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{Page 25}

The History of the Jews of Rzeszow (cont.)

by Dr. N. M. Gelber

Chapter 2: The beginning of Jewish settlement in Rzeszow until 1772

Rzeszow supports its merchants in poverty and riches
Its days roll by with honorable business
Its fairs provide profit in winter or summer
There is trade in textiles, fuel and foodstuffs
Household implements, grain, and salt stone
And the farmers set their eyes on everything
(Berish Weinstein: Rzeszow, a poem translated into Hebrew by Tzvi Shtok, page 47)

 


Chapter 3: OCCUPATIONS AND LIVELIHOOD OF THE JEWS [15]

The relation of the Jews to the owner of the city was no different than the relation of the Christians to him. The owner of the city supported the citizens to the extent that it brought him personal benefit. The Jews as well as the Christians were subjects who were under the authority of the owner of the city.

A Jew who arrived in Rzeszow was required to request that the owner of the city grant him right of residency in the city, and that he be accepted as a subject. He was required to obtain a similar permit in order to be able to purchase a house or a lot. He was required to pay taxes in return for these permits, and if he did not pay he would lose all of his rights, and the owner of the city would sell his house.

A Jew was not permitted to move from Rzeszow to another city without the permission of the owner of the city, and without the knowledge of the palace judges. A Jew was only permitted to travel a distance of six miles outside of the city for his own personal business. He was obligated to obtain a note of security from four friends in order to be able to make a business trip, and he was required to obtain a permit for his daughter to marry in a different city. A Jew was required to take an oath as a subject of the owner of the city.

If the Jews wished to obtain a loan with the communal property as surety, they were required to ask permission from the owner of the city, and only with such permission could a legal document be drawn up.

The owner of the city had the supreme rights of approval over the affairs of the Jews, just as he had over the affairs of the Christians. The Jews appeared as one faction in matters of civic affairs, as the second half of the city. Two authorities – the city and the Jewish community – were in conflict over the rights and duties of their members. Matters were conducted with each side watching that no laws were broken, and no duties were neglected, and on numerous occasions, the governing authorities of the palace had to intervene in order to adjudicate on duties and privileges. In the middle of the 18th century, 140 of the total of 250 houses in the city were under Jewish ownership. The Jews suffered greatly from fires, and several houses were vacant, such that in 1732 there were nine Jewish homes [16]. The value of an ordinary house along with its lot was 600 guilder in the 17th century.

In the middle of the 17th century, in 1623, ten Jewish homes in the center of the city belonged to: Wolf Moszkowicz, Berko Eizikowicz, Rabinowicz, Koppel, David Moszkowicz, Zitman, Kolman, the Jewish courthouse, the home of the Rabbi, and the Yeshiva building.

By the end of the 18th century, when the city was already under Austrian rule, there were 330 houses in the city.

In the event of a fire or an enemy invasion all of the residents of the city, without exception, were required to protect the city. In the event of a fire, every resident was required to present himself for the salvation effort. In the event of an invasion, every resident was required to protect the walls and courtyards in proximity to his home. During the time of war, the Jews had their own Hetman who allocated the sections of the city for which they would be responsible for defending.

In all legal and military documents, contracts, and property taxes, the Jews were subject to the civic laws. According to the 1724 of Jerzy Lubomirski, any matter that was not recorded in the books of the city was lacking legal authority. Any Jew who obtained property from a Catholic was required to accept the civic law and to pay any taxes associated with the purchase. The Jewish community was required to participate with the Catholic community in all civic duties, including the guarding of the streets and bridges, courtyards, ramparts, and participation in fire fighting duties.

The Jewish community was responsible for the maintenance of the roads of Baldaczowka, through the marketplace until the civic brick kiln, as well as the road from the marketplace to the city gate of the Wislok. They had responsibility as well for all of the gates in the new city. The Jews were required to maintain together with the Catholic community the gate near the Pierrian monastery, as well as the gate and ramparts of the palace.

