|Jakob Schulman, Honorary President||Jakob Deutschberg, Control Directorate|
|Edi Altmann, Leading President||Louis Katz, Control Directorate|
|Jakob Brender, Vice President||Simon Reisch, Control Directorate|
|Georg. Levit, General Secretary||Jakob. Schulman, Control Directorate|
|Isak. Löebl, Technical Secretary and Treasurer||Max Grönlich, Master-at-Arms|
|Filip Hochstädt, Treasurer||Louis Goldstein, Master-at-Arms|
|Samuel Eisinger, Control Directorate||Louis Eisinger, Social Welfare|
|Jakob. Danker, Control Directorate||Irving Jeffer, Social Welfare|
|Max Steiner, Social Welfare|
|Ben-Saar, Honorary Member||Sigmund, Engler, Control Commission|
|Eliezer Golz-Pinkas, Honorary Member||Ewa Isser, Control Commission|
|Leiser Grünberg, Honorary Member||Salo Rudish, Control Commission|
|Dr. Fritz Granierer, President||EmmaAusländer, Ausschuss|
|Dr. Rosa Bardach, First Vice President||Dr. Leon Bruckenthal, Ausschuss|
|Josef Polesiuk, Second Vice President||Gerschon Glatter, Ausschuss|
|Natan Isser, General Secretary||Wilhelm Horowitz, Ausschuss|
|Isidor Gottlieb, Technical Secretary||Israel Korber, Ausschuss|
|Oskar Stein, Chief Treasurer||Mina Katz, Ausschuss|
|Aron Altman, President of the Gemilat Chesed-Kassa||Ella Lax, Ausschuss|
|Isak Landau, Kassier of the Gemilat-Chesed-Kassa||Mina Reiner, Ausschuss|
|Dr. Rosa Bardach, President of the Social Welfare||Klara Schuller, Ausschuss|
|Fritzi Schnitzer, First Vice President||Lottie Scharff, Ausschuss|
|Anna Landau, Second Vice President||Hermann Süsser, Ausschuss|
|Isak Landau, Control Commission||Stefanie Stein, Ausschuss|
|Honora Teitler, Ausschuss||Oskar Tauber, Ausschuss|
|Leon Zwick, Ausschuss|
Then why this book which lays no claim to literary value? The purpose of this book is merely to cheer up for a while my friends from Bukovina give them a little mirror to reflect their happily spent youth to comfortably remind them of stories and funny tales, where their ancestors and they, themselves in joy and sorrow took a part.
The main theme, the little Jewish Vatican in Sadagora, is not a fantasy, but pure facts from that time, which were earnestly noted in my dairy, honestly and simply, without literary window dressing.
To understand the unique potpourri of words used in Sadagora, a table of nicknames and a table of ancestors are included, so that readers with no connection to Sadagora can effortlessly understand the book.
When I was, in celebration of my birthday, made an honorary member of the Sadagora Association I could find no more suitable way to express my thanks for this honor than this book.
|Beth-Shaan (Israel)||Ben Saar|
|February 4, 1954||Rubinstein|
About the little Jewish city there on the Pruth. They wanted to part the fog.
The songs echo so wonderfully from the palace of the famous rabbis.
The strong orthodox dynasty of the servants dedicated to God.
The songs tell the wonderful tale that there was no Christian there.
Only Jews and Jews and Jewish culture, which feels on reading, somehow not right
And in that, one recognizes the horse's foot and makes the song a shame.
Proves that the cradle of the singer was never in Sadagora.
Otherwise he would be able to name the ancient names.
Which only Sadagora and otherwise no other city was in a position to recognize.
Not only the men of weapons, not the aristocrats.
But the guilds from Harom-Am to the smallest pirates.
Now listen, brother to the new song I strum the strings.
