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Chapter Two:

The Bialystok textile industry
in the years 1880–1900

 

א    A

The fast growth of the textile industry in Bialystok

Translated by Dave Horowitz–Larochette

For the years 1857–1860 we find Russian statistic material for Bialystok and the region, that show, that already then there were in the Grodno governorate 46 cloth–factories with 4693 workers. Amongst the factories there were 19 Jewish ones, which were scattered in 30 different locations, with a revenue of 3 million rubles (of course, the real sum was no less than 15 million rubles), but the largest factories were in Bialystok, mainly in its surrounding area: Choroszcz, Suprasle, Dobrozyniewo, Horodok [Grodek], Michalowo (Niezbudka), Knyszyn and also Albertin, Ruzhany, Kosowo, Volkovysk. The worth of the manufactured goods was greatest in the two large German factories in the Bialystok region: of Moes in Choroszcz and Wilhelm Zachert in Suprasle.

In 1867 there were already 89 factories, 44 of them Jewish, with a revenue of 5 million rubles[1] (of course, the real sum was 20 million rubles). The number of Jewish male and female workers is supposed to have been 2500. This number seems exaggerated.

In 1886 there were in the Bialystok region around 150 factories, half of which were Jewish. Out of 6000 workers, 1200 were Jewish. 80% of the Jewish workers were weavers, but very few of them were spinners or finishers, which was especially not a Jewish job.

In 1887 there were 98 factories in Bialystok in Jewish hands, of them 60 were cloth–factories[2].

In 1897, which was exactly when the textile industry rose up [greatly] in Bialystok, according to the Russian factory–inspectors'[3] statistics, there were:

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In Bialystok

Sort undertakings Number of factories Number of workers
Woolen–cloth factories 188 2358
Inferior–cloth factories 11 1611
Wool factories 9 397
Spinning–plants 16 495
Silk factories 5 249
Felt factories 1 165

 

In the surrounding area

Sort undertakings Number of factories Number of workers
Inferior–cloth factories 64 3172
Woolen–cloth factories 2 285
Spinning–plants 7 156
Dyeing–plants 3 109
Cotton factories 3 81
In total 309 9078

 

We emphasize once more: this is an official statistic. We may only rely on the number of undertakings, not entirely on the number of workers. But we cannot rely at all on the statistic concerning the revenue. The general turnover is given as 5,035,025 rubles. This is entirely false. Moes alone made at that time a revenue of 3 million. At that same time there were in Bialystok itself around 75 weaving workshops, in each workshop there were usually actually just 5 to10 [workers], but [there were] also some with as much as 75 workers. Besides, there were also finishing–plants and dyeing–plants.

Before we quote other figures, let us examine the general reason for the great increase in the Bialystok textile production.

In the years 1876–1878, during the Russian–Turkish war, large capital flowed into all business and manufacture centers in Russia, including Bialystok. The Bialystok industry increased greatly. Between 1878 and 1900 many complete Jewish factories were founded in Bialystok and also many weaving workshops, that spun, dyed and finished the different German and Jewish linen products to that purpose. All manual spinning–machines, which numbered 350, were revoked and mechanical spinning–machines took their place, but manual looms were used until 1897.

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Furthermore, we must take into account Russia's general capitalistic development in the last fourth of the previous century [19th]. Serfdom was no more; cities grew quickly. The buying capacity of the wider population steadily increased, at least as far as satisfying the necessity for cheaper goods is concerned. And Jewish manufacturers in Bialystok could not and perhaps wished not to produce the expensive goods that the Germans did. The Jewish manufacturers produced the same kinds [of goods] and patterns but of lower quality and thus for lower prices. And this made them acceptable, because they were suitable for the necessities of the middle and poorer social strata in the whole of Russia, in all Russian markets, as Nizhny Novgorod and the Ukrainian markets: Poltava, Romny and the large sales–places, like: Moscow, [St.] Petersburg, Kharkov, Kiev and also on the entire Volga and “yug” (south).

 

The production of rag wool [yarn]

[He who] helped to cheapen production for the Jewish manufacturers in Bialystok– till the possible limit– was not any German educated expert manufacturer, but a simple local Jew, a certain Jacob Lewy, or, as he was called here, “the American”. He had formerly been either a worker or a master–craftsman at Yudel Silberpfennig's finishing–plant in Suchania. From there he wandered to America; in America he worked at a rag wool factory. He afterwards returned to Bialystok in 1885 and founded here a large rag wool factory.

Rag wool, i.e. wool made from diverse rags, was also earlier a raw product, which was used in the production of cloth and silk in Bialystok and in Polish factories, mainly for the manipulation with wool for lining–wares. But rag wool was a foreign product on which there was a customs duty. The product was also made much more expensive by the middlemen, who became rich from importing it. Now the same product was made by Jacob Lewy in Bialystok itself, from local and foreign rags. It became very cheapened anyway and it began to be used instead of wool also for warp and weft [threads]. In this manner it was possible to cheapen the production of woolen goods through rag wool manipulation, to the cheapest prices.

Immediately following Jacob Lewy other such factories were established in Bialystok and the region. In Lodz also was founded (through

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Birenbaum) a large rag wool factory and goods from it were manufactured there. The basic concepts of rag wool manufacture were spread among the manufacturers: the sorting and tearing of different rags, according to their quality, and their dividing for different uses in the spinning–plant: warp, weft and lining.

Later the production of rag wool in explicit large factories ceased. They gradually closed down, and up to around 100 special tearing–plants were established in Bialystok, with 800 female workers, sorters of the rags. The said tearing–plants also supplied other factories with rag wool. A large number of Bialystok spinning–plants spun “Wigania”–wares (a mix of wool and rag wool) for the factories in Lodz and its region. But gradually the tearing–plants became divided by the spinning–plants. All rag wool factories closed down. (Jacob Levi's rag wool factory in the end passed to the great post–war textile manufacturers Sokol & Silberpfennig). Each manufacturer began to buy and process the rags needed for his own cloth and silk production. After the war years the Bialystok Jewish manufacturers (almost no one else is there here in Bialystok) almost ceased using natural wool [at all] and showed wonders with the production of pure rag wool [goods].


 

ב    B

Bank buildings, business buildings
[selling merchandise], commissioners

Simultaneously with the German manufacture were established, as we have mentioned, Jewish banks buildings, i.e. discount–brokers and lenders, who supplied the German manufacturers with the necessary money transactions. There also rose up almost exclusively Jewish agencies and commissions–houses, on one hand, who supplied the manufacturer with all the necessary raw products, mainly Polish, Russian and foreign wool, worsted yarn, rag wool, dyes, soda, stearin [glyceryl tristearate], all for the dyeing, spinning and finishing plants.