Together with the Catholic community, the community was required to cover half of the expenses of the civic officials, as well as the expenses of some of the palace officials. In return for this, they were freed from taxes imposed by the city. They were also freed from paying taxes for the cemetery and the hospital for the poor.

Even though the Jews were recognized as an independent religious community, they were to some extent subject to the jurisdiction of the Catholic spiritual authorities. The following edicts are found in the Universal of Bishop Sierakowski of 1746:

  1. Synagogue services and other religious observances must be conducted quietly and without noise.
  2. The Jews must obtain permission from the church before they could build any new synagogue.
  3. It was forbidden to utilize a Christians to perform tasks in the synagogue on Yom Kippur [11].
  4. According to the constitution of King Zygmunt August of 1562, it was forbidden to employ Christian maids and domestic helpers, due to religious concerns.
  5. It was forbidden to open stores, workshops and to conduct any public work on Christian holidays.
  6. The Jews were required to remain in their homes and not to appear on the streets during the Boze Cialo and Good Friday processions.
  7. It was only permitted to arrange a wedding on days that were known to the Christians.
  8. It was forbidden to employ a Christian in the Jewish cemetery.
  9. Due to the large areas that the Jews owned in the cities and towns, they were required to give annually to the local church two wax stones and one milk stone.

During the 17th century, the private relations between the Christians and the Jews were shaky, but the relations improved slightly in the 18th century.

In the 17th century, when it was forbidden for Jews to live in old Rzeszow, the appearance of a Jew in the marketplace would cause attacks and beatings. Events such as this took place almost daily.

On only one occasion, in 1679, a very important event that made a great impression on the population was recorded in the annals of the city. There was a clash in which several Jews were injured. Students were involved in this event, and Mozdanski, the civic advisor, quieted them down. Events were also recorded where the Jews related, so to speak, in an “ill-mannered” fashion toward the Christians.

The Jews of Rzeszow received loans from the church organizations, priests, citizens, and the church funds. According to the documents, the Jews of Rzeszow received loans in the sum of 100,000 guilder and more during the 18th century. This sum is accounted for by the money received by the communal leaders in 1700-1710 for the purposes of building a new synagogue, for the payment of taxes, and to cover deficits in the communal coffers. These loans were “perpetual”, guaranteed by the property of the Jews and they brought benefit to the debtors.

From the enactments of the guilds of blacksmiths, medics, butchers and bakers we learn that Jews were accepted as members of these guilds, enabling them to work in their professions in a legal fashion. In order not to be dependent on the rights and duties of the Christian members, they only paid dues sufficient to obtain an agreement that they would be permitted to work in their trades.

During fairs, the Jews were stationed together with the merchants from outside the city in places set aside for them by the guilds.

The Jews were subject to the same limitations as the outside merchants with regard to the purchase of merchandise. They were permitted to purchase merchandise only with the permission of the guild, and only in limited amounts. The purpose of these restrictions was to protect the members of the guilds from competition, since – according to the regulations of the barrel makers – “the Jews purchase merchandise and sell it to them, thereby doing great damage”.

The Jewish medics, bakers, and butchers were members of guilds. The number of butcher shops that could be owned by Jews was specified in the regulations of these guilds. The butchers could have six stores and the bakers could have eight. The number of trainees and apprentices that the artisans were permitted to retain was set (in any event at least one trainee was allowed). In the regulations of the butchers’ guild, it was stated that the head of the guild could be only a Christian. The bakers’ guild maintained a separate list of Jews and of Jewish trainees. The guild examinations were conducted separately for them. Four Jews were accepted as members of the guild between1747 and 1769.

There were 10 Jewish members of the butchers’ guild in the years 1734-1754. The Jewish butchers were permitted to run six butcher shops (the Christians had fourteen), and they were required to post a price list in their shops. In order to prevent controversy with the guilds, the palace issued a “Universal” in 1760 that set up the regulations for the kosher butcher shops. The butchers were under the supervision of an overseer who was appointed by the palace, as well as the ritual slaughterer (shochet). The shochet was only permitted to slaughter with the permission of the chief overseer. Hides from the slaughter of kosher animals were to be given to the supervisor for no payment, while hides from non-kosher slaughter were to be given over at half price. The Christian butchers protested against giving over the hides of non-kosher slaughter at half price. The citizens registered a complaint that the giving over of the hides raises the price of meat. Due to these complaints, Lubomirski issued an edict that the hides should no longer be given to the overseer.