Yisgadal v yiskadash there was once a Jewish Vatican.
|Ara Küge||Yankel der Soifer|
|Berl der Gabbe||Jankel der Polizei|
|Berale Hikewacz||Jankel Spodik|
|Der Ameriker||Jankel Fonje|
|Der Bosniak||Jossale von der Tee|
|Der Krummer Gär||Sure di Galoschenmachern|
|Die Kruppnikes||Ire Laib der Melamed|
|Das roite Kässerl||Mayer Sibbale|
|Fawale Knobbel||Moische Goj|
|Fuge Reich||Nute Stopper|
|Froikale Kalibok||Peroni di Pisskate|
|Frosi von di Kärn||Peretz Giess|
|Chaim Czulint||Schmiel der Blinder|
|Hnatke Gannef||Berl der Bodner|
|Hersch Ssiggenur||Schulem Korsch|
|Hersch Bomm||Schulem der Chasen|
|Hersch Bass||Surech der Kümmer|
|Hersch der Schwarzer||Srul der Toiber|
|Hersch Gorgl||Schimen Schiker|
|Chaim Krocz||Schloime Kardup|
|Gietel di Nähturn||Simche Knisch|
|Rosie di Fikkern||Urisch Pippek|
|Wolf Koilicz||Tamerussi der Knaaper|
|Ables||Baron v. Mustata|
|Ausländer||Urbansky de Neczuja|
|Picture of Author|
For this reason General Gartenberg built his own mint and had his own money minted and pressed local mercenaries into his army. In this way, he extended his position of power to the Pruth River where he pressed the Turks hard and later drove them out (1768-74 see Brockhaus). The mercenaries as well as the local farmers and the Jewish merchants who had come with him had difficulty pronouncing the name of the general and so the name was translated into Russian. Sad (garden), Gora (mountain) and this name stuck for the general as well as the town. And Sada Gora became with time a pulsating center of life.
The mountain on the other side of the Pruth was covered with majestic beech forests which for a long time provided certain protection for the Turks as well as the resident Black Utzen (Huzulen), But because of the pressure of the Moldauer and the Wallachen on their flanks and the attacking Russians from the Pruth side the Turks had to give up Buchenland (Beech Land = Bukovina) and retreat. Because of the frequent high water and flooding in the Pruth valley, it was necessary to build a fortified city on the flanks of the mountain. An since the Czorne Utzen had withdrawn with the Turks, the bjala Utzen (White Huzeln) from the Pruth Valley resettled on the mountain and named the primitive place Cerna-Utzi. They made a living by raising cattle and timbering and were glad to be rid of the Czarna Utzen along with the Turks.
After the war, the Sultan gave the Crown Land of Bukovina to Empress Maria Theresia of Austria. Then Cernauti was renamed Czernowitz and thus challenged surpassed Sada-Gora and in a short time became the capital of Bukovina.
While Czernowitz became a political center Sadagora remained a small market place and ran the danger of loosing its soul as a city. Then destiny intervened for the threatened city when the Dynasty of the Ruzyner Zaddik Friedmann moved there and rescued it from certain decay. And when Kaiser Franz Josef I acceded to the throne a new happy time started for the monarchy as well as for Bukovina, Sadagora and the Jews.
Through the constitution of March 4, 1849, the Jews were granted full equality with the confessors of the Christian religion. And the federal law of December 21, 1867 granted full political rights both on a state and a local level for the Jews. In the light of these circumstances improvements were made to the Rabbi's palace in Sadagora, several magnificent structures being added. The palace built in half-timbered style with richly flower filled gardens and the elegant carriages gave the court the stamp of a little Vatican. Across from the palace was built the splendid klaus [prayer house] with its refined richly furnished interior which left nothing to wish for.
In this Klaus prayed the Chassidic aristocracy whose clothing and demeanor demonstrated their elevated position in complete contrast to the city Jews who to be sure followed all the religious obligations, but who in costume and behavior were German oriented and therefore seldom dared to attempt to pray in the Klaus.
As small as this place was, wherever Jews lived (Russia, Galicia, Bukovina) it was considered the center of Zaddikismus (see note 5).
While the city Jews mixed their Yiddish with fragments of German which was absolutely necessary for trade, commerce, city and court business, in the Vatican, the Yiddish was spiced with greater amounts of Hebrew and thereby seriously embarrassed the city Jews, who for the most part were not Talmud scholars. And so in this community lived two worlds alongside each other. This circumstance however, didn't detract from the universal respect that the rabbinical dynasty Friedmann enjoyed.
Also the few Christians respected the rabbinical court. And not seldom, Christians who found themselves in a painful situation came to the Zaddik to ask for his wise advice and to follow it.