The majority of these business firms became wealthy. The most significant of them was the first: Aaron–Shabse Gordon and later his heir– the famous millions–firm “Markus A.S. Gordon”, Yechiel–Ber Volkovyski, Chaim–Ber Sackheim and his son Leon, Reb Leib Weinreich (he was one of the first merchants dealing in Russian wool), Nachum Zausmer, Moshe Eiger (a son–in–law of Malka–Reisel, a great–grandson of Rabbi Akiva Eiger; he later achieved a great capital. During the Turkish war he left Bialystok for Vienna and died there). Israel Bulkowstein (Shmuel Bulkowstein's son, the father–in–law of the Trilling brothers), Bashe Segal, Chaim Bloch,

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Israel and his sons Abraham and Elyahu Trilling, Moshe–Meir Rosenthal and later his son Shmuel and other smaller agents as well as commissioners, – they were the main pillars, their credits of diverse raw products supported the entire industry, The German as well as the Jewish. On the other hand, exclusively Jewish sales–houses were created and also commission–agents and traveling salesmen– all only Jews.

At the top of the sales–houses stood Yechiel–Ber Volkovyski[4], Chaim–Michal Kaplan and Leizer Katz for the Suprasle and Choroszcz products; Markus A.S. Gordon– for the [St.] Petersburg and Riga products; Gershon Heppner, Aaron–Yehoshua Shapira, Yaakov Bomchel, Michal–David and Mendel Shapira, Leon Wendl, Shabse Grodsky and other smaller ones– for the local Jewish and for the shtetls' products, like Michalowo (Niezbudka), Horodok, Knyszyn.

Through the commissioners was created for the Jewish production a proprietors' commissions–form [system] for bartering wool for finished goods. The sale of Bialystok textile products played a huge role in the Russian and especially Ukrainian markets. The main retailers were, again, Jewish merchants from Bialystok.

In the 60's–80's, the marketers Yechiel–Ber Volkovyski and the brothers Shimon–Leizer, David and Yossel Cohen from Horodok and many others played a large role. Merchants from all over Russia and Poland would come to Bialystok to buy locally what they needed from the Bialystok goods. Through local commission–agents: Mordche–Shlomo Wendl, Bishke Kaplan, Nonie Goldstein, Abba Schebin and many other smaller ones. For the Russian clientele, mainly that of Moscow, [St.] Petersburg, the commissioners Makower, I.B. Epstein, Dlugacz and a few others provided goods.

Besides all these sales–representatives, who used to travel a whole year round with Bialystok goods to the fairs, like: Zelva, Yarmelinets, Kharkov, Poltava, Romny, Nizhny Novgorod, carrying the merchandise on wagons, and later on the branching trains, – there were [also] the Jewish traveling salesmen, who would travel around the whole of Russia to sell Bialystok goods using samples.

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The first to establish in the '80's traveling salesmanship in Bialystok was a Jew from Grodno, a local hotel owner– Makower with his children. Afterwards he was surpassed by his two representatives Weltman– for the Volga and Friedenstein– for the “yug” (southern Russia).

Later, Jewish traveling salesmen would travel over Siberia, the Caucasus, and no remote village in any corner of Russia was left, to which the traveling salesmen from Bialystok did not visit with their collections of Bialystok goods. The Lodz traveling salesmen would also take with them Bialystok collections thus helping to spread Bialystok merchandise as well. Bialystok became the central buying and selling locality of the whole region.

Through all these sales–businesses and means of dissemination, that the Jewish merchants created, the Bialystok industry in general strongly progressed and developed to a great degree. But the manufacture itself gradually changed entirely. Instead of the finest, better German goods that had been the primary [production] in the beginning, now the middle and cheaper sorts from the Jewish manufacture became predominant. The finer, more expensive German merchandise could not hold its own against the Polish competition, on one hand, and the local Jewish competition, on the other. It was therefore gradually liquidated. The German factories, except for Moes' and a numbered few, closed down; their buildings and machines, mainly in Suprasle, passed over to Jewish factory–owners, who did not have their own spinning–plants, to all the Jewish weaving workshops, that did not have their own spinning, dyeing and finishing–plants. Even the German (according to its quality), middle manufacture could not compete with the local Jews. And also the German fine blanket industry passed to Jewish hands.

The production of blankets became gradually a Bialystok specialty and thereby a Jewish specialty manufacture. In this the Jews completely supplanted the former great German manufacturers as the Kamichaus, Flackert etc. The cheap cheviot–blankets were produced by Lazar Bloch, the Abramski brothers, Leib Kronenberg, Leib Dannenberg and a few other smaller manufacturers, except the cheap military blankets, which was a Ruzhany Jewish specialty. Today (1935–1936) cheap blankets are made in Bialystok to quite a small level.

The process of taking over German factories continues constantly. Around 1900 Zachert's factory was rented by the brothers Hirsch–

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horn– spinning, dyeing and finishing–plants. In 1902 the factories of Buchholz and in 1919 of Aunert were bought up by S. Citron. The factory of Alt passed to Moshe Krinski. These are only a few examples of how the Jews pushed out and inherited the German manufacture.

 

ג    C

The relationship between manufacturer and commissioner
in the textile industry in Bialystok

Yet the Jewish manufacture carried in itself a destructive element, which is based in cleverness, so to say, casuistic mercantile operations. We bring here a few examples, which are most characteristic and instructive[5].

The Bialystok Jewish manufacture had only a winter–season. Its sales were based only on the months from June to November, the German manufacturers, instead, had also a summer–season for their production of light garniture–wares, in which the Jewish manufacturers could not follow them. At the time, all work was done only on manual looms, and the entire requirement was filled just in the winter–season by working double layers, which on mechanical looms today would be impossible. But how can a small manufacturer, or even a medium one, obtain the required raw products and money in the 6–month–long dead season?

As an answer to this difficult question were established the so–called commissioners, who credited the manufacturer with all his requirements against a mortgage of finished merchandise for the entire length of the dead season. But they were not simple loaners for a mortgage, but were at the same time the owners of the mortgaged merchandise to sell them in season for cash or credit for high or low prices.

It seems, at first glance, an agreeable thing for the manufacturer, who was freed from all worries and troubles. But at the end of the season when he received his final bill from the commissioner, more than one fainted, on the spot, seeing that he had become a pauper: the interest and the total sum of diverse expenses ate up all of the manufacturer's profit. The following morning, Ikuvei HaKrios [“denying the reading”, was a practice of European Jews in which a person could delay the Torah reading in the synagogue until his complaint was heard by the community and its leadership.] were made in the study–halls, where the commissioners prayed, they were dragged to rabbinical courts for hearings and to arbitrators, and whatever the manufacturer was able to rescue from commissioners– was a win.

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Not for all fabricants was this the event. There were manufacturers who worked up to becoming independent; notwithstanding, the occurrences with bad results were great in number.

This caused the creation of a new form of business between commissioner and manufacturer– the so–called “chilufim–trade”, i.e. “barter–trade”. This is actually the primitive form of business of people in the oldest times, before currency was invented as a medium for selling and buying. The said form of business still exists today in the wild tribes, and this was renewed in the Bialystok Jewish industry business between commissioner and fabricant.

The commissioner was now no longer a lender on a mortgage, but became the product–handler and simultaneously the buyer of the merchandise from the manufacturer. The commissioner would buy his stock of finished goods for a certain price and payed him for it by giving him his entire requirement of raw materials, that was then mainly wool, according to an estimated price, and in addition a sum of money, meaning that for each arshin of merchandise he gave a specific amount of raw material and a specific amount of money.