The Jewish furriers who lived in the new city had a guild of their own. According to the privilege of 1686, they had to have their own flag, and had to own guns, gunpowder and bullets. All disputes had to be adjudicated by the palace vice-director. The situation changed in the 18th century when Jerzy Ignace Lubomirski repealed the edict from the days of Ligenza and Prince Wladislaw Ostrowski of 1640, which forbade the Jews from taking possession of houses and lots in the old city. In 1647 there was not one Jewish tailor in the old city. By the beginning of the 18th century there already were disputes between the Christian and Jewish tailors with regard to purchasing cloth and tailoring implements from the merchants of Danzig and the east. According to the population records (lustracia) of 1757, there were in the old and new cities 77 Jewish artisans, including 26 smiths, 19 tailors, 6 hat makers, 4 butchers, 4 doctors (medics), 4 belt and ribbon makers, 4 furriers, 3 cord makers, 2 polishers, and 1 engraver.

The Christian merchants saw the Jews as fierce competitors, and they used all means at their disposal in their struggles, especially accusing them of counterfeiting their merchandise – a thing which even the historian of Rzeszow Pincekowski records as a historical fact without being able to prove it from the documents which were in his possession. He did not even quote one case against the Jews that accused them of counterfeiting merchandise.

At first, the Jews of Rzeszow were merchants of cattle, which they purchased primarily from the noblemen that were in the area of Jaroslawand Rzeszow. The Christians and Jewish merchants formed agreements with the artisans, as they would sell their wares. The merchandise was spread out beyond the borders of the city, especially in the direction of Breslau (Wroclaw). In the 17th century, the Jewish merchant Eizikowicz stood out in particular. He used to frequent the fairs of Breslau. In 1674, during the Breslau fair, he made a contract with the merchant Jan Klins of Waszow to provide him with 100 large quartz stones. It was agreed that Klins would come to the fair of Sandomierz in 1675 with his merchandise, and there he would acquire the quartz. He would pay Eizikowicz 6,000 guilder in cash or merchandise after examining the wares. The situation between them had to be adjudicated. Klins requested the stones according to the weights used in Waszow, and Eizikowicz provided them according the weights used in Sandomierz. The difference was 1,000 stones. In addition, Eizikowicz was late by three weeks. Klins refused to accept the stones, since according to his claim he lost 2,000 guilder. Eizikowicz claimed that he traveled to him in Pinczow to find him, and the sum of his expenses was 800-900 guilder. The matter was brought to court, but we do not know how it was adjudicated.

photo on top of page 33 – Business on market day.

Eizikowicz supplied the merchants of Rzeszow with textiles for many years during the second half of the 17th century. During those years, Eizikowicz was a Jew who was well known in mercantile circles outside of Rzeszow. Merchants from outside the city made arrangements with him to provide them with merchandise for fairs outside of Rzeszow. In 1633, the city was permitted to maintain a warehouse for wine and fish in accordance with the regulations in effect for other such warehouses. In 1677 all of the privileges of the kings of Poland were endorsed, and an additional fair was allowed over and above the existing fairs. This fair was to take place on the holiday of Saint Jan Cziszial, and was to be on par with the fair of Jaroslaw. The Jewish merchant Josefowicz became prominent in 1678, as he exported wagons laden with lead to Hungary. In 1674 Jan Klins of Waszow ordered from him 200 hides for the fair of Moszcziska. Marczin Grodka of Waszow ordered textiles from Rzeszow for the fair of Moszcziska, and Melchior Lambrecht ordered textiles and hides. In 1675, the Jewish merchant Markowicz imported 1,200 cubits of lace and ribbons of various colors from Danzig in return for the grain that he sold there. In 1718 a Jew from Rzeszow sold wax to the merchant Malochoczki of Krakow in return for pepper, golden and silver lacework and other fabrics.