At celebrations, the Schalasch (a special space for Chassidic festivals) was in demand. A unique structure with a sliding roof mounted on wheels which provided a radical means of providing ventilation in the hall and then could be wheeled back to its normal position. The inner room which seated about 1000 people was built like an amphitheater with the seating rising to the back of the space and the table at which the Tzaddikim and their Chassidim ate filled the entire length of the hall. One could write a book about the seating order, ritual ceremonies, order of precedence, scherajim (leftovers from Rabbi's meal) and the games the Chassidim played.
This little Vatican had a considerable staff of Gabuem, Schamusim, servants and several yearly paid Shabbas Gojim and the discipline was strict and bombastic.
Just dropping in on the Rebe [Chassidic rabbi] was unheard of. Rich Chassidim, among them millionaires, who came from far away to speak with the revered Rabbi had to wait sometimes for days, until their turn came.
On Shabbat and the Jewish holidays, all work stopped in Sadagora. To go walking with a walking stick or smoking a cigarette was unthinkable. The bathing of boys and girls together in the stream was a punishable offence and to insult an elderly person was a serious sin.
Even the phonograph, the newest achievement, a playing apparatus with moving parts and tubing through which one could really hear music cannot be used on Shabbat and also not the Gramophone, a more recently invented device (with loudspeakers) and even the newest device of that era, the Patephon without Trumpet could not be played on the Shabbat.
Hospitality, helping each other out, support of the poor, widows and orphans was taken for granted, which also the Christians residents respected completely and fully.
On weekdays, an unearthly stillness reigned over the Vatican, which brought mysterious thoughts to strangers and tourists and which wove an aura of legend around the Vatican.
In contrast, in the city it was busy as a bee hive and the Eulenspiegel  tales from Sadagora were widely known.
Although Sadagora counted only 4000 Jewish house numbers, It made itself known in the world like an important big city and jokes about this place and its Jewish satire were sung in the entire world.
The young people who went to Czernowitz to either study at the University or to find work in retail, as hand workers or the military often came home for short vacations and secretly made fun of the strict pious customs and uses of the old ones, which only to often led to unpleasant altercations. The worst tomfoolery was perpetrated by the college and high school students who invented nicknames and pet names for every street and numberless citizen, some of which are still in use today (see Nicknames, page 5).
In contrast to the Vatican and the city, the so-called Barrenifke (a part of Rohonza) should be mentioned. This word, as pronounced by the locals is a less that beautiful expression. The first part of the word, barre means something like: bilking, swindle, lie, lead astray.
In reality, it was called Baronnufka and it was a part of the barony of the dynasty of the Mustata family, an old Romanian bojar [owners of large tracts of land] family. Many poor Jews lived there. The Baronnufka was the longest and most densely populated of all streets and it had side streets where the Ssiggenuren (supposedly blind gypsies/beggars) and the poor lived. That also, a number of well-to-do and the larger part of the owner/drivers of the livery carriages built their beautiful houses there did nothing to alter the fact that this was not the part of the city where the elite lived. About the city center, institutions, the hegdisch and the bud [nursing home and public bath] more will be reported in other places. These lines should suffice to illustrate the contrast between the Vatican and its surroundings.
The most feared melamedim were Nute Stopper, Schimen Schiker, Tamerussi Knaaper and Berale Letz. In contrast Ire Laib and Reb Dewdl were good natured patient Gemara  melamedim who with gentle methods inspired their students to learn.
These students with their knowledge and ability could even put themselves up against the students of the Klaus (orthodox synagogue) which often occurred. for these noble melamedim, the tuition was very high and the children of poor parents couldn't have this advantage.
Then Reb Velvel came into the kheyder, looked at the children like a mother, patted one after the other on the head and asked in a friendly way, who was the best student. Conscientiously, the children named the best and Reb Velvel began the third degree.
Whether the student was the best or not, Reb Velvel patted him on the shoulder, told him to become a gutter Jüd (a good Jew) and asked casually do you have a new kapotkale (coat) for Shabbat? The poor youth honestly answered in the negative. Reb Velvel built his genius on this point. Listen young man, I don't like the idea of a good student running around in a torn rekl (Yiddish for coat). Here is a note for Berl Schneider, let him measure you and make a Kapotkale, so the other children will know that you are a good student.