With the said form of business, the commissioner no longer had always control over the manufacturer. But all depended, who could exploit whom better, who of the two had better capabilities and a sharper mind to calculate beforehand all possible factors. Usually, the commissioner was the more capable. But there were also opposite occurrences and also occurrences when both stood equal. In any case, through such cleverness stability was lost, the steadiness of the price of the goods, which could in such a way be sold under cost price, and the loss not be felt in the act, the outcome being that the general situation and the existence itself of manufacture were undermined.

As an illustration of the said chilufim–trade we will present here an interesting episode:

There existed in Bialystok a certain factory–firm of two young men from Vashlikove, the Soloveichik brothers. They were very active for making large revenues, but once they over–galloped and prepared too much merchandise for the season. A large amount of finished goods remained in their hands. At the same time, they had many payments [to make]– just take [the merchandise] and choke on it! And in town there was a great lack of cash; the commissioners did not want the goods even for free. Their

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agent was a certain Elyahu Herschhorn, [with] a well–known sharp mind. He took a sample of wool and went to Reb Gershon Heppner, the then wealthy and great commissioner and also with a sharp mind, and proposed he should buy a great quantity of wool according to the said sample, that lay in the counting–room for sale. Reb Gershon wondered about his proposal to buy such a great amount of wool at a time when in town there were no buyers for wool. He answers him: “I actually have buyers; these are the Soloveichiks, who will buy the entire amount with finished goods and for a convenient price.” The proposition appealed to Reb Gershon, because the profit was attractive. After dickering the deal was sealed. The Soloveichiks brought their entire stock to Reb Gershon, who paid Elyahu Herschhorn for the wool, which he was to give the Soloveichik brothers.

Later it turned out that the whole wool was fictitious, there was no wool at all in reality, but Elyahu Herschhorn knew, that without the effect of inventing the wool, Reb Gershon Heppner would not have bought the goods, also the Soloveichiks would not have dishonored themselves by selling their merchandise so cheap.

That is how we wheeled and dealt in the Bialystok Jewish textile industry. We climbed six–story attics [Yiddish expression] with mental acrobatics.

The last remaining German manufacturers were also forced to adopt the said barter–trade. We must admit that the said business [method] helped very much in developing and progressing the Bialystok Jewish manufacture, but at the same time undermined its free, healthy development. Thereto helped very much the multiplication of the banks, bank–houses, private discount–brokers, who with a wider and freer hand dispensed credits to right and left, not basing the distribution on the manufacturers' and commissioners' actual credit aptitude. Therefore, when the great general crisis of 1900 came, a large part of the Jewish fabricants in Bialystok fell. Many of the better and finer men could not return to their former status.

 

ד    D

The numbers for the year 1898

We bring here subsequently five tables that show through numbers the situation of the Bialystok textile industry in 1898. We hold that these numbers are [just as] precise and correct as those which we

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have taken directly from the official Russian statistic. They give no insight into the revenue, which is the most important. Therefore, we have here subsequently an insight into the Jewish share of the Bialystok industry at the end of the 19th century[6].

All the following tables encompass Bialystok and the entire vicinity.

Table I

The number of Jewish and non–Jewish factories

Sort undertaking Number factories
(total)
Number factories
(Jewish)
Percent Jewish
Cloth factories 318 260 83.03
Wool factories 11 9 81.82
Dyeing plants 8 6 75.00
Wool processing 13 9 69.23
Spinning plants 14 10 71.43
Rag wool 6 4 66.66
Total 370 298 80.05

 

Table II

The number of workers in Jewish and non–Jewish factories

Sort undertaking Number factories
(total)
Number factories
(in Jewish factories)
Percent in Jewish factories
Cloth factories 7606 4408 58.0
Wool factories 310 278 89.7
Dyeing plants 120 38 31.7
Wool processing 607 412 67.8
Spinning plants 285 223 78.2
Rag wool 295 221 74.9
Total 9223 5580 60.05

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Table III

The average number of workers in Jewish and non–Jewish factories

Sort undertaking Average number of workers
in non–Jewish factories
Average number of workers
in Jewish factories
Cloth factories 55.0 16.9
Wool factories 16.0 30.9
Dyeing plants 41.0 6.3
Wool processing 49.0 45.8
Spinning plants 15.5 22.3
Rag wool 37.0 55.2
Total 50.6 18.7

 

From these tables we see that Jews were the owners of more than 80% of all factories, however, they employed only around 60% of all workers. Their share was less than half of the total production; in a non–Jewish factory there were 50.6 workers and in a Jewish one only 18.7.

The tables IV and V show that among the factories powered by steam 62.3% were Jewish, but among those without steam–power 83.9% were Jewish.

In the Jewish factories with steam–power Jews were just 36.6% of all the workers, in the other factories 82.7% of all the workers. At the mechanical factories only 28% of all Jewish workers were employed, in the other factories– 66.4%.

For us to be able to receive a general image of the industry in Bialystok in those days, let us quote a couple of numbers from the 1897 census. According to that census, in the entire Bialystok industry there were 13111 workers employed, of these, 8916 were Jews (67.41%). But in business Jews took a greater part– of 3628, 3186 were Jews (87.8%).

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Table IV

The number of Jewish and non–Jewish workers in factories with steam–power

Sort undertaking Number of factories Number of workers Number of Jewish workers
Total Jewish Percent of Jewish factories In all factories In Jewish factories Percent in Jewish factories In Jewish factories Relation in % to all workers Relation in % to workers in Jewish factories
Wool spinning–plants 22 16 72.72 1351 1195 88.45 924 68.39 77.32
Wool and cloth weaving–plants 15 5 33.33 3442 170 4.94 203 5.90 119.41[7]
Finishing–plants 6 2 33.33 185 85 46.00 45 24.32 52.94
Cloth 7 7 100.0 465 465 100.0 325 69.89 69.89
Rag wool 3 3 100.0 128 128 100.0 62 48.4 48.4
In all 53 33 62.3 5571 2043 36.6 1559 28.0 76.3

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Table V

The number of Jewish and non–Jewish workers in factories without steam–power

Sort undertaking Number of factories Number of workers Number of Jewish workers
Total Jewish Percent of Jewish factories In all factories In Jewish factories Percent in Jewish factories In Jewish factories Relation in % to all workers Relation in % to workers in Jewish factories
Wool spinning–plants 6 6 100.0 250 250 100.0 85 34.0 34.0
Wool and cloth weaving–plants 62 52 83.87 1491 1231 82.56 1072 72.0 87.08
Finishing–plants 5 3 60.0 140 105 75.0 120 85.71 114.3
Cloth 4 3 75.0 210 125 59.52 89 42.04 71.2
Rag wool 3 3 100.0 69 69 100.0 64 92.8 92.8
Ribbons 1 1 100.0 40 40 100.0 30 75 75.0
In all 81 68 62.3 5571 1820 82.7 1460 66.4 80.2

 

Footnotes

  1. Виленский Вестник [The Vilnius Herald] 1868 № 75. Return
  2. See Jacob Leszczynski's article in Encyclopedia Judaica, vol. IV, p.473. Return
  3. М.Г. Милейковский, Очерк Белосмока, Киев [M.G. Mileikovsky, Essay on Bialystok, Kiev] 1897. Return
  4. As was known in Bialystok, the richest German manufacturer, Moes, once suffered a great financial crisis, that would've ruined him (possibly after his fire), Yechiel–Ber Volkovyski helped him through. Therefore, he received from him the sales commissions for his goods. Return
  5. See my article “The Collision”, Bialystok Almanac, 1931, p.17–20. Return
  6. See Leszczynski, the same book mentioned above, p.473–476. Return
  7. It is over 100% because there were also Jewish workers in non–Jewish factories of the same kind. Return


