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Translation of Gliniany chapter from
Pinkas Hakehillot Polin
Translation of Gliniany chapter from
Published by Yad Vashem
Published in Jerusalem
Published in Jerusalem
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This is a translation from: Pinkas Hakehillot Polin:
Encyclopedia of Jewish Communities, Poland, Volume II, pages 140-145, published by Yad Vashem, Jerusalem
JewishGen is not responsible for inaccuracies or omissions in the original work and cannot rewrite or edit the text to correct inaccuracies and/or omissions.
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(Przemyślany District, Tarnopol Region)
Translated by Amy Samin
The Jewish Settlement from its Beginnings to 1919
Gliniany was established in 1397 by the nobleman Tarnowski. In the same year, it was granted the status of city by the Polish king and within a short time became a royal city. Gliniany, which was located on the main road that ran from Lwow eastward, was destroyed many times by the Tartars in the 16th century and at the start of the 17th century. For that reason, the king earmarked the income from the sale of alcoholic beverages for fortifications for the city. In 1603 the city received permission to use the trees from the king's forests for fortifications, and a portion of the manpower of the farmers in the area was dedicated to that purpose. In 1648 the Polish army camped in the city with the intention of fighting against the Cossacks. In the 18th century the Tartar invasions ceased in that part of Poland and the city was re-established. In 1772 Gliniany passed into Austrian control. In 1919 it was ruled once again by Poland.
The first information regarding Jews in Gliniany appeared in 1474 with the mention of a Jewish tax collector named Yaacov. Between the years 1582 1588 the taxes were collected in Gliniany by the well-known merchant from Lwow, Yitzhak ben Nachman (Nachmanovitch). During the same period, Jews also leased the flour mills in Gliniany. The leaseholders mentioned were: Aharon Reis and his son-in-law Yitzhak Melwow (of Lwow?), Hertz Yosefovitch and Kalman, who leased the brewery in Gliniany in 1602.
The security situation in the Gliniany area, as in the remainder of Reissen, was at that time unstable. In 1627, the merchant Shmuel, his wife and children were murdered near the city.
In the decrees of 1647 and 1648 it is stated that a number of Jews were killed. In the 18th century, when the area was quiet, a synagogue which resembled a fortress was built, with walls one and a half meters thick. That synagogue, which was built during the years 1704 1721, was constructed on the location of the previous synagogue, which had been made of wood.
The community of Gliniany was an extension of the Lwow community, and apparently did not have its own rabbi until the middle of the 18th century. The first known rabbi of Gliniany was Rav Nachman HaCohen Rapaport, son of the famous rabbi of Lwow, Rav Haim Rapaport. Rav Nachman HaCohen Rapaport was the spiritual leader of Gliniany during the 1760s.
Many of Gliniany's Jews were perceived to be followers of Sabbatai Zevi and part of the cult of Sabbateans, and thus followers of Yaacov Frank. Those who converted to Christianity apparently came from the poor and indigent. A proof of that is the widespread tradition in Gliniany that some of the residents of two neighboring villages were of Frankist extraction.
At the beginning of the Austrian regime the taxes on the Jews of Gliniany were increased, as they were on all the Jews of Galicia. Many of them became impoverished; however an echelon of affluent people could also be found, made up of tax collectors who grabbed hold of the reins of the community government. The Jews of Gliniany made their living from trade, handcrafts, carting, portage, and, at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century, a few of them were members of free professions. The upper echelon of merchants, which was not large, concentrated their trade in the produce of the local farms, which was marketed to nearby cities, especially Lwow. A larger group of merchants were shop owners in the city. After them, according to their income and their social position, were the owners of stalls in the marketplace, whereas the lowest echelon was made up of the peddlers who plied their trade in the villages. To
the upper echelon of the merchants must be added the tavern owners and, after the arrival of our rabbi in Gliniany, the restaurant owners.