Jews imported various merchandise from Posen (Poznan) in return for agricultural products, cattle, horses, cream, and mead. Imported merchandise from Hungary included wine, hides, metal, English and French fabrics, and smooth stones. Silk and other fancy goods were imported from Breslau and Leipzig. They also imported merchandise from Wallachia, Turkey and Transylvania, including: wine, carpets, silk, tobacco, and colonial merchandise. A few of the local Jewish merchants were representatives of firms from outside of Rzeszow. In 1718, the Jews of Rzeszow signed a contract with the merchant Malochoczki of Krakow to provide them with 551 wax stones.

The Jewish inn of Yosef Leizerowicz and six Christian inns were located in the old city. Jews owned most of the inns of the new city. The most important of these were those of Mrs. Zalmanowicz, Shaul Leviczowa, Lochmonowicz, and Lewko Zelichowicz.

Jewesses were involved food retail business. They would pay eighteen groszy a month for a booth. The retail stores were owned mainly by Jewesses.

In 1730 there were 91 stores. Of these, 31 were large (6 of these were owned by Christians). The number of stores decreased to 41 in 1761.

In the 17th century, almost all of the stores were owned by Jews, however there was a special restriction on the sale of baked goods. Only 8 of these type of stores were permitted to Jews, while the Christians had 30.

The list of merchants from 1730 included 85 Jewish names, and only 6 Catholic names. There was only one Catholic store in the center of the city in 1762.

The German geographer Bardotzki called Rzeszow “Jerusalem of Galicia” at the beginning of the 18th century. In the middle of the 18th century the population of the Jews equaled that of the Christians, and they then began to become the majority.

Photo on top of page 34: Jewish peddlers on Mateyko Street.

A number of Jews were in the business of providing loans in return for surety. In 1757, Barak, the Rabbi of Rzeszow, and Kelia Moszkowicz Rafaelowicz who was a lessee along with her daughter Tzvia, were all involved in the providing of loans.

There was tension between the Christians and the Jews. The Jews lived peaceably together in the new city, but very few of them lived in the villages. In 1790 there was one Jewish family of five people living in Staroniwa; in Zwieczyce there were four families with a total of sixteen people; In Przybyszowka – two families with a total of seven people; In Krasna – seven families with 34 people; in Malawy – three families with fifteen people. Thus, in 1790, these towns had seventeen families with a total of 77 people. In Drabinianka, Staromiescie, Pobitno, and Ruskawies there were no Jews at all. The Jews in the villages were owners of taverns and lessees. The palace related to the Jews according to their ability to pay.

From 1725 to 1734 the palace governor in Rzeszow was Jan Ticzinski. He was a cruel man who beat the residents, demanded gifts from them, and did not pay the artisans and palace workers. When it became known that he hid payments that were due to the palace, Lubomirski demanded that all of the residents, Jews included, present to him their complaints about Ticzinski.

However, the second governor, Timoteus Ulmiczer, behaved in the same manner of Ticzinski from 1744 to 1747. He was accused in 1747. It is no wonder that on April 29, 1740, Lubomirski turned to the mayor and head of the Jewish community with a request to provide one wagon weekly in the summer, and two weekly in the winter, full of firewood for the residence of the palace captain.

The edict of the owner of the city in 1723 that imposed many payments upon the Jewish merchants did great damage to the livelihood of the residents. From that time on, the number of non-local merchants who came to the fairs of Rzeszow diminished. The local business shrank due to the various payments known as “Krupka”. The palace inspectors would confiscate merchandise that was not registered in the books of the merchants. Thus was trapped the Jewish merchant Doktorowicz in 1741, who was sentenced by the palace court to twelve weeks of labor in the palace citadel while bound in chains. There were cases where stores were closed and the money in them was confiscated.

