinion following with the other documents of investigation, the High War Command has also decided to leave it at the already endured arrest, the meaning of which the administration should inform the Jewish communities to indemnify the Jew Syndek in view of his incurred expenses in this case, but otherwise neither court nor commission fees have to be paid.

3l July.

1782 July 12th

1) Note to the High War Command, the petition of a reliable protected Jew from Transylvania, named Chaim Loewl in which the same makes a mention that he made himself worthy by the discovery of a conspiration of Jews to the detriment of the general field sergeant Baron von Enzenberg and the K.K. Kassa in Czernowitz in Bucowina, to be investigated and communicated answer requested.

Vienna, 6/VII 1782

Acta Nr. 24, IV, T. 3.

Vienna, 6 / VII 1782. Acta No. 24, IV, T. 3.

1782 July 18

2) Chaim Loewl, a protected Jew from Nassod in Transylvania, asks in relation to his role of the discovery of a conspiracy in Bucowina for a contribution to the upkeep of his family and to finding employment in Galicia.

To be made known by decree to the supplicant, that respectively his first request could not be granted, and for the second he has to apply to the authority in Gallicia.

Vienna, July 27, 1782

(Protocol of Galicia 1782, Archive of the Ministers of the Interior)


XII. Leasing of Taverns and Mills


Year 1782, Z. 6267, IV, T. 11.

33. Decree to the Galician General Command.

where it was said on the occasion of the sent in session explanation of the 2nd of this Month, in the instruction which it gave to the Bukovina district administration upon her request, whether mills and taverns can be leased by Jews, the main point it overlooked is the question of how it could have happened that since the occupation of Bukovina the taverns have increased without the permission of the district administration. It would therefore be important that the causes of their commercialization be questioned, and warn the same to immediately terminate this mischief, as the General Command accordingly should proceed doing.


Year 1782, Number. 6539, IV, T. 11. 3.

37. Decree to the Galician General Command.

by which on the occasion of the sent in Sessions–Explanation from 7. this month regarding the Jewish leases of mills and taverns, the repeated request of the Bukovina district administration regarding the Jewish leases of mills and taverns has been at least one time instructed, this circumstance was at least once recently mentioned that the administration has ignored to answer, how comes that since the acquisition of Bukovina, the inns have increased so much without their permission.

Incidentally, the administration has quite rightly noted in the above statement that the intention was not at all to exclude the Jews from all leases , but that the General Command had too easily missed the further consideration to his attention, that in order to benefit from the Jews it is only possible to achieve this by forming members of the state – that this can only be achieved if they are provided with ways and means for the cultivation of their own crops and for other profitable branches of nutrition.

25th of December.


XIII. Classification of the Jews

Year 1783, Number. 2481, IV, T. 1.

31. Decree to the Galician General Command.

There is no intention in the report from the 7th. of this month to deal either with earnings for food of the Bukovina Jews, their classification, nor the presumptuousness of their proposal, as it was expressly referred to. In the whole of Bukovina there were 392 working in agriculture, 101 as professionals, and 111 heads as merchants and traders, and besides these there were also 68 other individuals, some of whom were working for Jews and some were very advanced in age. The question now is whether these three classes, in view of their nutritional needs, have already been correctly instructed, or else have only been asked by the Administration, for what and therefore a more detailed explanation is required. That is, if a Jewish Family either already has, or accepts, or disagrees with a work equivalent to His Majesty's Will. For all as a class, and individually by their own declaration, and in view of the latter with an explanation as to how they propose to provide for themselves and how their active and passive status should otherwise be considered and how it is in reality.


XIV. Letter of the Jewish Deputation

Year 1783144, Number. 3570, IV, T. 2.

The communication, of the High War Commandment of June 16, 1783, to make known to all, about a petition of the delegates of the Bukovina Jewry, about their evacuation if they did not want to settle for agriculture – was shelved.

12th of July


XV. Terms and Conditions for Leasing of Land By Jews

Year 1783, Number. 3743, IV, T. 2.

46. Decree to the Galician General Command.

With the meaning that, in regard to the Bukovina Jews, the last supreme order of the commander exhausted mainly with the content of his report of the 2nd current, but the district Administration must still take due regard of what has been arranged about the active and passive status of the Jews and report back on this matter; Incidentally, those Jews who are determined to cultivate land are not to be confused with the Christian subjects, but to pay attention to the supreme order which has been specially granted for this purpose, according to which they can in any case obtain a maximum lease for 20 years, and only when they adopt Christian faith acquire property..

19th of July.

Year 1783, ZI. 4917, IV, T. 4.

60. Decree to the Galician General Command.

on the occasion of your report from the 20th of last month, accompanied by a report of the Bukovina district Administration on the active and passive status of the local Jews, as the previous report on the assets of these Jews showed nothing, but that, according to the latter, also containing no specification, but only a general display of active debts of no significance and that in so far as there is reason for investigation to secure knowledge, that is already initiated, it may thereby be left as such accordingly, and of what the district Administration is to be informed.

September 6


XVI. Continue with the System with the Jews


1783142112. No.. 3469, II. A. b.

A copy of a decree issued by the High War Council to the Galician General Commando on July 4, 1783, by which it was meant to proceed with the system and those who do not want to become good trade people or craft people, are to be removed from the country ,

4th of July.