The carters of Gliniany originally made their living by operating between the city and Lwow, but after the railroad tracks were laid, they hauled things to the train station, which was located eight kilometers from the city.
At the end of the 19th century, 118 people made their living in Gliniany from the following kinds of work: 27 tailors and seamstresses, 9 shoemakers, 12 furriers, 6 carpenters, 7 bakers, 4 welders, 3 glaziers, 8 butchers, 10 carpet makers, and 37 others (painters, builders, hat makers, oven builders, barbers, and soda makers). There were also seven musicians in the city. At the end of the 19th century a sock factory which employed Jewish girls was established by the self-help organization Hilfsverein from Vienna. The poor Jews of Gliniany would go out to work in the summer, in the harvest season, in the fields of property holders and wealthy farmers of the area.
The first organization of Jewish artisans, called Chevrat Poale Tzedek Hayatim (The Company of Tailors of Justice) was established in 1801. After one hundred years it was changed to Yad Harutzim (Industrious Hand), in which all of the remaining artisans were organized. In the beginning, this organization operated in a traditional manner, establishing a house of prayer for its members and donating a sefer Torah every few years to its synagogue, and was involved in mutual aid. At the end of the 19th century the Jews enjoyed the generosity of a few of the wealthy Christians in the city. We will mention only three of them here: the wealthy Ukrainian priest Rashtolovich, who established a private bank in which he employed Jewish tellers and offered loans to needy Jews on particularly comfortable terms; the Polish notary Karber, who offered substantial loans to needy Jews and who, before his death, ordered the destruction of all promissory notes of the Jews who owed him money; and the Polish apothecary owner, Brickner, who collected money from both Jews and Christians and used it to send sick Jews for medical treatment and who supported the families of absent wage-earners. In 1906 the first Jewish bank was established under the name HaKupah L'Halvaah v' L'Hisachon (Savings and Loan Fund). In 1909 another financial institution was founded: HaAgudah L'Ashrai (the Credit Association).
From the start of the Austrian rule until the beginning of the 20th century, the community was run by representatives of the wealthy families who also were, until the middle of the 19th century, the tax collectors. Notable among them was Michael Rosen, who was the community leader for many years.
During the Austrian regime the following served as rabbis in Gliniany: Rav Zvi bar David, called the Returner of Souls Souls of Zvi. After him came Rav David bar Moshe Kahana from Pomojani, called the Look of Cohen, Love of David and Yonatan, and Soul of David. Rav David served during the 1820s and founded the Bikur Cholim society which aided the sick, and also founded a hospital (Hekdesh) next to the great synagogue. He was followed by Rav Meir Krasnipoler the Hand that Gives Light. Rav Meir moved to Brody and died there. He was succeeded by Rav Yehuda-Zvi bar Moshe of Sambor possessor of sacred knowledge. From Gliniany he served as the rabbi of Rozdol. Rav Avraham Elinover, called toldot Avraham, and the seed of Yitzhak, served as rabbi in Gliniany after him. In the 1840s the rabbi of Gliniany was Ariyeh-Leibush Rapaport, a member of the famous Rapaport family (he died in 1848). He was followed by Rav Shlomo-Zalman Rosen, the brother of the community leader Michael Rosen; he was the spiritual leader of the community until his death in 1874. His place was taken by Rav Yitzhak-Eliezer Greenberg, the son-in-law of the local rabbi. In 1910 the prodigy from Sochava, Rav Meir Shapiro, was chosen rabbi of Gliniany at the age of 24. He was already known as a major scholar. In 1920 he was chosen to be rabbi of Sanuck, and from there moved on to Piotrków in Poland. After founding the Learned of Lublin yeshiva he moved to Lublin and served there as the head of the yeshiva. Rav Meir Shapiro was one of the founders of Agudat Yisrael (Union of Israel).