The decline of the city began already at the beginning of the 18th century. The great fires of 1709 and 1729 destroyed the city, and it was rebuilt with great difficulty. Aside from the fires, epidemics affected the city, which affected the economic life. A severe epidemic spread in the city between 1707 and 1713, and again in 1735.

Aside from these situations, wars and national unrest affected the city. In the first half of the 18th century, great damage was inflicted on the city and its residents in the form of plunder, and pillage of merchandise and food by the armies of the Swedes, Russians, and Poles. An internal emigration began in 1730. The Christian merchants move from “Nowo Miasto” (the new city) to Stara Miasto” (the old city). The owner of the city Jerzy Lubomirski attempted to stem this emigration, which was resulting in an evacuation of “Nowo Miasto” of its residents. He issued an edict in 1740 that anyone who would reside in the new city would be freed from palace taxes for seven years, and would be permitted to engage in commerce and the serving of liquor in a free fashion. However, these new conditions did not apply tothe original residents. The debts on houses give evidence of the impoverishment of the residents of Rzeszow, and it is no wonder that in 1730, 1740, and 1750 we hear of the flight of citizens from the city, and of abandoned houses which were confiscated by the palace. In those years, some individual Jews began to purchase homes, and Yona Izraelowicz purchased the house of Yaakov Pokolowski for 2050 guilder. Yaakov Pokolowski left his home on Zatilna Street in the old city together with his family. From the moment that the new city began to organize, Jews began to purchase homes of the citizens. Therefore, there arose the need for the establishment of a new synagogue, which was erected with the permission given by Hieronim August Lubomirski to the Jews on January 26, 1681. In 1724, Lubomirski issued an edict about matters affecting the Catholics and Jews. It was commanded that Jews maintain the following roads and areas: “from the house of Yaakov Baldorf in the direction of the market of the new city, through the market to the civic brick kiln on one side, and on the other side from the gate of the new city through the Wola to the bridge over the Wislok. The Jews lived in “Nowo Miasto” (the new city), and that became their center of activity. In order to put an end to the disputes between the Catholics and the Jews, Lubomirski issued a judgement that the Catholics and the Jews were required together to build the new gate of the city. Of the eight entry and exit gates of the city, the maintenance of four was the responsibility of the Catholics, and the maintenance of the other four was the responsibility of the Jews. The Jews were responsible for: the “Nowo Mieski” gate near the “Wola Yaroslawska”; the “Nowo Mieski” gate near the brick kiln; the new gate; and the “Podzamcza Pool”. All of the gates were to be kept in good repair, and they had to pay for any repairs.

We know from the “Universal” of Lubomirski that the Jews were also required to pay for the new stable. However, there were also some Jews who were not even able to maintain their own homes, and therefore, for example, in 1764, the lessee Moszkowicz gave over his home in the new city to the palace. This home was already in ruins, without ovens, windows, or doors, and the roof was shaky. He was not able to maintain the house due to his poverty.

The economic decline of the city also caused emigration from the city. The calls of Lubomirski that those that left should return to their homes were of no avail, and the threats of Lubomirski that the abandoned homes would be transferred to the palace property also were to of no avail. In 1735, the palace forbade the merchants to leave the city, and issued a series of commands that the head of the city and members of the council were responsible to insure that the residents did not leave the city. In 1740 all of the homeowners were commanded to fix the old houses and to build new houses.

Similar conditions existed at this time in other cities. For example, in Krakow, there were 70 abandoned houses; in Czanow – also 70 abandoned houses; and in Biecz in 1717 only 18 occupied houses.

A period of decline overtook Rzeszow in the 18th century. Documents of the Rusin Wojewodztwo from the 18th century repeatedly referred to Rzeszow as a “poor city”.

A new period only began in 1750, which brought Rzeszow toward the 18th century, thanks to new conditions.

A special court used to operate during the fairs of Rzeszow. The members of the court during the Rzeszow fair of 1688 is known to us, as follows: David Rzeszowski, Yehuda Lewkowicz of Lubartow, Menachem Manes Levita of Rzeszow, and Aharon Markowicz of Rzeszow.