1783152. Count. 4479, IV, K. l.

Decree to the Galician General Commando, meaning that His Majesty has authorized that once established, the continuation of the system relating to Jews should be continued.

20. August.


XVIII. Jews Against Agriculture

1783130. Count. 2117, IV, T. 2.

Letter to the Gen.–Maj. Enzenberg.

As by the recently arrived financial discussion of the Galician General Command it was found that the presumptuousness of the Bukovina Jews, in order to avoid work outside food branches prescribed for them, goes so far as to amount to an annual amount of 5000 florins they agree to pay only if they are left with leases and subleases of the beer, wine, and brandy wine taverns and other usurious speculations. It may be necessary to establish about these Jews in order to be able to make a decision in accordance with the intentions of His Majesty – in addition to the indication how he himself had assigned the District Administration, and received the above evasive evidence, – to constitute a directory, how many of these Jews have a proper trade, how many have a profession and how many have been classified for agriculture, then how many are ready to transfer to one of these occupations or to remain in their customary idleness and usurious nature, and therefore refuse to submit to the Supreme Volitional Opinion.



XIX. Evacuation of Beggar Jews

1785. NO.. 2465, IV, M. 11.

20. Nota to the united Court Chancellery.

By remarking, by means of your statement of 21 April cur. to the High War Council arrived message from the Galician Government's Protocols that they are concerned only with the refusal of the Bukovina district Administration of the thrust of the beggar Jews to be abolished from Galicia, but not also with the circumstances and causes of the complaint, as to why said Administration took exception that these begging Jews should not pass through Bukovina, as the General Command found out from a report of the Galician Command some time ago. It seems to have merely lacked the necessary agreement between the Zaleszczyki district office and the district Administration, because in the latter the anxiety arose that a good portion of these begging Jews were likely to become a burden. As things are, the first thing to be said is an explanation of such evacuations, and especially the arrangement, that the beggar Jews, who were deported from time to time, should under proper supervision, reach the border of Bukovina, and thus only a few miles Route through Chernivtsi to the Turkish territory, and for which the Bukovinians in those cases, should receive payment in cash, which is answered to the Court Chancellery with the advice that among other things, on one side the necessary was signified to the Galician General Command on this signifies and the same is instructed to for find a proper agreement with the local Government.

Decree to the Galician General Command with annex of writings of the Court Chancellery.

April, 30th.


XX. Applying the Jewish Regulation From 1785

1786. No. 411. Act, IV, T. 1.

4. Decree to the Galician General Command meaning, at the moment when the Bukovina district Administration felt the positivity of the new Regulations for Jews, arrived from her by means of the under the 17th of this month letter accompanied assertions of the same, exceptions and deviations in the application, which, if hereby kept, would degenerate into so many defects and contradictions. The regulation expressly cancels the Kahal. and Rabbinate Courts throughout, but the Administration it seems introduces, especially in Czernowitz and Suczawa, and wants to retain their influence in business even further. Why further the election of the Jewish provosts should not follow the mentioned regulations, of every 3 years, but instead every year has no reason and arises hereby the reservation that on the occasion of the more often changes and besides that the writing thereby is increased, even mischief and passion might arise. Furthermore, it is easier to make a good choice according to the regulation content in a number of 6 people to supervisors, as in the case of four, as proposed by Administration. But how the status quo can be intertwined into the Jewish institution can not be estimated at all. It will be by virtue of Galician Regulation

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A rare document.

List of Jewish families active in agriculture in Bukovina in 1802

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on turning the Jews into useful citizens and peasants, giving them the freedom to buy and lease land, so that, for the cause of the status quo, the Jews of Bukovina could not be denied this freedom, and according to the Galician regulation. the rule is that those Jews who apart from agriculture do no other business, are, when they become married, exempted from the Marriage Tax. Limiting the Jewish merchants' books to the German language is not yet practicable, at least not in Bukovina, and it is enough if, as the patent states, the punishment is of being expelled from the country. As well as the abolition of the special Jewish trading habits and fraudulent exchanges on issue of the bills of exchange , and it is noted that their trading books should be written in no other than the German or customary national language and the bills of exchange are written and issued in the ordinary form, so that the District Administration should know and be instructed and to introduce the Jewish order in Bukovina uniformly with the Galician one.

January 25th.


XXI. Settlement From Galicia into Bukovina

Protocols Galicia.

1786, November, 65.

Decree to the Galician Government ad No. 24526 (whose minutes date 25 / X), that the Jews would not be allowed to move from other Galician areas into Bukovina before the highest decision has been made on the establishment of the Jews in Bukovina, is not allowed except in the case where the relocation was intended to be undertaken to enable agricultural cultivation.

Vienna, 24, exped. 30 / XI 1786. Acta No. 3 (Protocols) III A, 4.


XXII. Description of Jewish Tax Arrears E10


12. ex March 1801, 497/213.

Presented to the meeting of 5 March 1801.

To the East Galician Provincial Government, that the writing of, of the tax amounts to be uncollectible by several Bukovina Jews because of their poverty could not be granted beforehand.