In the middle of the 19th century Rav Yechiel-Michael Moskovitch, the great-grandson of the preacher Yechiel-Michael of Zolochiv and son-in-law of Meir of Przemyślany was the rabbi of Gliniany. His rabbinical customs were different from accepted practice in Galicia; prayers were conducted silently and he served the leftovers from Sabbath meals with a fork rather than by hand, as was customary. He did not deal with healing the sick or exorcising demons, but advised people in matters of finance, family issues and education. Rav Yechiel-Michael died in 1871 and was succeeded by his son Betzalel who established a prestigious house of study and a ritual bath especially for himself and his followers. He had many servants and synagogue managers. The fact that he involved himself in the personal lives of his community also ensured that he had many opponents. He founded a synagogue in Sfat and supported a group of students there. Rav Betzalel died in 1915 in Bolhov and was laid to rest there. He was succeeded by his son, Rav Haim, who died at an early age in 1921.
Among the charitable groups that operated in Gliniany were Linat Tzedek whose members kept watch over the sick; Nos'ei HaMita which ensured there was a minyan in the homes of the bereaved; and Tomchei HaAniyeem (Supporters of the Poor), which in the main helped the poor by providing wood for heating in the winter.
Until the end of the 19th century, almost all Jewish children studied in the traditional cheder (school) and only a few attended the city's general public school and continued their studies in Lwow. In 1895, after the great conflagration that befell Gliniany, a new school was established based on the principles of Baron Hirsch. Among its teachers could be counted Meir Balaban, a student at that time, and later a noted historian. This school provided its students not only with a basic general education, but also with Judaic studies and trade courses (wood-carving and carpentry). The school's students received clothing, shoes, and food. When after four years they had completed their studies, they were provided for by the Baron Hirsh Fund and aided in advancing themselves. Next to the school, which after only a few years moved into its own building, courses for adults were offered in various subjects including reading and writing in the official state language and simple accounting.
The Zionist Union was founded in Gliniany in 1898. It began as a chapter of Ahavat Zion (Love of Zion) in Tarnov but did not receive permission from the authorities to form as an independent group. In 1906 Dr. Yaacov Korkiss and his wife Miriam arrived in Gliniany, and through his influence the Zionist Union received official approval and was called Zion. Miriam Korkiss founded a Zionist women's organization called Miriam. Dr. Korkiss was elected vice-president of the community and vice-mayor of the city. On his initiative a Jewish Community Center was established in Gliniany, the first of its kind in all Galicia. In that building
the library was housed. There was an auditorium for lectures and for gymnastics; the club Toynbee-Hala, where Dr. Korkiss, Meir Balaban and other Jewish intellectuals of Gliniany lectured, was located next door. Next to the community center was a kitchen for needy children, who were provided with a cup of hot milk and a roll every day. Due to the influence of Dr. Korkiss, one of the streets of Gliniany was named after Theodor Herzl. In 1905 a chapter of Poale Zion (Workers of Zion) was established and had about 30 members.
In 1909 the Zionist Union established a Hebrew school founded on the principles of Safa Brura (Clear Language). In 1912 Rav Meir Shapiro founded a modern cheder called Bnei Torah (Sons of the Torah). Some secular subjects were taught in the cheder, and students were tested and received grades.
Most of the Jews of Gliniany fled the city at the start of World War I. Some went only as far as Lwow, and when the Russians occupied that city they returned to their own city. Both the synagogue and the community center were burned to the ground, and many Jewish homes were robbed. The Jews appealed to the city commander, a Pole by birth, who ordered the local Christian population to return the Jews' property. When the population did not hasten to fulfill this order, he ordered the whipping of the leaders of the plunderers. The Jewish property was returned and ordered to be kept in the home of the rabbi and the Baron Hirsch School. Before the Russians left the city in April of 1915, they took Jewish hostages with them as far as the Kazan Region. Most of them returned home after the war. When the Austrian army re-took the city, they drafted most Jewish men into the army. At the same time, a cholera epidemic struck the city and the number of orphans increased. In order to help the needy, the municipality and the community were pressed to open a soup kitchen to feed some 200 Jews and to set up an orphanage, which was occupied by about fifty children. That institution was greatly assisted by Dr. Korkiss who, from his office in Vienna, raised funds from the United States and the Austrian Empire. Rav Meir Shapiro, who at that time was in Tarnopol, also did a great deal to help the needy. In 1916, when the Russian offensive began, the orphanage passed into the hands of Asher Buchbinder Lebeilsko, and the conditions of the orphans improved.