Then the other children were questioned. They all tried very hard to shine and the cleaver one said that they had failings, but he saw great improvement and he hoped that at the next examination still more children would receive a new kapotkale. This procedure very often increased the children's zeal for learning.
The chief teacher Maderer, the teachers Fuhrman, Rosenfeld and the religion teacher Sperber and even the school servant, Arn Kügel were all Jews.
All the students (only Jews) received, at no cost, instruction, attractive uniforms with matching capes and a gleaming military type hat (in winter matching boots), shirts, carrying bag, text books and notebooks. The students who were completely without means could even get meals from the school servant. One could clearly see by every indication that it was a Baron Hirsch School.
This school made the Baronnufka lively and it was also beneficial for the little town. The instruction in the German language attracted the youth and the children of rich parents left the German school and came to it. It was more than a school it was a national home.
The deeply pious, however, who wouldn't touch a unholy [secular] book, were satisfied with the instruction at the kheydar or the klaus. In spite of that, eventually all the schools combined produced 100 doctors.
Opposite the Baron Hirsch School, a few houses further Joil Schmatnik had a dance hall. Here the amateur actors had their theater, the dance school was here, the weddings took place here as well as gatherings.
On Herrengasse could be found the bar (Schnapps Central), the coffeehouse Keffler, City Hall, the Catholic church, the public garden and up above on the meadow, the playground and the cemetery.
The Justice Building, the German School and the apothecary's shop were somewhat removed, just like Raiman's Pond, the children's beach.
The marketplace, to be sure was very important, but was nothing special to look at. Schweingasse [Pig Street, the main street] and the bridge where the coachmen had their taxi stand were really the center of the city.
All the latest news was reported by the pauker who beat his drum in a monotonous rhythm. Thursday evenings the bell ringer from the schwitz (steam bath) ran through the streets ringing his bell and screaming at the top of his lungs, waaber, in Bud arain (women into the bath).
All the guilds, tailors, shoemakers, merchants and musicians were strictly organized. Only the bud (bath) and the hegdisch (nursing home) left something to be desired. More about this in the following humoresques.
Finally the bridge. This was the pulsing heart of the city. Like a watchman stood the famous, hardly 20 meter long bridge over the city's stream. Everything, living or dead that traveled to or from Czernowitz must pass over this bridge. On both sides there were inns where horses stopped, luggage was unloaded and one could get something to eat and a place to sleep. On one side was Itzig Laib Granierer. On the other side was Motie Brukenthal. The children of both of these rich inn keepers got the best education and were to become doctors.
At this bridge was the taxi stand for the fiacre and the wägalech. They had a well organized, vigorous guild which played an important roll in the little city. The story Kässerl in Sadagora, VII tells more about these coachmen and teamsters.
Until the outbreak of war in 1914, Sadagora existed so to speak in the shadow of Czernowitz. This unholy war caused the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire, destroyed our Vatican and scattered the Tzaddikim dynasty. The ruins of the palace remind us that once happiness and wellbeing reigned here.
There where once the houses of the Gabuem stood, now graze goats on the luxuriant grass and bleat:
yisgadal v yiskadash
Schimale Haker spoke up and made a great effort to control himself, but he bellowed like bull and pounded so hard on the table that the documents and the inkwell danced the czardasch.
The Herr Mayor became serious. Listen Schimak! I know that you are a tough guy, but if you pound on the table once more, I'll throw you out. Here one must be calm and speak in a respectful manner.
Excuse me please Herr Mayor, in my excitement I didn't realize that I was pounding on the table. That was not my intention.
Good, good interrupted the Herr Mayor, Jetzt efen a Pisk und sag' wo es
kweczt dich [Yiddish dialect Open a horse's mouth and say where it
pinches you]. And Schimale thundered his report as follows: We just broke
up a political rally in Czernowitz and chased away the Doktorlech.
The assertion that Doctor Straucher was a repetemt
is an insult for all of us. And if blood has to flow, we won't let the doktorlech into any rallies until it is proven if this claim is based on truth.