Vienna, March 5, 1801.

The same is on his on January 30, 1 J. No. 2408, with deferment of the supplement, means that the request of the Bukovina Jews to grant a tax rebate is an unexpected phenomenon, since in this area no other Jews except farm workers, artisans, and merchants were formerly accepted and were able to pay their taxes and dews, and have always paid them without any ado.

The circumstance that poor Jews find themselves in the Bukovina must therefore necessarily lead to the assumption that Jews who were not permitted into Bukovina in earlier times, or who have arrived there from somewhere else, are now there and the Jews in an area which had been almost cleansed of useless and poor Jews, and contrary to the supreme rules of the present, has considerably increased.

First and before the discount of the tax amounts to the so called uncollectible taxes from several Bukovina Jews due to their poverty can be approved, the state office has to submit the list of those Jews, which in the incorporation of Bukovina with East Galicia in 1786 by the passed military Administration were submitted to the Commissioner who took over, the count Brigido, together with the list of Jews now subject to tax arrears, and to find out from them whether these tax defaulters were really Bukovinaers or Jews to whom was granted residence in Bukovina against the existing supreme instructions.

As soon as the provincial authority realizes by comparison of these directories, as far the current Jews with tax arrears are not contained in the list of the year 1786, and consequently Jews later admitted to the Bukovina, the local district office for the Jews clerk Kromiak must be confronted with the question when and by whom their admission in Bukovina has been allowed? And in order to see at the same time the extent to which the number of Jews in Bukovina has increased or diminished, the provincial authority has to present here the list of names of the Jewish families found in the lists of 1800.


2408. A 12 ex March 1801, 497/213 pr. 26 Febr. 1801 Your Majesty!

In the document issued by the Bukovinian area office about the marital status and tax evasion of the Bukovinian Jews for 1799, same noted that at the time regardless of the prescribed and really applied means of coercion the due duty of Jews tolerated by the village circle could not be collected completely, and that by the enclosed debt list 56 families were completely impoverished, and from whom the applied tax per 614 Fl. 20 Kr. is uncollectible, as proven by the most obediently presented pre–document. Amongst these irrecoverable arrears, there were two insignificant posts in the state accounts, which did not legally identify their poverty, and about which the county council was demanded for the incidental enlightenment. Now, as the State Accounting in its present Exhibit sub. 36827 ex 1800 enclosed report from the 1st of December, current. is caused to write–off the above–mentioned tax amount remaining irrecoverable by proven poverty, pr 614 Fl. 20 Kr., it is precisely from this consideration that we believe we ought to agree with this directive and respectfully request Your Majesty, to annul this irrecoverable tax arrears at the Bukovina Area Cash Register.

In the absence of a country head.


With Due Modesty To His. Kaiser. Royal. Apost. Majesty!

Report of the East Galician Government, by means of which it will be advised to write off some irrecoverable tax arrears for the Jewish families impoverished in Bukovina.


XXIIa. List of Jewish Families Provided in the Czernowitz District in the Central Writing for Agriculture and Revised in the Year 1802

The names of the family heads are: Judko Zappler, ltzig Heller, Israel Kallman, Lazar Bauman, Wolff Anis, Malka Maislin Widow, Aron Jawiz, Natan Nowak, Abraham

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Dorf. Jakob Bauer. Abraham Roscnblat, Benjamin Dorf. Judah Dorf, Samuel Kyhbach, Abraham Beer, Lazar Susinger. Isaak Gehler, Juda Brutman, Ă„ser Lielerman, Dawid Sternberger. Abraham Lenzmann, Judah Waismann, Abraham Ebner, Efroim Fruchmet, Isaac Goltz, Salamon Bender, Dawid Delfiner, Hersz Sandmann (deleted from the list) Jakob Gemeiner, Josel Weisgerber, Juda or Leiba Merdinger, Juda Kuhbach. Joseph Altensberg, Judah Altensberg, Hersz Sandman, Elias Naid, Lazar Naid. Koka wife of Mordko Lytvak, Simon Alpfer. (See copies).


XXIII. Jewish Pub Proprietors


IV T 13.

224 ex May 1304.

Berl Rohalter from Chernowitz appeals against the closing of his bar.

192 ex June 1807. The justice appeal requested by Berl Rohalter is dismissed because

1. There is an express provision for Bukovina that the numbers of pubs should not be increased in the three towns of Czernowitz , Sereth and Suczawa.

2. In 1783, all Jewish pubs in the Bukovina were shut down and only one Jewish barkeeper was allowed for each city.

Is classified as a merchant, it was permitted to him by the district office only in its first period on condition of a costly and solid bookkeeping operated by a Christian, that still should not have happened according to the existing in Bukovina Law for Jews and should have been terminated legally by the local state office.

2. Naphtali Löwenthal's Petition

193. Oct. 823. Naphtali Löwenthal in Chernowitz asks for his services of providing news through Moldovans to the Czernowitz Border Commissioner, for the permission to build a tavern in his house .

3. Christian Pub Owners Against Jews

202 June 1824. Czernowitz township and the local authorized Christian Pub owners and landlords ask to reject the petition of Melech Juster.