 

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ה    E

An alphabetical list of manufacturers up to 1900[a]

Translated by Dave Horowitz-Larochette

Statistical data may be reliable or unreliable. But it cannot give a complete picture of the industry, and not only because it does not give the revenue. From the official sources we can learn with certainty the names the then-existing manufacturers, their locations and sort of goods [produced], and whether they had complete, fully mechanical factories or partial dyeing, spinning, [and/or] finishing-plants. But we cannot know from them at all about the technical situation, for example: how many spindles were there in every spinning-plant? How many treadmills in every finishing-plant? The 15-ruble Promislow ticket for 16 employees gave the incomplete fabricant, the weaving-manufacturer, the possibility to reach with it the highest revenues without government taxes. The system split the Jewish manufacture into little factories, each [factory] with a few looms on the premises and the rest [of the looms] with freelance weavers. But amongst them there were also large manufacturers with large turnovers.

We give subsequently an alphabetical list of manufacturers. The list gives a somewhat clear overview of the Bialystok industry in general lines. In the list there are both the names of the fabricants and the description of their factories, which in 1900 did no longer exist, as the German [factories in] Suprasle and also a few earlier Jewish manufacturers. The list is not fully chronological but we consider it of importance to retain the names of the manufacturers and their factories for their historical worth. [So that] the future generations should know what Bialystok and its neighbouring shtetls once did for the existence and development of a world-famous textile industry. This is also important from a genealogical standpoint.

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We present here the list as we have written it immediately after 1900, at a time when many of the manufacturers mentioned were visually known to us, although we did not know exactly the status of their production, only partially.

We term as complete a factory which was fully [inclusive]: with a washing, dyeing, spinning, weaving and finishing-plant. We have generally presented all the information we possessed. A certain deference appears: while in some cases full information is given on some factories, in others the information is but partial. In every case where the location is not mentioned specifically, it means that the factory is in Bialystok itself.

(Several surnames of the factories' owners unfortunately lack the given name and even the initials. - The editor).

Abramowski, Abraham had a blanket factory. It was founded in 1887. It had 10 manual looms and employed 16 workers.

Abrutzowski, Leizer had a blanket factory. It was founded in 1883. It had 15 manual looms and employed 25 workers. [Almost definitely should be also Abramowski. See JRI Poland database- translator's note.]

Aunert, Reinhold had a complete cloth-factory in Suprasle. It was founded in 1838. It had 3 areas. It was (in 1899) rented to Wolf Franck and employed 58 workers, as linen-spinners.

Isenbeck had a factory with 18 mechanical looms.

Alt, Alphonse had a complete cloth-factory in Suprasle. It was founded in 1856. It had 4 areas, 8 mechanical looms and employed 70 workers.

Amdurski, Binyamin had a complete cloth-factory in Pieszczaniki. It was founded in 1850. It had 3 areas and produced 100 sections a week. It had 12 mechanical looms and employed 41 workers.

Amdurski, Feivl had a finishing-plant in Pieszczaniki. It was founded in 1872. It employed 41 workers.

Ostrowski had a finishing-plant. It produced 100 sections a week.

Aronson, S., successor, had a spinning-plant. It was founded in 1898. It employed 42 workers.

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Babulkes, [Babylkies] Shmuel had a spinning-plant. It was founded in 1875. It employed 18 workers.

Barasz [Barash], Y. had a weaving-plant. It had 10 manual looms and employed 16 workers.

Barasz [Barash], Fishel, heir of Yaakov-Shlomo, had a complete factory in Vashlikove. It was rented to Lejszgold and Lunski. It employed 14 workers.

Buchholz, A.L. had a complete factory in Suprasle. It was founded in 1837. It employed 150 workers.

Burdo, Elyahu had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It had 10 manual looms and employed 15 workers.

Bytenski had a weaving-plant. It had 9 manual looms and employed 12 workers.

Bachrach, Cheike had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It was founded in 1895. It had 9 manual looms and employed 14 workers.

Bloch, Lazar and son had a blanket factory. It was founded in 1894. It employed 38 workers.

Bloch S.P. had a weaving and spinning-plant. It was founded in 1878. It had 2 areas and employed 38 workers.

Besler had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It had 10 manual looms and employed 14 workers.

Becker, stock-company, had a complete plush-factory. It was founded in 1895. It employed 127 workers.

Berman had a weaving-plant in Ruzhany. It had 10 manual looms and employed 14 workers.

Baruchin, Hersch had a weaving-plant. It was founded in 1890. It had 10 manual looms and employed 16 workers.

Baruchin, Yaakov had a weaving-plant. It was founded in 1890. It had 12 manual looms and employed 20 workers.

Baruchin, Hillel had a weaving-plant. It was founded in 1890. It had 32 manual looms and employed 47 workers.

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Bril, Yerucham had a weaving-plant in Horodok. It was founded in 1893. It had 10 manual looms and employed 40 workers.

Gotlib [Gottlieb], Baruch had a weaving-plant. It was founded in 1899. It had 12 mechanical looms.

Goldberg, Moshe Elyahu had a spinning-plant in Horodok.

Gordon had a spinning-plant in the Volkovysk area.

Gutman, Moshe had a weaving-plant. It had 6 manual looms and employed 10 workers.

Geisler had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It had 7 manual looms and employed 10 workers.

Glogger, Gustav had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It had 10 manual looms and employed 14 workers.

Glogger, Julius had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It had 6 manual looms and employed 10 workers.

Glogger, Neiman had a spinning-plant in Michalowo. It was founded in 1897.

Glikfeld, Yosef had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It employed 24 workers.

Gelbord [Gehlbord], Kalman had a complete factory. It had 26 manual looms and employed 30 workers.

Grapf, Oskar had a spinning-plant in Michalowo. It had 1 area.

Greimich had a cloth-weaving factory in Ciechanowice. It had 7 manual looms and employed 10 workers.

Greinmann had a cloth-weaving factory in Ciechanowice. It had 7 manual looms and employed 10 workers.

(Grinhaus, Pesach started in 1900 with a few manual looms. Since 1914-15 until the previous world war [he] produced on a large scale and exported to deep Russia and other lands one of the most important articles- Bialystok finery (for the trains). Since 1916 the factory has been managed by his son Elyahu Y. Grinhaus (today in Johannesburg, south Africa).)- The publisher.

Grebber, R. had a spinning-plant in Knyszyn. It was founded in 1872. It employed 13 workers.

Degensch had a spinning-plant in Horodok. It was founded in 1850. It employed 5 workers.

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Denenberg [Dannenberg], Leib had a blanket-weaving factory. It was founded in 1890. It had 12 manual looms and employed 15 workers.

Halpern-Aszkenazy [Ashkenazi] had a spinning-plant.

Halpern and Krikun had a complete factory in Michalowo. It was founded in 1891. It employed 46 workers.