Whaat? Our Dr. Straucher a repetent? yelled the enraged Herr Dr. Mayor. Who said this and who heard it? All of us, rang out in the meeting room. And Dr. R. had said it coram populi [in the presence of the people].
Quiet gentlemen, said the Herr Mayor, suddenly becoming serious. Herr Dr. R. is to be sure, still a young man, but an honorable man and he would not say anything which he couldn't prove. The affair therefore not simple. We must ask the Herr Director of the German School to give us a copy of the catalog and then we will know the facts.
Where is Jankel the policeman? Here I am Herr Dr. Mayor Good, run over to the Director with this letter and wait for an answer. Jawohl [yes] Herr Mayor. And Jankel disappeared.
Then Awrumale Boibik spoke and informed the mayor in a business-like way about the meeting and the agitation against the followers of Straucher. And since the mayor was also a Straucher adherent, he quickly understood that there had been a misunderstanding.
Then Jankel the policeman came back with the answer. And the mayor who was also interested, read the letter stressing every word.
Benno Straucher born in Sadagora in 1854 (on the Baronufka) was a student of the German School in Sadagora and in accordance with the constitution of 1867 received a full scholarship and was a outstanding student.
Hurrah, hurrah echoed out into the street. but the Herr Mayor was still concerned.
Gentlemen, he said in a serious tone of voice. This situation is not so simple. For the time being, don't talk with anyone about it, go to Koeffler's wine hall and wait for me because the council room here is not the place for such discussions.
Quietly and obediently they all went to Koeffler's and waited for the mayor. (it was a good day for Koeffler).
An hour later a fiacre sped out of Czernowitz in the direction of Sadagora fully loaded with the Dokterlech and the Jewish political heavy weights among them, Dr. R.
The mayor led them also to Koffler's, asked for absolute quiet and gave Dr. R. the floor. Dr. first of all praised the loyalty of the Straucher followers and then gave the following explanation:
The Member of Parliament Herr Dr. Straucher depending on his own resources has been elected again and again to the Austrian Parliament. He came from the people and was on the side of the people as a champion of the little man. When he was reelected, a trouble maker said (referring to Parliament) This repetent is really lucky, Now he has again won his old place in Parliament. To be such a happy repetent I wish for all my friends.
A deafening hurrah which echoed in the room and rolled out into the streets was the answer. Thus conciliated, the enemy brothers traveled back to Czernowitz, not forgetting to profusely thank the cleaver mayor.
So the Herr Dr. Benno Straucher turned out to be an enviable repetent.
Early Thursday morning, Dojak posted himself armed with a rifle behind a door and waited for the oblivious rascal. The farm boys streamed into the marketplace and awaited the hero of the day. When Froikal arrived, he was greeted with a hallo and the game began The first player won, a huzzah from all throats confirmed their joy and reminded Dojak of his mission. Clumsily, he ran to the gaming place to grab Froikal red handed, but Froikal was quicker and hidden by the boys, he threw his calibok in a sack by Frosie fin di Kärn, [probably a woman vendor] wiped off his hands and stood next to a seller's table playing the innocent. Dojak took out his notebook and asked the scoundrel. What's your name? Froikal winked at the boys and said, I'm called Jissmach Moische. Dojak who understood the words hesitated for a second and then gave Froikal an unlawful ringing blow on his ear. Froikal, a crafty prozzessnik, said, Herr wachmeister, what was that for? And Dojak answered serenely, bematnas chelkoi. (the continuation of Jissmach Moische) the Jews present laughed heartily at a non-Jew coming up with the right answer and Froikal used the distraction to make his escape. He ran like a hare in zig-zags to Weissman's cellar and jumped in. The old fashioned drop doors fell inward and Froikal lifted them and held them shut with his shoulders.
Dojak with his rifle jumped on the doors and screamed like a madman, open in the name of the law. Open up or I'll shoot. Froikal let the doors fall and Dojak and his rifle tumbled into the cellar. The crowd laughed and cheered over this trick and Froikal knew it was time to disappear and made himself scarce. Dojak had to remain in the hospital for several days with severe skin abrasions on his hands and feet and brought Froikal to court.