A police force operated during the time of the fair, which used to issue on-the-spot judgements. The Krakow court also operated during the fairs of Rzeszow. In 1688, the administrator from Krakow Ber Yaakovowicz was sent to the fair of Rzeszow.

Theft of merchandise would occur during fairs, and in 1681 the merchandise of Yaakov Wales of Krakow was stolen. In 1725, Baruch Naftalowicz, who was the Jewish commissioner from Rzeszow, requested that the activist of the Krakow community Hirsch Manischewicz issue a judgement regarding a situation where he was overpowered and mocked on Groczka Street in Krakow.

 

Taverns

The free permit allowed the distilling of liquor. In practice, no limits were imposed on the production and serving of liquor. Special beer did not have to be made for the benefit of the city or the owner of the city, and the beer brewers did not receive an exclusive permit for the brewing of beer.

There were taverns that sold only beer that was brewed under the authority of the owner of the city or the Bernardines, and these taverns were exempt from taxes. With the passage of years, some beer breweries disappeared, and others were transferred to the owner of the city. Wolf Mendelowicz paid 9,000 guilder in 1764 for the license for all of the taverns and breweries for three years. There were 29 taverns in 1730. These included: 4 owned by producers of mead, 6 by brewers of beer, 11 hotels, and 8 beer halls. The brewing of beer was in Christian hands until the beginning of the 18th century.

Avraham Chaimowicz produced and sold all types of drinks in his house with a license from the owner of the city. Wolf Mendelowicz leased all of the taverns for three years from Lubomirski for 90,000 guilder [17], and he leased the right to sell only three taverns in the city. By the beginning of the 19th century, the production of liquor was already in the hands of the Jews. Weinberg leased the civic beer brewery in 1803-1804, and produced 1,021 casks of beer per year. Berel Leinder produced 11,340 jugs of mead in his brewery.

At the same time, the Jews took over a greater portion of the trade to the north. Jews of Rzeszow traveled to Danzig and Torun on business. Yitzchak Eizekowicz and Yisrael of Rzeszow were prominent in this trade in the 17th century. Some of the Jews of Rzeszow participated in the Leipzig fair. In 1678, five Jews of Rzeszow took part; in 1681 – one; in 1699 – three. In 1778-1779 the city of Danzig issued a concession to the Rzeszow Jew Hirsch Yisrael, in order to induce him to stay in Danzig.

Jews took part in the fairs of Breslau during the 17th century. In 1684, the Krakow Jew Wolf Yaakov participated, and in 1697 Shamir of Rzeszow participated. In 1674 and 1678 the Jews of Rzeszow were required by the city of Breslau to pay a debt which they owed to the heads of Polish Jewry. The owner of the city, Prince Alexander Lubomirski requested on December 11, 1678 that the city of Breslau not force his Jews from Rzeszow to pay the debts of the Jewish leaders that were under the auspices of the King of Poland. He requested that they not oppress the Jews who come to Breslau. The heads of Polish Jewry did not find any other way to demand their debts from the Jews, other than to present themselves on the market day in Breslau, and with the assistance of the council to force the Jews to pay their debts, and to arrest those who refuse. Many Jews of Rzeszow came to Breslau for the Elizabeth fair, and in 1696, the administrator [18] of the Rzeszow Jews was there. In 1697, the administrators of Poland included one administrator from Rzeszow. With the passage of time the situation of the administrators improved, in that they made money and their numbers were limited. In 1722, there were eleven administrators, and the eight from Poland included one from Rzeszow.

Disputes broke out regarding this matter. The administrator was the spokesman of the Jews of his region. Even though his appointment was connected to, and required a permit from the Council of Four Lands, the actual appointment was made by the leaders of the province or region. In 1722, there were 159 Jews from Poland in Breslau, including 11 from Rzeszow.

Rzeszow had approximately 40 Jewish homes during the 17th century, and in each home lived several families. In one source it is stated that the number of Jews exceeded the number of Christians. However, we only have exact numbers from 1. In that year there were in Rzeszow: 140 Jewish citizens (obywatele), 172 residents, and 49 artisans. Of these, the numbers in the old city of Rzeszow were as follows: 26 citizens, 45 residents, and 27 artisans.