During the time of the West Ukrainian People's Republic, many Jews lost some of their property because of the new Ukrainian coin, which was worthless. Before the fall of the Republic, a group of miscreants was organized in the area with the purpose of attacking Jews, who were saved thanks to a Jewish captain who had served in the Ukrainian army and prevented the pogrom. When the Poles entered Gliniany, their soldiers harmed the Jews. They cut and pulled out their beards and accused them of collaborating with the Ukrainians.
Between the Two World Wars
The Jews of Gliniany, whose numbers had dwindled following numerous wartime incidents, were helped by the natives of the city living in the United States, who sent generous financial aid to the members of their own families and to the community in general. According to the estimates of the members of the Sons of Gliniany in the U.S., between 1918 and 1939 about $30,000 was sent to the Jews of Gliniany. With this aid, some of the Jews were rehabilitated; and the community was able to renovate the synagogue which had been destroyed by fire, the ritual bath house, and the house of study, and to rebuild the community center.
During the period of time between the two wars, the Jews were engaged in a difficult competition with the Ukrainians and the Poles. The former opened a cooperative shop including a dairy and a place for concentrating other agricultural products. There also arose a Ukrainian professional intelligentsia which was caught up in nationalist spirit and later became a fan of Nazism; it is hardly necessary to add that this group looked upon the Jews with loathing. The Poles also established a marketing cooperative, in addition to their private shops which were located in the center of town and were in competition with the Jewish shops. During this period Jews continued to make a living from trade, handwork, carting, hospitality, and a few from free professions (lawyers and doctors).
Among the financial institutions that served the Jews we note the Mossad L'ashrei (Credit Union) which in 1929 gave 441 loans totaling 202,950 zloty. Most of the money in that institution came from the Joint and from the former residents of the city living in the United States. A second financial institution was the Kupat Gamach (Benefit Fund) which, in its first 30 years, gave an average of 50 loans per year totaling an annual sum of 3,750 zloty. Among those who received loans from this fund in 1934, 64 were workshop owners, 82 small merchants, 14 workers, 10 farmers, and 32 others.
One of the Jewish political parties was the General Zionist Party, which was the strongest. The second was Agudat Israel, which was established in 1914 when Rav Meir Shapiro organized its first Galician convention in Lwow. Those two parties cooperated with one another and stood together against the handful of assimilated Jews on the one hand and the Chassids of the rabbi of Galicia on the other.
It is also worth mentioning the Zionist parties Poale Zion, Hitachdut (Unification), a few members of Mizrahi, and a few members of the Revisionist and the Radical Zionist parties. The most firmly established youth movement was Ahvah (Brotherhood), which worked in cooperation with the Noar HaZioni (Zionist Youth), which had about 100 members and was one of the smaller movements; there were also Hashomer HaZair, Beitar, and Gordonia. The clubhouses of all of the movements were located in the Baron Hirsch School, which ceased operations in 1925.
In the municipal elections of 1927, Jews received 22 mandates from a total of 48 (of those, Zionists received 11 mandates, Agudat Israel 7, workshop owners 2; the merchants and those not in a political party received one each). In the 1934 municipal elections, the Zionists and Agudat Israel were combined on one list; of the 12 listed, three Zionists and one non-party were chosen. When representatives of the Zionists were elected vice-mayor and city leader, their places on the city council were filled by members of Agudat Israel.