XXIV. Equality of the Bukowinian Jews to the Galician Ones


292. January 1824.

Request of the municipal director of Wiznitz for equality of the Bukovinian with the Galician Jewry in taxation, so that the trespassing be set limits.


Petition to His Majesty from the head of the Jewish community Wiznitz to Kaiser

Franz I from the year 1823

Your Majesty!

In the year 1817, have been presented on the occasion of His Highness' presence in Kutty to the revered hand of Your Majesty a petition to His Majesty , in which they had an subservient hope that His former Majesty, the unforgettable most gracious Emperor Joseph, was in favor of the Bukovina Jews so as not to oppress them in their way of subsistence, not to complain at t tax payment, to make their trade and commerce as easy as possible, and thereby to make them more capable of fulfilling the requirements of the state, and to have enjoyed the benevolent resolution: that it would be strictly forbidden to Galician Jews to enter illegally, and the Bukovina Jewish communities were relieved of liability for the taxpaying of the outward Galician poor Jews residing in Bukovina, although taxes were far from being at such a high level, and made the request that in that circumstance when taxes increased suddenly multiplying, but also by the Jews, who had immigrated from Galicia to Bukovina, and that the incoming Jews were in their majority poor and set back the old–established Jewry in their commercial and food purchase activity, and even that the same (locals) became liable for the Galician Jews with countless taxes, and the undersigned persons mentioned in this petition, at the same occasion, that the causes of the sneaking in of the Galician poor Jews into Bukovina are no other than fear of recruitment, the kosher and light ignition payment and the like. Although I undersigned, head of the Jewish elders have heard that a decision was made on the request in the highest places, but neither to mine nor to others of the local Jewish community members hands has arrived a pre decision accordingly, and the undersigned most subdued are the offspring of those Bukovinian Jews born here of original stock are still pressed and harmed by the successful settlement of the many Galician Jews, that happened in a way unknown to us, without our being able to indicate their cause.

Equally also has the respectfully undersigned Jewish community elder on the occasion of the laudable k. k. circular ordinance of the third November 1824 NO. 11730 reported that in order to facilitate the collection of taxes to satisfy the very highest treasury for eliminating all tax arrears, it is necessary to introduce kosher meat and poultry surcharge in Bukovina, and then to introduce the light–ignition payment , which would be good , clearly proving that by the small collection of these payments, the tax levies for the highest treasury ensured, easing the collection of taxes, the way of tedious, unpleasant, unsuccessful executions and Sequestration eliminated, which gives the taxpayers an easy way of attesting the tax, and which puts an end to the infinite complaints and laments of the taxpayers, because of the overburden of taxpayers' taxes. All this is unmistakable, as well that the execution of it could be possible, speedy and with good consequences. If one looks at these advantages presented, and on the other hand again looks back, that community tax arrears go back to the year 1819, as it has been stated that the gentlemen of the District Commissioner are burdened with sequestrations about sequestrations of these cases, that they are investigating the accounts with weariness, and that the tax arrears are increasing, the advantages are always clear in our minds, and illuminate our suggestions. We therefore ask your Majesty to graciously take into account our tax–collection proposals for improvement, to examine and confirm their premises, since they evidently bear the advantage also for the very high treasury. Also for which reason every year both the kosher–serve and the light–ignition payments diminish in Galicia, then finally also these Galician Jews do not create any advantages here, but rather stand in the way of the food purchasing of the old–timers.

Wiznitz, 17 August 1823.

Moses Mik, head of the Jewish community Simche Pachter, Jewish eldest Yichil Enge

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XXV. Overview of the Jews' Tax in the Austrian Province in the Years 1829–1830

Bukovina: Kosher meat and family tax

The tax for Jews in Bukovina is 20 Fl. pro family, of which 5 fl are earned by the kosher meat.

If there is a departure from the latter, it must be added to the repartition of the family tax and brought in with it.


XXVI. To the History of Dynasty From Sadagura

A. Russia demands from Austria the delivery of the

R. Israel Ruzyner

In 1840, the Zaddik R. Israel of Ruzyn had to leave Russia. He went to Jassy, from where he (1841) had to flee to Sadagura, as Russia's extradition was required. After his arrival in Sadagura, the Russian authorities also demanded his extradition from the Galician Gubernial Presidium.

Below is the corresponding change of letters between the Gubernial Presidency with the Court Chancellery in Vienna:

I. Report of the Galician Gubernial Presidency to the High Court Office in Vienna on the Request of the Russian Government of Israel Friedmann

No. 6246 III. p. 434th

Highly laudable imperial–royal united court chancellery!

Already after issue of this report from the 13th curr. on the subject of the Israelite Israel Friedmann, who was reclaimed by the imperial government, the annexed message was received here, in which the Governor–General of Podolia and Volhynia communicated the result to our local knowledge of the investigation by the countries of Ruzyn, Pogrebyszcze, and Skwira about the origin and nationality of the above mentioned Jew. According to this, eight Jewish inhabitants of Pogrebyszcze confirmed the circumstance stated by Israel Friedmann when he was established in Sadagora, that he had been a foster–child of Rabbi Schulim Friedmann, who had died in Ruzyn, but they were confronted with other sworn in witnesses from Pogrebyszcze, who proved that Israel Friedmann was born in Pogrebyszcze.

