Translation of Lite
Published in New York, NY, 1951
Dr. Mendel Sudarsky
Published in New York, NY, 1951
Sonia Kovitz (Emerita)
Sonia Kovitz (Emerita)
This is a translation from: Lite (vol.1), ed. Mendel Sudarsky, and Uriah Katzenelenbogen.
Translation Fund Donation Form
provides a secure way to make donations,
either on-line or by mail, to help continue this project. Donations to JewishGen are tax-deductible.
JewishGen, Inc. makes no representations regarding the accuracy of
the translation. The reader may wish to refer to the original material
JewishGen is not responsible for inaccuracies or omissions in the original work and cannot rewrite or edit the text to correct inaccuracies and/or omissions.
Our mission is to produce a translation of the original work and we cannot verify the accuracy of statements or alter facts cited.
see also Lite (Volume2)
|Introduction||Prof. Louis Ginzberg||25|
|Lithuania in Our Memory||Uriah Katzenelenbogen||33|
| The History of the Lithuanian Jews From the Middle Ages to the First World War (A General Survey)
||Dr. Mark Wishnitzer||43|
| The Exile of the Lithuanian Jews in the Conflagration of the First World War (1914-1918)
1. Outbreak of the War 2. On the Eve of the Exile 3. The Kuzhi Frame-up and the Expulsion of Lithuanian Jews 4. The Resounding Effect of the Exile and New Banishments 5. The Yekopo (Jewish Committee of Relief) Aids the Hapless Wanderers 6. Pogroms on Lithuanian Jews Who Avoided the Expulsion 7. The Plight of the Refugees 8. Lithuanian Jews on a Strange Soil 9. The February Revoluticn of 1917 10. Repatriation.
| Jews in the Independent Lithuania (Between the Two World Wars)
The Establishment of the Lithuanian Taryba (Council) The Taryba of Vilnius Proclaims the Independence of Lithuania and Selects a King Jews are Invited to Participate in the Taryba and in the Ministerial Cabinet Lithuanian-Jewish Freindship. Dr. Vigodsky the First Jewish Minister The Lithuanian Government Moves to Kaunas The Molding of the Jewish National Autonomy The Government Declaration of May 12, 1922 The Jewish Part in Political and Industrial Life Jewish Cultural and Social Achievements The Origination of the Jewish National Council Obstacles in its Activities The Golden Era of the National Autonomy The Downthrow The Bitter Disappointment The Resignation of the Minister of Jewish Affairs, Dr. Soloveichik The Desperate Struggle for National Autonomy Anti-Jewish Regulations and the Daubing of Jewish Signs The Liquidation of the Ministry for Jewish Affairs and the Jewish National Council The Blow at the Jewish Communities (Kehilot) Anti-Jewish Decrees The Fight of the Jewish Parliamentarians (Jewish Seim-Faction) for Jewish Rights Smetona's Goup d'Etat, December 17, 1926 Remnants of the National Autonomy New Restrictions against Jews The Inner Strength of the Lithuanian Jewry.
|Dr. Mendel Sudarsky||119|
|The Last Year of Existence of the Lithuanian Jewry||Dr. Samuel Greenhaus||153|
| Vaad of Lithuania (Council of the Union of the Jewish Communities, 1623-1761),
Its Structure and Role in the Social Life of the Lithuanian Jews
1. Origin of the Vaad of Lithuania and its General Character 2. The Economic Legislation of the Vaad 3. Its Regulations Regarding Education, Social Protection, Family Life and the Ways of Conduct 4. The Discipline of the Communities and the Functions of their Councils 5. The Defense of the Rights of the Jews and he Fighting Off of Instigators against Jews 6. The Composition of the Vaad 7. Its Business Order 8. The Executive Body of the Vaad 9. Contentions among the Leading Forces 10. Cycles in the History of the Vaad 11. The Autonomical Organization of the Communities in Samegitia.
|Dr. Mark Wishnitzer||163|
|The Origin of the Karaites in Lithuania and Poland||Dr J. Brutzkus||193|
|The Karaites of the Last 150 Years||M. Uriel||203|
|To the History of the Conference in Kaunas in 1869||Gregory Aronson||209|
|The Conference in Kaunas in 1909||G. A.||219|
|The Jewish National Autonomy in Independent Lithuania (Reminiscences with a Critical View)||Dr. Joseph Berger||223|
|The Second Conference of the Jewish Communities (Kehilot) of Lithuania||Dr. E. Widans||241|
|The Jewish National Assembly in Lithuania||L. Shimoni||251|
|The Jews in the Seim (Diet) of Lithuania||M. S.||273|
|The Jewish Faction in the Seim of Lithuania||Dr. Jacob Robinson||275|
|The Jewish Faction of the Second Seim||A. Makovsky||279|
|The Jews in the Municipal Administration||Att. Lazar Lowenstein||287|
|Lithuania and Its Fight for Vilnius||Dr. Mendel Sudarsky||295|
ENVIRONS NEIGHBORS MORES LANGUAGES PORTRAIT PAINTINGS
1. The Ethnographical and Historical Boundaries of Lithuania 2. The Heathen Lithuania 3. In the Christian Lithuania 4. The Jews among Subjugated Peasant Peoples 5. Insurrections, Liberation of Peasants, Prohibition of Lithuanian and Whiterussian Languages 6. Lithuania, a Hostelry of Jewish Learning 7. The Language Milieu of the Haskalah 8. Litvaks the World Over 9. Hopes for Good-Neighborly Relations among the Peoples of Lithuania 10. The Split Lithuania 11. Litvaks after the Destruction of the Lithuanian Jewry.