Until 1924 the traditional groups controlled the community. In elections held that year, the nationalist list (Zionists and Agudat Israel) was victorious, and the Zionist Dr. Tannenboim was elected head of the community. In the elections of 1928 that list was again successful
and Dr. Nass was elected head of the community; he held that position until the start of World War II.
When Rav Meir Shapiro left Gliniany, no other rabbi was chosen to replace him. Rav Yechezkel Hochberg and Rav Aryeh Gottesman served as rabbinical judges and later Rav Yitzhak Efrati, son in law of our rabbi Rav Betzalel Moskovitch, joined them and served as both rabbi and judge.
The community established a kitchen in the winter, where hot meals were served either for free or for a nominal fee. The community also distributed free fire wood to the needy. In addition, there was a committee responsible for the care of orphans, some of whom were settled into private homes and some in orphanages in other cities. Through the sponsorship of the community, every year there was a kemcha depascha project, to provide the poor with food for Passover.
In the early 1920s an attempt was made to establish a school founded on the principles of Baron Hirsch, but it was not successful due to a lack of funds, and as has been mentioned the school was finally closed in 1925. As opposed to that, the modern cheder of Rav Meir Shapiro continued to grow and develop, and was the only Jewish school recognized by the authorities. Alongside the religious subjects offered there were secular studies. Students in the public schools completed their Jewish education in the Safa Brura School.
In 1922, the wife of community leader Tannenboim founded a trade school for girls, where sewing, embroidery, and knitting were taught. The school organized a highly-respected exhibition of the students' work in Lwow. The school was aided by former residents of Gliniany in the U.S. and existed until the start of World War II.
In the field of culture the group Hat'chiya (the Revival) was particularly active. That organization established a library, a dramatic group, and renewed the activities of the Toynbee-Hala club which had operated before the war. Lectures were held three times a week in the newly rebuilt community center. In addition to Hat'chiya, the society Yad Harutzim was active in cultural affairs; it operated a dramatic group.
During this period, as has been mentioned, incitement against the Jews of Gliniany began to occur. In addition to the establishment of the cooperatives and the Christian shops, anti-Semitic propaganda in the form of the slogan Buy from your own people began to appear. Jewish peddlers were killed outside the city, one in 1930 and one in 1937, though it is possible those murders took place in the course of robberies. Following the passage of a law regarding butchery, 15 of 16 butcher shop owners lost their living.
World War II
A short time after the Soviets arrived in Gliniany in September of 1939, Jewish Zionist activity came to a halt, except for religious activities. The community institutions were closed. The framework of political parties from before the war ceased to exist. In 1940 several factory owners, wealthy merchants, Zionist activists, members of the Bund and Jews accused of economic crimes were jailed and exiled to the Soviet Union. Among those incarcerated was Dr. Tannenboim, chairman of the Zionist Union. Jewish supporters of the new regime filled important roles in the local government. During the 1939 1940 academic year a new school opened in which the language of instruction was Yiddish. Some of the Jewish youth left to study in educational institutions in large cities in the area. After war broke out between the Soviet Union and Germany, groups of Jews fled along with the retreating Soviet army at the end of June 1941.