Hassbach, Arthur had a complete factory. It was founded in 1863. It employed 99 workers.

Hassbach, Arthur had a rag-wool factory in Swinobrod. It was founded in 1894. It had 4 areas. It employed 7 workers.

Hacke had a finishing-plant in Krolowy Most. It produced 1200 blankets a week.

Hartmann had a weaving-plant. It had 16 manual looms and employed 25 workers.

Hubinski, David had a blanket factory. It had 19 manual looms and employed 24 workers.

Hurwicz [Hurwitz], Leib had a complete factory in Vashlikove. It was founded in 1881. It had 20 manual looms and employed 40 workers.

Heisler, Julius had a spinning-plant in Knyszyn. It employed 14 workers.

Heilperin [Halperin], Shaina-Chaya (heirs) had a spinning and finishing-plant in Swinobrod. It was founded in 1878. It employed 23 workers.

Hendler, Leizer had a spinning-plant and a mechanical weaving-plant. It was founded in 1894. It had 3 areas, 18 mechanical looms and employed 57 workers.

Hendricks, A.W. had a complete factory. It was founded in 1891. It had 14 mechanical looms and employed 57 workers.

Hendricks and Isenbeck had a mechanical weaving-plant. It had 40 mechanical looms and employed 78 workers.

[Page 59]

Herbst, Gustav had a spinning and finishing-plant. It was founded in 1853. It had 5 areas and employed 93 workers.

Herszberg [Hershberg], Shmuel had a weaving-plant. It had 12 manual looms and employed 16 workers.

Herszhorn [Herschhorn] brothers had a dyeing-plant in Suprasle.

Wolowelski, W. had a fulling-plant in Iwanow. It was founded in 1899. It employed 4 workers.

Waks, Yosef had a complete factory in Zlotoria. It was founded in 1895. It passed to Sackheim.

Wajnberg-Lifszyc [Weinberg-Lifshitz] had a finishing-plant. It employed 64 workers.

Wajnrach [Weinreich], Chaya-Sara (later over to Y. Pines) had a rag-wool factory in Knyszyn. It was founded in 1900. It employed 23 workers.

Wilenski [Vilensky] had a weaving-plant. It had 6 manual looms and employed 10 workers.

Wisocki [Wisotsky], Yeshaia had a weaving and spinning-plant. It was founded in 1878. It had 2 areas and employed 19 workers.

Weber, Yerachmiel had a weaving-plant. It had 5 mechanical looms and employed 8 workers.

Wengrowski had a complete factory in Ciechanowice. It had 4 mechanical looms and employed 8 workers.

Zabludowski, Abraham had a weaving-plant in Bryansk. It was founded in 1880. It employed 11 workers.

Zabludowski, Chaim had a weaving-plant in Horodok. It had 7 manual looms and employed 10 workers.

Zachert, Friedrich had a complete factory in Suprasle. It was founded in 1834. It employed 68 workers.

Zbar, Hirsch had a spinning and weaving-plant. It had 2 areas and employed 47 workers.

Sicher, A.P. had a spinning and finishing-plant in Ciechanowice. It was founded in 1878. It employed 15 workers.

[Page 60]

Zilberblat [Silberblatt], Efroim had a spinning and weaving-plant. It was founded in 1870. It had 3 areas, 10 manual looms and employed 34 workers.

Zilberblat [Silberblatt], Wolf had a weaving-plant. It was founded in 1886. It employed 34 workers.

Zilberblat [Silberblatt], Chune had a weaving-plant. It employed 20 workers.

Zilberblat [Silberblatt], M. had a finishing and dyeing-plant in Woroszyly. It was founded in 1895. It employed 52 workers.

Zilberblat [Silberblatt], Sheime had a weaving-plant. It was founded in 1880. It had 2 areas and employed 24 workers.

Zilberman [Silberman], S.M. (Babeles) had a rag-wool factory. It employed 9 workers.

Zeligzon [Seligson] had a weaving-plant. It had 9 manual looms and employed 12 workers.

Tabaczynski [Tabatchinsky] had a weaving-plant. It had 6 manual looms and employed 9 workers.

Tykocki [Tikotski] had a weaving-plant. It had 11 manual looms and employed 14 workers.

Tykocki [Tikotski] had a weaving-plant. It had 10 manual looms and employed 13 workers.

Tiktin and Hurwicz [Hurwitz] had a complete factory in Babin. It was founded in 1895. It passed to Nemirowski.

Trilling, Israel had a blanket factory. It was founded in 1890. It had 5 areas, 60 manual looms, 25 mechanical looms and employed 92 workers.

Treszczanski [Treshchanski] had a weaving-plant. It had 10 manual looms and employed 13 workers.

Yanowski, Lev had a weaving-plant. It had 6 manual looms and employed 10 workers.

Jansen, A.I. had a dyeing-plant in Suprasle. It was founded in 1894. It employed 44 workers.

Jacobi, Rudolf had a complete factory in Dobrozyniewo. It was founded in 1877. It employed 199 workers.

[Page 61]

Judkowski [Yudkovski], Ch.B. had a weaving-plant in Horodok. It had 7 manual looms and employed 10 workers.

Jerusalimski [Yerusalimski], Gedaliah had a weaving-plant in Bialystok. It had 6 manual looms and employed 10 workers.

Chabocki [Chabotski], Abraham Hersch had a dyeing-plant in Wygoda.

Chabocki[Chabotski], Yitzhak Leib had a dyeing-plant in Bialystok.

Cohen, Abraham (Kahan) [Kan/Kagan] had a weaving-plant in Bialystok. It was founded in 1896. It had 10 manual looms and employed 14 workers.

Kahana, Yeshaia-Moshe had a weaving-plant in Vashlikove. It was founded in 1890. It had 6 manual looms and employed 10 workers.

Katz, Yaakov-Moshe had a weaving-plant in Bialystok. It was founded in 1896. It employed 18 workers.

Lawski, Aharon had a weaving-plant. It had 12 manual looms and employed 15 workers.

Lazanski had a weaving-plant. It had 8 manual looms and employed 12 workers.

Lamprecht had a manual weaving workshop in Ciechanowice. It had 4 manual looms and employed 6 workers.

Lubinski had a weaving-plant in Bialystok. It employed 10 workers.

Lunski, Aharon had a complete weaving-plant in Horodok. It was founded in 1890. It had 2 areas and employed 63 workers.

Lunski, Efroim had a complete weaving-plant in Horodok. It was founded in 1889. It had 1 area and employed 28 workers.

Lunski, Baruch had a complete weaving-plant in Horodok. It was founded in 1875. It employed 58 workers.

Lunski, Mordche had a complete weaving-plant in Horodok. It was founded in 1861. It had 1 area and employed 63 workers.

Luszczak, Edm. Had a rag-wool factory. It was founded in 1897. It employed 4 workers.

Liubal [Liubel] had a weaving-plant. It had 11 manual looms and employed 15 workers.

[Page 62]

Lubecki [Lyubetski] had a spinning-plant. It had 2 areas, 7 manual looms and employed 10 workers.

Litterer, Henrik had founded in 1898 a complete factory. It had 8 areas, 48 mechanical looms and employed 103 workers.