According to general reputation and the confirmation of the local authorities, he has always counted among the local inhabitants for a biological son of Schulim Friedmann, and according to the population books of the named village two sons appear in the family estate of the latter, the older name Abraham, who died in 1813 and the younger Berko Srul, or as he is called in the later revision lists. Srul (Israel), who in 1834 moved to Skwira with his wife Sara. In the above communication it is therefore considered proven that Israel Friedmann, who comes from the family Sonnenfeld in Sadagura, who was born in Pogrebyszcze, son of the former Ruzyner Rabbi Schulim Friedmann and who convinced the eight Jews mentioned above to depose to his advantage, and demanded again the speedy extradition of this individual, as an imperial Russian subject with reference to Articles 11 and 13 of the Convention of 21 April / 3 May 1815. Although hereafter the jurisdiction of Israel Friedmann to Russia seems beyond doubt, especially according to the noted in supplement 2) , which have meanwhile been collected privately by some domestic subjects, and are quite similar to the above survey results; still one misses the information for what he is actually charged in Russia, and why he should be delivered to the foreign authorities, a circumstance, which is also see above 1) completely ignored with silence, although it was asked for information in the correspondence addressed to the respective imperial Russian Governor and each time explicitly requested.

Now that the k.k. Secret Court and State Chancellery according to the meanwhile received high decrees of the 9th curr. Friedman's extradition is considered inadmissible because the nature of the crime on which the extradition request is based is not stated, it is even more so on the other hand that this request is all the more objectionable as Friedmann is not from Russia, but has come here from Moldova. Further treatment of this individual would belong to the k.k. State Government. By bringing this new state of affairs to the attention of your much highly honored chancellery, one reserves the right, after the decision on the above petition has been taken, to take further measures, and the only purpose is that the articles of the convention referred to in the above communication of 21 April / 3 May 1815, which contain the provisions concerning the nationality of the so–called mixed property owners (sujets mixtes), are in no way applicable in the present case.

Lviv, November 18, 1842.


II. Writing to the Galician Gubernial President

Ad. 15702–842K.k. United Court ChancelleryProt. No. 40070/842/2612 Meeting on December 29, 1842. Date December 24th. 1842. No. 8592. Refer. Hofrath Freih.v. Munch. Note of the secret Court and State Chancellery W. 37165/2429 G with reference to the Israelite Israel Friedmann, who was demanded by the Russian government. Annexed are returned to the Lord k.k. Galician Gub. President the Supplement to the Presidential Report of 18 Nov. curr, Number 6246, 8361, which state that while it is beyond dispute that the Israelite Israel Friedmann is not an Austrian subject, but is subject to Russian relationship as a subject, as yet there is still no sufficient motive for his extradition to Russia, since there is no legal justification for the request for extradition, which is why, in this respect, the application of the provincial government in the above, has brought. To treat Russian officials, and to treat Friedmann as a Jew who has passed from Moldova, can not be determined: however, by the way, it merely leaves it up to the State Council, according to findings, to take the further steps, and thus also to treat him, like any other stranger, if overriding reasons oppose the further toleration of his presence.

On December 29, 842 (Archiv dMdJ Wien, IV T 1, Fasc. 278) .

III. Note of the Secret Court and State Chancellery 15702–842. III. p. 474.

Note. The Secret Court and Chancellery does not tarry on the supplements to the estimable letter of the 10th d. 37165,

[Page 189]

concerning the Jew Israel Friedmann, pointing out that it now seems beyond doubt that Friedmann was not an Austrian subject, that he was under Russian jurisdiction but that, nevertheless, there was no sufficient motive for his surrender to Russia, as a legal justification of the extradition request is not presented; On the other hand, it is a prerogative of our government to expel him in the same way as any other stranger, if overriding reasons preclude his further staying.

Vienna, December 24, 1842.


To the laudable k.k. united court office

The Affair Beriniu Friedmann

I. Report on Berinius Escape Presidential Section of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

No. 306. 1869. Department II.

The Ministry of Provincial Defense and Public Security reports under N. 542. Pr. A report of the Regional Council of the Bukowina dat Czernowitz 28 January 1869 N. 153 Pres, on the Austrian national citizen, Rabbi Berisch Friedmann from Leova in the Moldova, brother of the Sadagora rabbi Jacob Friedmann, for inspection.