On July 1, 1941 the Germans occupied the city. The next day, Ukrainians killed a number of Jews in the nearby village of Kurowice. This incident heightened the anxiety of the Jews of Gliniany itself. On July 3, 1941 the Germans burned Torah scrolls. After a few days an order was given stating that the Jews must wear a white ribbon marked with a Star of David on their right arms. Jews were kidnapped and sent to perform slave labor. Some of that work was actually nothing more than abuse and humiliation. On July 9, 1941 all of the men were ordered to present themselves within a few hours in the town square for a census. The declared purpose of the census was to register them for work. Many people did not believe the Ukrainians, who were in charge of performing the census, and preferred to ignore the order and go into hiding. The matter incited the wrath of the Ukrainians, who raided the homes of the Jews and cruelly beat all of those who did not present themselves for the census. On July 11, 1941 nine Jews were arrested by the Ukrainian police. They were turned over to the Germans and were executed in a forest near the city. The Ukrainians designated July 27, 1941 Petliura Day, and planned pogroms against the Jews of Gliniany. On the day, the farmers of the area flowed into the city. They began looting the property of the Jews and there was perceived to be a real danger of a pogrom occurring. The Jewish council, which had been organized since the start of July, appealed to the heads of the local population and requested their intervention in order to prevent a massacre. Although in this instance loss of life was prevented, robberies and abuse continued. On August 22, 1941 the order was given to establish a Judenrat (Jewish council). In the beginning, the Jewish community activists refused to be included in such body, for they suspected that perhaps they would be required to
fulfill the orders of the Germans. However, in the profound discussions that were held on the subject, the opinion was expressed that especially in those fateful times the community needed responsible and loyal leadership which would reduce, insofar as was possible, the harm done by the Germans and their Ukrainian collaborators, and to alleviate the ill effects of the German's decrees. The members of the community applied moral pressure on a few of the community activists, who accepted their reasoning and agreed to be part of the Judenrat. Aharon Hochberg became the chairman of the Judenrat; the other members included Ohring, Semensieb, Billinger, Selig Zang, the Nadler brothers, and Gassenbauer. In their testimonies, the survivors showed appreciation for the members of the Judenrat who loyally defended the interests of the members of the community.
At the end of August 1941 a contribution of 1 million rubles was imposed on the Jews of Gliniany. When the members of the Judenrat arrived 30 minutes late in the offices of the local council in order to learn the full details of the contribution a fine of 30,000 rubles was added to the total. The Jews of Gliniany were overcome with despair, for they were of the opinion that there was no way they could raise the sum of 1,030,000 rubles, especially within the short amount of time they had been given to discharge that order. The Judenrat sent delegations to the German authorities in Przemyślany and Zolochiv with the goal of persuading them to reduce the amount of the contribution even though the matter was not in their hands. Meanwhile, a public committee was established in Gliniany which included respected members of the community, to collect the money and fairly distribute the burden. In the end, the money was paid, though it brought about the impoverishment of the members of the community and an exacerbation of their distress.
On September 26, 1941 the Judenrat was ordered to send 100 men every day to a work camp in Kurowice. In the beginning, the Germans allowed the workers to return home at night, but in October of the same year the camp was closed and the workers imprisoned there. The Judenrat tried to guarantee the Jews of Gliniany work within the city itself to thereby prevent or at least lessen their chances of being sent to the camp. To that end they bribed influential local Ukrainians who, in certain circumstances, claimed to the Gestapo that they needed the Jews in their workshops in town. At the end of October 1941 the Germans demanded another 50 men for the work camp in Kurowice. To ensure their demand would be met, they took three hostages who would be executed otherwise. After much hesitation, the Judenrat supplied the youths for the camp, but the hostages were not returned. The members of the community and the Judenrat tried to ease the lives of those in the work camp, sending them packages of food, but they fell into the hands of the German and Ukrainian guards. In the end all communication between those imprisoned in the camp and the Jews of Gliniany was severed.
On December 18, 1941 fifty-two Jews were kidnapped and sent to the work camp in Yaktorov. At that time, the practice was to release them in exchange for ransom, although the Germans and Ukrainians would quickly replace those who had been ransomed by kidnapping other Jews from Gliniany.
In the spring of 1942 hunger overpowered the Jews of Gliniany and there was an outbreak of typhus. To fight the hunger, the Jews would go out at night and forage in the fields of the nearby farmers, gathering potatoes and other vegetables. The farmers would lie in wait for the Jews, catching them and beating them to death, or handing them over to the Germans, who would send them to the work camps where they would find themselves in a race against death.
In the spring of 1942 a few youths tried to leave Gliniany and reach the border with Romania and Hungary, though only a very few were successfully saved in that way.