In the new city there were 78 citizens, 127 residents, and 27 artisans. With an estimate of 5 people per family, we come to a number of 1,429 for the Jewish population of Rzeszow.

In 1765 there were 1202 Jews in Rzeszow, however this is not an exact figure, since the community did not register the children who were exempt from the head-tax.

The population by profession is as follows: 94 whose profession was unspecified, 29 tailors, 27 goldsmiths, 26 taverners, 31 merchants and store owners, 12 money-changers, 10 hat-makers, 10 teachers, 10 clergymen, 6 cord-makers, 6 bowl-makers, 5 furriers, 5 doctors, 4 musicians, 4 draznicy (porters), 3 bakers, 3 butchers, 2 textile-makers, 1 glass-blower, 1 soap-maker, 1 tile-maker, 1 plasterer, 25 who received support, and 8 servants.

The ones with unspecified professions were for the most part merchants, middlemen, brokers, and agents who conducted business on behalf of themselves or others.

In 1723, the prince who was the owner of the city issued an edict that only an agent who possessed a special privilege was permitted to fill his duty. In 1757, the number of these privileges as limited to four, with the condition that it was possible to revoke the privilege if they were causing damage to the merchants.

With respect to the size of the tax base as an indicator of economic power, the first place went to the merchants (excluding the store owners), the second place went to the tailors, and the rest – to the smiths, cord-makers, medics and bakers. Families worked in the smith business for many years, and in the event that a son was not born to the family, a son-in-law or brother-in-law would conduct the business. The business of the smiths reached as far as Vienna, Stockholm, Copenhagen, Berlin, and St. Petersburg. In St. Petersburg and Copenhagen they also filled the role of royal engravers. Entire families, fathers together with children, also worked in the tailoring profession.


Translator's Footnotes

6. I am not sure how the phrase " to Andrzej Karzel" fits into the sentence. The sentence makes sense without that phrase, and the meaning is clouded with the phrase. Back

7. The text says 1267, but I assume that this is an error, and 1627 was intended. Back

8. I am not sure what this word "Hayadamkim" -"the Yadamks"or the "Jadamks" means. Back

9. One of the two words "before" must mean "after". Back

10. Boze Cialo (literally: Christ's Body) is a Christian holy day in June. Back

11. On Yom Kippur, many candles would be lit in the synagogue in order to enable the congregants to follow the lengthy and elaborate evening services. Since the kindling and extinguishing of a flame is forbidden on Yom Kippur, as it is on the weekly Sabbath and other festivals, arrangements would be made with non-Jews to put out the candles at the conclusion of the services. Back

12. I am not sure to what these two types of stones refer. I surmise that they are a term for some sort of precious stones. Back

13. The belief that Jews require Christian blood to bake matzo (unleavened bread) for Passover is the pretext for the classic blood libel of Christian Europe in the middle ages. Back

14. The followers of the false messiah Jacob Frank. Such false messianic movements in Judaism led to despair among the masses. Back

15. This chapter heading appears at the top of the page, and not directly above the paragraph which starts the chapter. It is not clear which paragraph on this page starts the chapter, as the top of the page is still the continuation of the last paragraph of the previous page. I assumed that the first full paragraph on the page starts the chapter. It is interesting to note that many facts mentioned in this section have been mentioned already in previous sections of the text. I am not sure for the reason behind the repetition. Back

16. Seemingly an incomplete sentence in the text. I assume this means that there were nine vacant Jewish homes. Back

17. This fact seems to be a repeat of the information given in the previous paragraph. However, the amount differs exactly by a factor of ten. I expect that one of these sentences is an error. Back

18. The word used in Hebrew here is "shamash", which usually has the connotation of a sexton or beadle in a synagogue, but here seems to refer to some form of civic administrator. When used in this context in this translation, I will leave it in the Hebrew form. Back

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