Leitloff, August had a complete spinning and dyeing-plant in Michalowo. It was founded in 1852. It had 2 areas and employed 40 workers.

Leitloff, Hugo had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It had 3 manual looms and employed 5 workers.

Lifszyc [Lifshitz], K. had a blanket weaving-plant. It had 9 manual looms and employed 15 workers.

Lifszyc [Lifshitz] had a manual weaving workshop in Ciechanowice. It had 4 manual looms and employed 6 workers.

Lewy [Levi], Jacob had a rag-wool factory. It was founded in 1885. It employed 66 workers.

Lewin [Levin] had a weaving-plant. It had 5 manual looms and employed 7 workers.

Lewenbuk had a weaving-plant. It had 12 manual looms and employed 16 workers.

Lewkowicz [Levkovitz] had a weaving-plant. It had 10 manual looms and employed 15 workers.

Lejszgold [Leschgold] and Lunski had a rag-wool factory in Vashlikove. It had 2 areas.

Leszczynski, Stanislaw had a complete factory in Topola. It was founded in 1824 and employed 85 workers.

Mowszowski [Movshovski], Leib had a weaving-plant. It was founded in 1880. It employed 38 workers.

Machaj [Machai] had a spinning-plant. It had 3 manual looms and employed 5 workers.

Malinak had a weaving-plant in Ciechanowice. It employed 8 workers.

Moes had a complete factory in Choroszcz. It had 10 areas. It had 170 mechanical looms and employed 1100 workers.

Marejn [Marein], Yaakov had a spinning and weaving-plant.

[Page 63]

Marynski, Pinches had a weaving-plant in Horodok. It had 12 manual looms and employed 15 workers.

Moritz, Theodor had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It had 4 manual looms and employed 6 workers.

Moritz, K. (heirs) had a complete factory in Michalowo. It was founded in 1836. It had 3 areas, 20 mechanical looms and employed 60 workers.

Markus, Jacob had a spinning-plant. It was founded in 1895. It had 5 areas, 5 mechanical looms and employed 55 workers.

Meisler had a weaving-plant in Ciechanowice. It had 3 areas and employed 5 workers.

Minc [Mintz], S.L. and Itzik had a mechanical weaving-plant. It was founded in 1900. It employed 8 workers.

Nowinzon [Novinson] had a weaving-plant. It had 8 manual looms and employed 12 workers.

Nowinski [Novinski] had a weaving-plant. It employed 17 workers.

Nowik [Novick], Tz. (son) had a complete factory. It was founded in 1848. It had 6 areas, 68 mechanical looms and employed 450 workers.

Niemcowicz [Nimtsovich], Abbe (Knyszynski) [Knishinski] had a weaving-plant. It was founded in 1890. It employed 33 workers.

Niemcowicz [Nimtsovich], Abraham had a rag-wool factory in Dzikie. It employed 44 workers.

Niemcowicz [Nimtsovich], Mottel had a weaving and spinning-plant in Horodok. It employed 30 workers.

Niemcowicz [Nimtsovich], Shimon had a spinning and weaving-plant. It had 8 areas, 12 mechanical looms.

Salomon, Moshe had a spinning-plant with 2 areas.

Sapirsztejn [Sapirstein], Eisik had a spinning-plant which employed 10 workers.

Sapirsztejn [Sapirstein], Leibl had a spinning-plant which employed 10 workers.

Sakowicz, Jacob Ivanovich had a finishing-plant in Krolowy Most. It was founded in 1871. It employed 24 workers.

Sakowicz, Jacob Ivanovich had a factory, founded in 1888. It employed 17 workers.

[Page 64]

Sokolski brothers had a dyeing-plant, founded in 1880.

Sarne had a spinning-plant in Bialystok.

Surazski, Meshl had a spinning-plant, founded in 1890. It had 3 areas and employed 7 workers.

Surazski, Aharon had a complete factory. It was founded in 1870. It had 3 areas and employed 96 workers.

Surazski, H. had a weaving-plant which employed 8 workers.

Surazski, Natan had a weaving and spinning-plant with 2 areas and [which] employed 40 workers.

Stanislawski had a spinning-plant with 1 area.

Semjaticki [Semiatitski] had a spinning-plant in Michalowo. It employed 4 workers.

Slobodski had a spinning-plant which employed 4 workers.

Slomianski, M.B. had a spinning-plant which employed 32 workers.

Slonimski, Tuvia had a spinning and weaving-plant. It was founded in 1875. It produced 6 sections a week and employed 73 workers.

Slonimski-Lublinski had a rag-wool cutting-plant, which was founded in 1890. It employed 8 workers.

Segal, B. had a finishing and dyeing-plant in Wygoda. It was founded in 1880. It employed 28 workers.

Segal, T. had a weaving-plant with 4 manual looms. It employed 6 workers.

Segen [Segan], A. had a rag-wool factory in Piotrshob [unknown](Volkovysk). It was founded in 1870. It employed 20 workers.

Segen, Stanislaw had a spinning and finishing-plant in Koncepolia [unknown] (Volkovysk). It was founded in 1897. It employed 24 workers.

Pawlowicki had a finishing-plant in Suchania.

Pototzky had a complete factory in the Slonim area. It employed 28 workers.

Potokski had a weaving-plant with 5 manual looms. It employed 8 workers.

[Page 65]

Poczebutski [Pochebutski] had a weaving-plant which employed 8 workers.

Polak, Berl had a complete factory in Ruzhany. It was founded in 1863. It employed 47 workers.

Polak, Berl had a complete factory. It was founded in 1877. It had 3 areas and employed 55 workers.

Puslovski had a complete factory in the Slonim area.

Poretski-Gawenski had a weaving-plant which was founded in 1888. It had 4 areas and employed 36 workers.

Pines, brothers had a complete factory in Kosowo. It was founded in 1852. It employed 31 workers.

Pines, Leib had a complete factory in Ruzhany. It was founded in 1845. It employed 30 workers.

Pines, Mordche (son of Meir) had a complete factory in Ruzhany. It was founded in 1837. It employed 94 workers.

Pines, Moshe-Noach had a spinning and cutting-plant. It employed 48 workers.

Pines, Fishl had a complete factory in Ruzhany. It was founded in 1863. It employed 65 workers.

Pines, Shmuel-Chaim had a weaving-plant. It was founded in 1889. It employed 17 workers.

Platowski had a weaving-plant with 8 manual looms and employed 11 workers.

Peter, Otto had a spinning-plant in Michalowo. It had 1 area.

Peter, Wil. Hugo had a complete factory in Michalowo. It was founded in 1858. It employed 38 workers.

Peter, Liebchen had a spinning and finishing-plant in Vashlikove. It was founded in 1886. It had 2 areas and employed 24 workers.

Perelzon [Perlson], Mosh-Chaim had a weaving-plant with 9 manual looms and employed 14 workers.

Perelsztejn [Perlstein] had a weaving-plant with 7 manual looms and employed 10 workers.

Preisman, Leizer B. had a complete factory. It

[Page 66]

was founded in 1875. It had 3 areas, 20 manual looms, 10 mechanical looms and employed 123 workers.

Prenski had a weaving-plant in Ciechanowice. It employed 4 workers.