On November 20, 1942 an announcement was made regarding the expulsion of the Jews from Gliniany and the nearby villages, and their imprisonment in a few of the larger ghettos in the area, especially in Przemyślany. The transfer was supposed to be accomplished by December 1, 1942. The people of the Judenrat tried through bribery to cancel or delay the order, but in vain. Jewish families rented wagons and loaded on what remained of their property and most went to the big ghetto of Przemyślany. A few families went to the ghettos of Zolochiv, Novy Yarychiv, and Busk. On that date, it was announced that Gliniany was judenrein clean of Jews. Most of those who were expelled from Gliniany to Przemyślany were sent in the aktzia (action) of December 3, 1942 to be exterminated in the Bełźec camp.
The day before the destruction of the ghetto in Przemyślany on May 22, 1943, 37 Jews from Gliniany ran away and returned to their city, in the hopes of finding shelter there. However, they were caught by the Ukrainians and executed in the local Jewish cemetery.
From the summer of 1942, even after the expulsion of the Jews from Gliniany, many dozens of members of the community could be found in the forests of the surrounding area, where they had tried to find shelter. In one instance, the Ukrainians discovered a bunker where about 40 Jews were hiding in the forest next to the village of Bogdanowka close to Gliniany. They surrendered and were only killed after they displayed physical resistance. Another group hid in a forest near the village of Zanyov and was fortunate enough to receive aid from Polish farmers, though most of the people were killed by Ukrainian farmers. A few Jews from Gliniany, who had fled from work camps in the area, joined a group of partisans who were active in that area.
The city was liberated by the Soviets on July 20, 1944. About 25 survivors gathered there; of those there was only one complete family. Of the approximately 350 Jewish houses that were once in Gliniany, only 60 were still standing, and there were Christian families living in all of them. What had once been the great synagogue had been turned into a hostel for farmers from the surrounding area, and the Jewish cemetery had been ploughed. In June 1946 the last survivors left the place and went to Poland and from there to the Land of Israel and other countries. Before they left the city they were able to bring to punishment some of the Ukrainian collaborators who, during the occupation, had murdered Jews in Gliniany.
Aiyosh: 03/3140, 03/706; M-1/E 387/360
Ivye: ADRP 44
AMTY: P83 (F 3/3); P83 (E33)
ATZM: F.3-40; A.214-6; A.214-3; A.214-1
Victims of Gliniany, New York 1946; A. Korach, Gline Community, 1473 1943, Its History and Its Victims, Jerusalem, 1946 [sic] (1950); Megillat Gline Gliniany, New York 1950.
Der Israelit 6.1.1871; Tagblatt 14.7.1907, 27.6.1912, 4.8.1912, 10.2.1922, 23.2.1922; Yudischer Arbeiter 11.11.1905, 30.4.1909; Mergan 1.7.1927, 12.11.1928; Hametzpe 20.3.1905, 2.11.1906, 12.5.1911, 3.7.1914; Die Zioniste Vach 16.6.1933, 13.7.1934, 10.5.1935; Shavuah Hahalutz 31.5.1924.
Chwila 17.7.1922, 21.7.1923, 2.7.1925, 27.7.1927, 11.3.1929, 12.12.1929, 7.1.1930, 4.3.1930, 20.3.1930, 25.5.1930, 22.6.1930, 24.7.1930, 14.1.1931, 19.4.1931, 7.12.1931, 6.1.1932, 6.2.1932, 7.4.1932, 17.6.1933, 12.12.1933, 28.5.1934, 9.5.1935, 8.3.1937; Chwila Wieczorna 2.5.1939; Hanoar Hacijoni 15.4.1938; Przyszłość 20.12.1898, 5.6.1899; Wschód 30.11.1900, 11.1.1901, 21.1.1903, 21.6.1905, 20.9.1905, 25.10.1905, 10.1.1908, 29.7.1910, 29.6.1912.
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