According to this report, Berisch Friedmann had the intention of falling away from the Mosaic creed and for this purpose had already taken the preparatory steps with the Greak. Orthodox Metropolit. His plan, however was betrayed and his realization thwarted by the fact that he was forcibly removed from his near, Orthodox Jewry environment, in particular by add of his wife and forcibly brought from Moldova, by creeping over the border and then to Sadagora to Jacob Friedmann , and hindered there in the exercise of his personal freedom by being locked in, and under uninterrupted strict surveillance. The provincial court in Czernowitz instituted a criminal investigation, whereupon Berisch Friedmann, at his request removed from his involuntary residence, was taken to Czernowitz and provisionally housed at the home of the provincial and court advocate Dr. Leo Reitmann was. At the same time the political authority initiated the necessary supervision for his protection. Meanwhile rumor spread in Moldova that Friedmann had been killed and therefore led the Moldovan authorities to massive arrests. Later Moldovan prefect Hanasch from Bottoschani came to Czernowitz to persuade Friedmann to return. He offered Friedmann a telegraphic authorization from the Moldovan Government to grant Friedman, in the event of his return to Moldova, the guarantee of full freedom of his person and of securing his property in Moldova – but with the exclusion of a certain obligation to return there. Friedmann did not accept the pledge and made a declaration that he would return to Moldova only to use the above guarantee, namely the freedom and complete protection of his person and his family wealth, freedom, for his religious views and other action, finally assurance not only of his unimpeded return to Austria, but also due protection for himself and his escort to the imperial frontier, authorized by the Romanian Ministry and granted to him this authorization by the Head of the Bukovina Region and dully notified to him . The latter was requested by two parties to obtain the confirmation of the above guarantee from the Romanian Ministry, and in this sense has called upon the mediation of the General Consulate in Bucharest.


This annex already provided with the acceptation of His Excellency the Lord's Section Chief, is to be returned to the Minister for Land and Public Security shortly.

Vienna, February 7, 1869.



Presidential Section of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Department II.

No. 607. 1869.

Ministry of National Defense and Public Security sends Ad Num. 1913 pr.z.E.14) a report of the Regional Council in Czernowitz dated March 11, 1869 Z.370 prs., Containing further notes about Rabbi Beer Friedmann from Leova in Moldova. Thereafter, as a result of the many reconciliation attempts on the part of his spouse and his other relatives, who were initially identified as guilty of his involuntary removal from Moldova, Beer Friedmann was led to announce his will in the circle To return to his family and take his stay in the small town of Sadagora at his brother in law Manson.

Since neither from the side of the state court, nor the political state authority, charges against the return of Friedmann to Moldova were raised , the same has gone off on the 11th to Sadagura.

Should in consequence be provisionally sent by the priors to the laudable. Depart. III of the Presidential section, then the laudable. Dep. V of the minist. of the exterior (seen 26/3 869 Revertera) for their info and the Communication then back after higher approval to the min. Land and off. Security.

Vienna, on March 21, 869.


II. Reports of the Bukovina Country– President


No. 153. Pres. 1/2 534 / M.J. 1869 Your Excellency!

In the Annex I have the honor to submit to your Excellency a copy of a report which I send to His Excellency the Minister Presidential Deputy and Minister for Public Security, Count Taaffe, in the case of Rabbi Berisch Friedmann from Leova in Moldova , which is often mentioned in public papers. Grant Your Excellency the expression of the unlimited worship with which I have the honor to sign myself.

Your Excellency most devoted servant

Knight v. Myrbach

Czernowitz, January 28, 1869.

To His Excellency the Minister of the Interior etc. etc.

Dr. Carl Giskra


ad 534 / M.J. 69


a report to His. Exc. Sir. Min. Vice President

Count Taaffe dated January 28, 1869. Z. 153 Pres.

About three weeks ago, the rumor spread here

[Page 190]

that the Austrian citizen Rabbi Berisch Friedmann from Leowa in Moldova, brother of the Sadagoer Rabbi Jacob Friedmann , brother of the Sadagoer Rabbi Jacob Friedmann, had the intention of falling away from the Mosaic creed and for this purpose had already taken the preparatory steps with the Greak. Orthodox Metropolit. His plan, however was betrayed and his realization thwarted by the fact that he was forcibly removed from his near, Orthodox Jewry environment, in particular by add of his wife and forcibly brought from Moldova, by creeping over the border and then to Sadagora to Jacob Friedmann , and hindered there in the exercise of his personal freedom by being locked in, and being under uninterrupted strict surveillance.. On the 13th curr. arrived at the local k.k. Land Court an information confirming the above rumor, and the Court has sent a criminal commission, under personal intervention of the board of the criminal court and the k.k. Prosecutor to Sadagora. After the criminal investigation initiated in this manner had ensured that the above information had been verified, Berisch Friedmann was brought to Chernivtsi according to his express wish, having been freed from his involuntary stay, and was provisionally housed at the home of the local provincial and court advocate, Dr. Leo Reitmann. At the same time, from the delegated Criminal Law Commission, I received the request that Friedmann should be given the protection of the political authority, to which I agreed, in view of the fact that from the local fanatical Orthodox Jewry against his person the worst could be expected The criminal investigation took its progress. In the meantime, the rumor caused by the sudden disappearance of Berisch Friedmann, which was prevalent in Moldova and spread here too, was that he had been killed because of his intended abandonment of Judaism. The princely Moldovan authorities had caused mass arrests of suspected guilty Israelites. In the course of the past week, the princely Moldovan Prefect Ilanasch from Bottoschani arrived here and at the same time the authorization that he had been entrusted with the mission by the Moldovan government to possibly initiate mediation, to move Berisch Friedmann back to Moldova. Prefect Hanasch eagerly pursued his purpose, having had several interviews with Friedmann, but only with witnesses whom he had requested, especially in the presence of Dr. Reitmann, but could not achieve his goal to receive a granted confidential discussion with Friedmann without witnesses, nor did the latter make any definite statements about his plans for the future or the choice of his future residence. The aforementioned prefect then approached me to request my mediation on the return of Friedman to Moldova, which was very much desired by the Romanian Government. By addressing the question of Friedmann's jurisdiction, who has hitherto been in possession of a passport of the Galician government, and who claims to be an Austrian Subject, while the prefect claims him to be a Moldovan one as a result of his properties in Moldova, by excluding Friedmann from this discussion and pointing out its necessary solution to be the diplomatic intercourse of the governments of both countries, I was able to conclude that Friedmann should be in complete freedom of his will, and that neither the prefect's influence nor mine should be allowed to influence his decision, nor any pressure by the Moldovan Government, and in order not to further mediate I obtained with Friedmann's voluntary and personally expressed consent to have a meeting with the prefect Hanasch outside Reitmann's apartment, namely in the government building. Accordingly, a conversation took place yesterday between Hanasch and Friedmann, in the presence of mutually chosen representatives, on which occasion Hanasch pointed out to Friedmann that he had received a telegraphic authorization from the princely Moldovan government, according to which he was entitled to give him in the case of his return to Moldova, the guarantee for the protection of the full freedom of his person and the safeguarding of his property in Moldova.