Prenski had a weaving-plant in Ciechanowice. It employed 2 workers.

Fayans, Moshe had a weaving-plant. It was founded in 1888. It employed 36 workers.

Fahrberg, Henr. had a finishing-plant in Ciechanowice. It was founded in 1850.

Fidel, Yerachmiel had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It employed 5 workers.

Philipp (heirs) had a complete factory which was founded in 1863. It had 3 areas and employed 77 workers.

Fitzke, Gustav had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It employed 4 workers.

Fitzke, Rudolf had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It employed 6 workers.

Flackert, Julius had a complete blanket-factory, which was founded in 1879. It had 4 areas, 40 manual looms, 30 mechanical looms and employed 108 workers.

Frankfurt had a weaving-plant with 8 manual looms and employed 11 workers.

Fridman [Friedman], Israel had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It was founded in 1896. It employed 11 workers.

Freidkes had a weaving-plant in Ciechanowice. It employed 2 workers. in Ciechanowice. It had 3 areas.

Freimann, Wil. Had a spinning and dyeing-plant in Michalowo. It was founded in1873. It had 2 areas.

Freimark had a weaving-plant in Ciechanowice. It employed 11 workers.

Frisz [Frisch] (heirs) had a complete factory with 70 workers.

Zwerner had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It employed 4 workers.

Citron, Leib had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It employed 6 workers.

Citron, Moshe had a weaving-plant in Michalowo, which employed 5 workers.

[Page 67]

Citron, Shmuel had a weaving-plant. It was founded in 1897. It employed 43 workers.

Citron, Shneur Zalman had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It employed 23 workers.

Kamichau, Herman had a complete blanket-factory. It was founded in 1842. It had 6 areas, 50 manual looms, 20 mechanical looms and employed 210 workers.

Kamichau, Rudolf (son) had a complete blanket-factory. It was founded in 1880. It had 4 areas, 50 manual looms, 30 mechanical looms and employed 249 workers.

Kaminka had a complete factory in Vashlikove. It had 2 areas.

Kanel, L. had a spinning-plant.

Kaplan, A. had a weaving-plant. It employed 16 workers.

Kaplan, Leib had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It was founded in 1892. It employed 17 workers.

Kaplan, Shimon-Zelig had a weaving-plant which employed 49 workers.

Korocinski had a weaving-plant which employed 10 workers.

Kvart, David had a rag-wool cutting-plant. It was founded in 1900 and employed 7 workers.

Kuznitski, Moshe had a weaving-plant which employed 22 workers.

Kurianski, Zalman had a weaving-plant. It employed 20 workers.

Klyuge [if German, Kluge] had a weaving-plant in Ciechanowice. It employed 3 workers.

Klems, August had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It employed 7 workers.

Klems, Robert had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It employed 7 workers

Knauer, Jul. had a complete factory in Michalowo. It was founded in 1859. It had 2 areas, 19 mechanical looms and employed 72 workers.

[Page 68]

Knyszynski [Knishinski], Hirsh had a spinning and weaving-plant. It was founded in 1899. It had 3 areas and employed 28 workers.

Knyszynski [Knishinski], Yoel had a weaving-plant. It was founded in 1891. It employed 21 workers.

Knyszynski [Knishinski], had a weaving-plant which employed 8 workers.

Krabsch, Oskar had a dyeing and spinning-plant in Michalowo. It had 1 area.

Kramm, Ed. Had a weaving and finishing-plant in Dainowe. It had 2 areas.

Kronenberg, Yudel had a complete factory in Horodok. It was founded in 1872. It had 2 areas and employed 46 workers.

Kronenberg, Yudel had a complete factory in Pieszczaniki.

Kronenberg, Leib had a weaving-plant and blanket factory. It employed 7 workers.

Kronenberg, Sender had a weaving and spinning-plant.

Krause had a complete factory in Suprasle. It had 2 areas and employed 12 workers.

Krynski, Moshe had a finishing-plant in Suprasle.

Rabinowicz [Rabinowitz], Yankel had a weaving-plant. It employed 6 workers.

Rabinowicz [Rabinowitz], Lazar had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It employed 5 workers.

Rabe, Moshe had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It employed 4 workers.

Rozenblum [Rosenblum], Mendel had a complete factory in Ciechanowice. It was founded in 1876.

Rozental [Rosenthal], Leib had a spinning and cutting-plant. It was founded in 1856. It had 2 areas and employed 97 workers.

Rozental [Rosenthal], M. Meir had a weaving-plant which employed 20 workers.

Rozensztejn [Rosenstein], Rachel had a weaving-plant which employed 29 workers.

Rapoport, Asher had a spinning-plant.

[Page 69]

Rubin, Wolf had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It employed 7 workers.

Rubinsztejn [Rubinstein], Yehuda-Zelig had a fulling-plant in Antopol. It employed 3 workers.

Rudkowski, Ovsei had a spinning-plant in Horodok. It was founded in 1894. It employed 14 workers.

Richter, F.E. had a complete factory. It was founded in 1871. It employed 150 workers.

Richter had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It employed 6 workers.

Ripert [Ribert] had a fulling-plant.

Redloff, G.M. had a spinning and fulling-plant in Michalowo. It was founded in 1838. It employed 26 workers.

Redlitz had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It employed 8 workers.

Repelski, Leib had a lining spinning-plant in Horodok.

Repelski, Leizer had a lining spinning-plant in Horodok.

Schagert had a weaving-plant which employed 7 workers.

Schulz had a weaving-plant in Ciechanowice. It employed 6 workers.

Schulz, W. had a weaving-plant in Ciechanowice. It employed 7 workers.

Schulz-Freimark had a spinning and fulling-plant in Ciechanowice. It was founded in 1895. It employed 39 workers.

Starkstein had a weaving-plant in Ciechanowice. It employed 7 workers.

Sztejnberg [Steinberg] had a weaving-plant which employed 8 workers.

Steinmiller had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It employed 2 workers.

Straubach, Hugo had a dyeing-plant which was founded in 1866. It employed 24 workers.

Szyrajew, Vlad. had a complete factory in Papirno-Ruzhany. It employed 39 workers.

Szmukler [Schmuckler], Baruch-David had a weaving-plant which employed 14 workers.

[Page 70]

Szmid [Schmid], Aharon-Leib had a weaving-plant which employed 15 workers.

Schmidt, Theodor employed 6 workers.

Scharschmidt, Heinrich had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. It employed 4 workers.

Szapira [Shapira], Abraham had a complete factory in Vashlikove which employed 39 workers.

Szapira [Shapira] had a weaving-plant which employed 11 workers.

Szapira [Shapira] and Cohen had a complete spinning and dyeing-plant in Babin. It had 2 areas, 10 mechanical looms.

Sprengler, W.P. had a weaving-plant which employed 12 workers.