Before the judge Froikal protested his innocence
But the judge had a different opinion and invited Froikal to spend 14 days in jail to recuperate from the fright that the Herr Wachmeister Dojak had given him.
Sissel Parech's pumpkin seeds were damp and not enjoyable. In contrast, at Malkale Herschl's, the seeds were well roasted and tasty. You got the best seeds from Frosie, but since she was not Jewish, her seeds were trefe [non-kosher].
As always, the Christians were lucky. They could also snack on trefe pumpkin seeds and were envied by the Jewish youth because of their good fortune. When they went to the market on Friday to buy seeds for the Shabbat, the smell of the fat that Frosie roasted her seeds in was so tempting that the spit ran out of their mouths, but they were trefe and they had to buy whatever was offered by the Jewish women. Frosie stood like a queen between full sacks of pumpkins seeds which by evening were empty (sold out). Her Jewish competitors broke their heads over the question of whom Frosie sold her seeds to, since there were really very few Christians but a satisfied Frosie laughed good naturedly and when she went home in the evening with empty sacks, she wished all her competitors a giten Schabes [a good Shabbat] and laughed.
Her little daughter, Lisa Repka, a pretty girl with black curly hair played with the Jewish children and was at home everywhere, a well liked chit of a girl who spoke Yiddish like all the other Jewish children and when she went out on Shabbat, she took along a pocket full of fine pumpkin seeds on which the children munched. Jean Pukacz, the son of the rich Karol Pukacz had an eye on Liesl but she wouldn't bite, since he was a Pollak. Karol Pukacz, the richest chasiernik (pig dealer) knew of his son's quirk and visited Frosie to see if it wasn't time to get serious. When Frosie told him to get lost, came the row and Jeamik [Jean?] told everyone who wanted to know that Frosie roasted the seeds with pig schmaltz and so vertarfit [made unclean, unkosher?] the entire city. But now that the Pukaczes wouldn't sell her any more pig schmaltz, she was no longer queen of the pumpkin seeds. Frosie laughed like always and on the next Friday, the Appricosen (freethinking Jews) came to her stand and purchased her entire supply. When Pukaczes snooped around to find out where she obtained her pig schmaltz, they were annoyed to find out that Frosie herself had started to keep pigs and therefore no longer had to depend on the good will of the Pukaczes. Neither the rabbinate or the Pukaczes could trip up Frosie and with time she even got Jewish retailers who would buy entire sacks from her and resell them as kosher goods. Frosie was and remained the queen of the pumpkins seeds and so remained until the outbreak of the war in 1914.
On the marketplace the women traded stories and Peronie told Fradl that she dreamed last night that Moische Retter, poor thing died and that Alterl is, poor thing, a double orphan, no father and no grandfather.
Dwossi fin die Tepp [female name] heard them talking about dreams and asked, who died, Moische Retter? Fradl said, That's what Peronie said. Woe is me] screamed Dwossi, Moische is my unkerichts (relative). I have to run to the Chewra Kadischa [burial society], Moische Retter has died. An uproar on the marketplace, everything stops, the Chewra Kadischa is alarmed and hurry to a stikel arbet [a little work].The city is in turmoil, Moische is dead.
As chance would have it, Moische Retter had migraine and gave orders to let no one in until his headache went away. His wife locked the door and sat down in the hall very sad about the migraines which plagued the old one so often.
A crowd gathered in front of the house and several of the curious peered into the windows and saw the old lady sitting there sadly. Everyone pitied the poor thing.
As Dwossi ran to the Chewra Kadischa, she met Alterl who was strolling in the street. Alterl cried Dwossi, Säde has died and you are playing around on the street? Come to the Chewra Kadischa. Alterl was shocked and ran over the street crying, woe is me, Säde has died. When they got home, the pallbearers were already there and a great number of people who were there for the Chewra Kadischa.
Meanwhile, Moische Retter felt better and went out to get a little fresh air and became aware of the crowd and the burial society.
Shocked, he asked who had died. A storm of laughter was the answer from those present and Dwossi said, that Peronie had said it. Meanwhile Peronie came along and screamed at Dwossi, you dumb behäme (cow), I told Fradl a dream and now look what you have done.
A piste Chulim! Auf alle piste Wälder! said Moische Retter and lit up a cigar.
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