- 1804 Russian set of laws concerning Jews, by Vitaly Charny. I would like people to change their impression that in Russia everything was the same all of the time. The truth is that Russian laws were less constant than in the United States.
- Background of the Levanda Index
- Levanda Index.
Understanding the environment in which your ancestors lived is a necessity in more advanced genealogical research. That is why history is an important ancillary to genealogy. Readers of AVOTAYNU, or those interested in Eastern European Jewish history, know that Jews living in czarist Russia were subject to a series of edicts (ukase). Michael Steinore of California has placed on the Internet an English translation of some czarist decrees, condensed summaries of others, and a subject index to all Czarist decrees concerning Jews up to 1873.