However, Friedmann did not accept this pledge sufficiently and made the statement that he would return to Moldova, with the exclusion of a specific promise to return there, and if the above guarantee, namely the freedom and the complete protection of his person and his property, freedom both for his religious views and other legal action, finally assurance of his not only unimpeded return to Austria, but also protection for himself and his companionship up to the Imperial border, from Rumanian authorities authorized to him accordingly, and to communicate this authorization also to me.

As a result of the above agreement, both parties appealed to me to seek confirmation of the above guarantee from the Romanian Ministry through the Royal Austrian Consulate in Bucharest, in which sense I also approached the Consulate General in Bucharest, and in view of the fact that I am expecting this peculiar communication, I at the same time have the honor to inform Your Excellency , of this case which in despite of its insignificance, has been so widely discussed in the public papers .

Approve etc.


Bureau of the Ministry of the Interior

Prot. No. 752 / M.J. No. 185. Pres. 534 / M.J. 1869, 1213–869.

Date 12th February 1869 / pr. 14 Go to Protocoll dated 14/2. To registry 16/2. To the Pres.

Expedit on 14/2 1869.

Ordered 14/2 1869. 28. Friedmann Rabbi Change of Religion. Regional President in Bukovina on the state of affairs of the Moldovan Rabbi Berisch Friedmann.

The attached report by the President of Bucovina was acknowledged without special comment by His. Exc. and returned to the Chancellor shortly.


(Chancellor Count Heust.)

By the personal intervention of the State senate deputy Ignaz Kuranda your Exc. became acquainted with the matter of the rabbi Berisch Friedmann from Leova in Moldova, which I became aware of by your Exc. discussion with me, and according to the hints of your Exc. I have send the worded telegraph to the regional president R. v. Myrbach. The said report. I take the honor, Your Exc. to please consider and to refer it back to me in accordance with the use made of it, and to make me aware of what further instructions in this matter are to be related to the President of the Land Ritter V. Myrbach by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs that is subordinated to Your Exc..

Vienna, 14th February 1869.

Brinski Holler


No. 185 pr. Pr. 14/2 752 / M.J. 869

Your Excellency!

With reference to the telegraph. Instruction of Your Exc. from yesterday in the matter of Rabbi Berisch Friedmann I hurry, Your Exc. to report with dignity that I did not misjudge the scope of this affair, in which an action on my part had to occur, with the caution that required this very complicated affair. Even though I must adhere to the point of view, that Friedmann, who, as a victim of the fanaticism of the widespread Hasidic sect, and the predicament caused by his own family had been placed under the protection of the political authority after his liberation to full freedom of his will, and that, to avoid any pressure to the reproach, to which the agent of the Romanian government would like to have had occasion i.e. that Friedmann actually is in the custody of the Austrian Government but has no reason to offer for his statement. I have to add, in order not to give the Romanian Government a reason to capitalize this affair, I had to pertain the status quo and proceed without any visible intervention and without exposing the Government to any critique, in order not to obstruct the operation of the criminal investigation on the one hand, and on the other hand to give Friedmann himself time and opportunity to arrange his material affairs from here as well as possible. It was therefore on the occasion of the presence of the agent of the Romanian. Ministry, Prefect Hanash of Botushani, about which I made to Your Exc. on January 28, curr. No. 153 Pr. the communication, and an even more diplomatic task than entrusting to this mission a man smeared with all the ointments of the Orient, and the one in charge for a probably willful oversight in the kidnapping of Friedman in his district, for what he might be chased away by his government, and who tries to make every effort to make up for what happened that I managed to get rid of the agent. Although the Romanian government, has given guarantees through the Austrian Consul General Baron Eder, Friedmann intends, for the time being, not to do so, as long as necessity does not compel him to return to save his fortune left in Moldavia. It is now protected by the Austrian Consular through the country officials organs of seizure of assets in Moldova, without significant difficulties being made from the side of the princely government. If Friedmann manages to save at least a part of his rather well–known fortune in this way and to gain possession of it, he wants to set up his abiding residence in Austria. I will, according to Your Highness telegraph. instructions, not make any kind of disposition in this matter and ask for the high directive in all cases of the consent of Your Exc. In any case, under the pretext of carrying out the investigation into the kidnapping act of Friedmann, there will be by the Moldavian courts, attempts to entice him to return and to change his status, by diplomatic means. This will soon be renewed, since in the Moldavian Republic many very wealthy and respected Jews were arrested, and for their release, of course, against customary commercial ransom, the investigation by involuntary co–operation of Friedmann must be given that turn, as it requires the interest of the courts.