 

Footnotes

  1. (The lists are incomplete and there are mistakes and inaccuracies in names and dates.
    We present the lists according to the author's manuscript with a few corrections, which had been unavoidable. A number of cases were pointed out by Oswald Trilling (Pasadena, California) and Shmuel Leib Rabinowicz (London, England), who are both well versed in the textile trade. Both point out that many manufacturers that the author mentions as having complete factories had incomplete factories and vice-versa. There are also instances concerning the classification of manufacturers and freelance weavers. S.L Rabinowicz makes us also aware of various names that should be mentioned together [as partners] and some that are together and should be separated. This is explained [by the fact that] during the years the factories changed hands from one to another). -The publisher. Return


 

ו    F

An alphabetical list of the cottage industry
of home weavers up to 1900

Translated by Dave Horowitz-Larochette

In 1876 the first freelance weaving [operation] was instituted in Bialystok. It was organized by the weaver Avreml the Black, who having been unemployed for a long time, got the idea to buy his own manual loom and to take on work from his friend, the manufacturer Surazski. Later, the other unemployed followed him. The freelance weavers were independent weaver-entrepreneurs, weaving-contractors, whose task it was to present woven sections with uncut warps with the required amount of weft and lining-yarn, which were provided by the manufacturer.

The freelance weaver was a founder of new, free weaving-plants outside the factory. Freelance weaving was, simultaneously, an education-institution for new young weavers with a cheap price. In olden times the weavers in factories would have apprentices, who are also mentioned in the Talmud[8], but in the Bialystok factories there were no apprentices. In my days it was difficult to be accepted into a factory as an apprentice, so as not to diminish the number of [professional] weavers. But the freelance weavers took in apprentices for free, who wove for them at a lower price than in the factories.

Through this, two categories of weavers were instituted: an older category- expensive factory-weavers, and a lower [one]- younger, cheaper freelance weavers. To the factory-weaver, freelance weaving was hated, as a source of competition, but to the manufacturer it was

[Page 71]

a blessing. It was extremely useful to him. Through it, he was no longer dependant on his factory weaving-plants and bound to them. He could increase his production during the selling-season, when he needed goods, and diminish it after the season, when he no longer needed merchandise.

Later, a sort of manufacturers-speculators emerged, who had no weaving-plants of their own, and who would produce merchandise through the freelance-weavers, only at the time it was needed. They would only buy for themselves raw products to give out for dyeing, spinning, weaving and finishing. The freelancers would also weave merchandise for themselves in their free time and thus become small manufacturers.

Abramowicz [Abramowitz] had 3 manual looms and employed 5 workers.

Bublik, Aharon had 7 manual looms and employed 10 workers.

Blecher had 9 manual looms and employed 12 workers.

Beloch had 10 manual looms and employed 15 workers.

Goldman, Itche-Leizer had a weaving-plant in Horodok, with 4 manual looms. It employed 8 workers.

Gdanski, Fishl-Yosef had 8 manual looms and employed 10 workers.

Gutman had 4 manual looms and employed 7 workers.

Gebel, Moshe-Yitzhak had 6 manual looms and employed 10 workers.

Genschior, W.G. had a weaving-plant, founded in 1895. It had 7 manual looms and employed 10 workers.

Grawe had a weaving-plant with 4 manual looms and which employed 8 workers.

Grawe had a weaving-plant with 6 manual looms and which employed 10 workers (This is a second Grawe. Regretfully, neither [given] names are given- Editor].

Grokop had 5 manual looms and employed 9 workers.

Dawidowicz [Davidovich] had 9 manual looms and employed 12 workers.

Dudak had 6 manual looms and employed 10 workers.

Dajcz [Deitsch] had 7 manual looms and employed 10 workers.

[Page 72]

Hofman had 3 manual looms and employed 5 workers.

Henwend, with 6 manual looms, employed 10 workers.

Herszberg [Hershberg], Yosef with 8 manual looms, employed 15 workers.

Wajnsztejn [Weinstein] had 6 manual looms and employed 8 workers.

Wisocki [Wisotsky], Shmerl with 7 manual looms, employed 9 workers.

Wieczorek, Vit. had a complete factory, freelance. It employed 64 workers.

Werner, Julius had a weaving-plant with 24 mechanical looms and employed 35 workers.

Sackheim, with 9 manual looms, employed 12 workers.

Zabelinski, with 4 manual looms, employed 6 workers.

Jucht [Yucht], Chaim with 10 manual looms, employed 14 workers.

Cohen L. (Kahan), with 4 manual looms, employed 6 workers.

Lamprens, with 5 manual looms, employed 8 workers.

Litwinczuk [Litwinchuk], with 3 manual looms, employed 6 workers.

Lenes, with 6 manual looms, employed 10 workers.

Milowicz, Reynold, with manual looms, had 8 workers.

Menkes was a freelance weaver.

Nejman [Neiman](lady) (Neimaniche, as we called her) had a weaving-plant in Michalowo. With 4 manual looms. It employed 6 workers.

Parafinow, with 5 manual looms, employed 7 workers.

Prenski, with 4 manual looms, employed 6 workers.

Kobrynski had 6 workers.

Kowenski employed 9 workers.

Kaczorek [Kachorek] employed 6 workers.

Kolner, Moshe employed 6 workers.

Kantor employed 5 workers.

Kancepolski [Kantzepolski], D. employed 7 workers.

Karpowicz [Karpowitz], Ch. B. employed 7 workers.

Rozenfeld [Rosenfeld], with 8 manual looms, employed 10 workers.

Rudnicki [Rudnitski], with 5 manual looms, employed 7 workers.

Szwarc [Schwartz] employed 6 workers.

Schidler, W. employed 10 workers.

[Page 73]

Szlachter [Schlachter] employed 10 workers.

Szapira [Shapira], A. employed 10 workers.

(From editor: the list of freelancers, is, seemingly, by no means complete).


 

ז    G

The silk-textile industry in Bialystok

Translated by Dave Horowitz-Larochette

Finally, we enumerate the manufacturers who brought into Bialystok and its vicinity the silk textile industry.

Aronzon [Aronson], Yaakov-Chaim had a factory of silken ribbons in Bialystok. It was founded in 1888. It employed 37 workers.

Becker & Com. (Ek. Gez.) had a plush-factory in Bialystok. It was founded in 1895. It employed 286 workers.

Zachert, Frid. had a silk-twisting plant in Suprasle, founded in 1895, employed 36 workers.

Puslovski, Franz had a silk-twisting plant in Albertin, founded in 1894, employed 108 workers.

Count Tyszkiewicz had a silk-twisting plant in Faliot (?) and employed 97 workers.

 

Footnotes

  1. Виленский Вестник [The Vilnius Herald] 1868 № 75. Return
  2. See Jacob Leszczynski's article in Encyclopedia Judaica, vol. IV, p.473. Return
  3. М.Г. Милейковский, Очерк Белосмока, Киев [M.G. Mileikovsky, Essay on Bialystok, Kiev] 1897. Return
  4. As was known in Bialystok, the richest German manufacturer, Moes, once suffered a great financial crisis, that would've ruined him (possibly after his fire), Yechiel–Ber Volkovyski helped him through. Therefore, he received from him the sales commissions for his goods. Return
  5. See my article “The Collision”, Bialystok Almanac, 1931, p.17–20. Return
  6. See Leszczynski, the same book mentioned above, p.473–476. Return
  7. It is over 100% because there were also Jewish workers in non–Jewish factories of the same kind. Return
  8. “Tapestry weavers throw the shuttle to those who (seek to) borrow (it from them)”, Shabbat, 96b. Return

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