Approve Y.E. the expression of my unlimited reverence and devotion with which I have the honor to sign,

Your Excellency's most devoted servant

R. v. Myrbach

To His Excellency the Lord k.k. Minister of the Interior

Dr. Carl Giskra

in Vienna


No. 3957 / IV p. 22/3 1327 / M.J. 1369, 1213–1869, 2113–869

I have the honor to return to Your Excellency with thanks after acknowledgement, the attached note to The Report of the President of the Province in the Bukovina of the 15th of this month, No. 1213 , about Rabbi Beer Friedmann,.

Vienna, March 20, 1869. For the Minister of the Interior, Biegeleben. Z.R.26 / 3 system. To His of the H.k.k. Min. D. Interior Dr. Giskra Excellency. 28. Friedmann Rabbi. Change of Religion. Return to Sadagora. Ad acta Vienna, March 23, 1869. Brinsky. r. CZP. 24.3. No. 370. pr. 14/3 1213 / MY. 1869th

Your Excellency!

In the aftermath of my report of the 28th of January of the year, No. 153 pres, I have the honor, Y.E.. to bring to attention that Rabbi Beer Friedman, has been persuaded by the manifold reconciliation attempts made by his spouse and other relatives who were accused of his involuntary removal from Moldavia to take his residence in the neighboring town of Sadagora in the house of his brother–in–law Manson. As no objection was raised from the local k. k. State Court in criminal matters against the change of Freedman's residence, and as he until now is still appealing only for the protection of the political authority and made known his change of will , taking note of such, I raised no objection to the choice of his future residence, so he left today Czernowitz and went to Sadagora.

Receive Your Excellency the unlimited awe and devotion with which I have the honor of signing.

Your Excellencies

most devoted servant,

R. v. Myrbach

Czernowitz, the 11th March,1869

To His Excellency the Minister of Interior etc,etc. Dr.Carl Giskra in Vienna

  1. The documents published here are the documents attached to my essay in the first volume “History of the Jews in Bukovina” p. 11–66. Supplement I–XX are in the archives of the former k.k. Austrian Ministry of the Interior, Vienna: Bukowina, Protocols from years, 1776 – 1786. See my essay p.11–25, XI a, XXI, Galician Protocol 1782, 1786; X.XII I, XXIV, archive of Min. of Interior IV T 13; XXV, Vienna State Archives. See p. 26–40. XXVI Archive of Min. of Interior I V T 1 fascia 278, see p. 40–41.
    XXVIa Archive d. Min. D. Interior, Vienna, Fasz. 531 / M.J. 1869, p. 52–56 of my essay.
    The orthography of the documents was retained.
  2. According to “Spleny”, “Summary Account of Jews in the k.k. Bukovina District” in Bukovina in 1776. were 346 Jewish families with 1476 Jews.
  3. On the legal status of trade and serving of drinks in Bukovina in the years 1776–– 1825 see Michael Stöger: presentation of the legal constitution of the Galician Jewry, Lviv, 1833, Vol. I., pp. 190–197, par. 121 and pp. 255–256, par.160.
  4. Administration.
  5. For this see M. Stoger, lc. I, pp. 42–46, §§ 28, 29, 30.
  6. See X2L
  7. contents.
  8. See Stoger M., 1. c. I, pp. 197–198, § 122.
  9. Compare this to Dr. med. Polek Johann: General Spleny's description of Bukovina, Chernivtsi, 1893; Polek Johann: “Statistics of Judaism in Bukovina”, Sept. edition. From “Die Statististische Monatsschriit”, Vienna, 1889, reprinted in Dr. Reifer's: Neue Jüdische Rundschau, Cernauti 1928, No. 96–102, no. 99, p. 3.
  10. Archive of the Ministry of the Interior (Vienna).
  11. Vienna State Archives: 960, 22, February 1830.
  12. The view held by the historian of Hasidism A. Horodetzky in his treatise “The Sadagura Dynasty” (in his book “Religiöse Stromungen” in Judaism ”) p. 211) that the investigations of the Austrian governmental organs, as if R. Israel Friedmann and Israel Sonnenfeld were the same, had been decided in favour of Israel Friedmann, do not correspond to the historical truth, as can be seen from this correspondence.
  13. Archive d. Min. D. Interior (Vienna). Fascia 531 / M.I. 1869th
  14. For inspection.


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