| The Tribe of the Litvaks
1. The Air of Lithuania 2. The Interpretation of a Cross-Head" (Tseilom-Kop) 3. King Solomon Receives the Last Word 4. And This is the Blessing.
|Dr. Aaron Steinberg||393|
|The Litvaks of Kurland||B. Rivkin||407|
|Jewish Dishes in Lithuania||Hirsh Abramovitz||417|
| Our Lithuanian Yiddish
1. Among My People I Live 2. Not All of the Lithuanian Jews Talk Alike 3. Common Peculiarities in the Sounds of all Colloquialisms 4. The Notorious Confusion of S and Sh (Sabesdiker Losn) 5. The Yiddish of Samogitia 6. The Usual Lithuanian Yiddish 7. The Yiddish of Suvlkija 8. About the Origin of the Diversity of Colloquialisms 9. The Grammatical Gender in our Usage 10. More Idiosyncrasies in the Grammar of the Lithuanian Dialect 11. The Vocabulary of the Lithuanian Yiddish 12. Lithuanianisms in Yiddish 13. Typical Proverbs of Our Localities.
| Types of Lithuanian Jews Painted by Jewish Artists
Sholem Feigensohn Jewish Women, His Mother; Mark Chagall An Ethrog and Palm Branch Carrier, A Scroll Reader, A Preacher; J. Messenblum A Lithuanian Jew; Max Band A Laborer; Albert Rappoport A Pauper-Wanderer; Sholem Feigensohn A Village Pedlar, His Father, A Learner, Hermann Struck A Porter, A Bricklayer, A Coachman.
|TORAH MUSAR RABB1NATE HASIDISM (HABAD) MISNAGDIM YESHIBOT|
| Learning in Lithuania in the 19th Century
Introductory Hasidot and Misnagdot The Gaon of Wilno and his Disciples The Yeshibah of Volozhin The Yeshibot of Mir and Eishishkai The Medium Yeshibot Learners in Synagogues Rabbi Israel Salanter and the Musar-Movement The Musar-Yeshibot of Slabodka (Viliampole) and Novogrodek.
|The Gaon of Wilno Rabbi Elijah||Prof. Louis Ginzberg||527|
| The Originators of the Musar-Movement
1. Rabbi Joseph Zundl Salanter 2. Rabbi Israel Salanter 3. Rabbi Isaac Blazer.
|A. R. Malachi||539|
| Rabbi Isaac Elchanan
Transcribed for the Book Lite by Uriah Katzenelenbogen
|Narrated by Prof. Chaim Tchernowitz||567|
|Rabbi Isaac of Panevczhys||Rabbi M. S. Shapiro||577|
|Rabbi Abraham Duber Shapiro (The Last Chief Rabbi of Kaunas)||Rabbi M. S. Shapiro||583|
|Hasidot and Misnagdot||Rabbi Moses Hyim Adler||599|
|The Method of Interpretation in the Lithuanian Yeshibot||Prof. Samuel Atlas||605|
|In the Yeshibah of Volozhin||Ben-Zion Pecker||615|
|The Yeshibah of Telshiai||Rabbi Elijah Meir Bloch||623|
|The Yeshibah of Mir||M. Hindes||631|
|Lyda, Its Rabbis and Its Yeshibah||M. Evensky||635|
|The Kibutz of Panevezhys||Isaac Rivkind||645|
|The Yeshibah in Radun (Chofetz-Chaim Yeshibah)||A. Rivkes||653|
1. Kaunas-Aleksotai 2. How Simcha Zissl was Converted to Musar and his Disciple Nathan Hirsch 3. Slabodka and Nehardea 4. A Last Musar-Discourse.
| The Cultural History of the Haskalah of the Lithuanian Jews
The Forerunners of the Haskalah Movement The First Champions of the Maskilim in Lithuania The Haskalah in Lithuania in the Period of 1794 to 1830 Jewish Printing Establishments in Lithuania Prince Adam Czartoryski, the Maskilizator Jews in the University of Wilno Lithuania after 1812 Haskalah in Lithuania in the Years 1824-1841 The Officious Haskalah (1841-1873) The Rabbinical Seminary of Wilno The Situation After 1863 The Ideological Strife Haskalah-Literature.
|Dr. Jacob Shatzky||691|
|Mordecai Aaron Ginzburg and His Tract Abiezer.||Dr. Menahem G. Glenn||759|
|The Sages of Zhagare||Dr. Hermann Frank||775|
|Abraham Mapu||Baal Ditnion (Nahum Shtiff)||785|
|Micah Joseph Lebensohn and Mordecai Zvi Manne||Mordecai Jaffe||789|
|Eisik Meir Dick||S. Charney||795|
| Michel Gordon
1. Michel Gordon, the Poet 2. Michel Gordon, the Man.
|Eliakim Zunser and His Songs||J. Kissin||817|
STATISTICS INDUSTRY COMMERCE CRAFTSMANSHIP TRADE GUILDS PROFESSIONS RURAL OCCUPATIONS AGRICULTURE
| The Economic Condition of the Jews in Lithuania (1919-1939)
I. The Increase and the National Status of the Population of Lithuania II. The Jewish Population in Kovno Government for the Last Century III. The Population Movement of the Lithuanian Jews IV The Emigration of the Jews and Non-Jews V. The Economic Development of the Kovno-Government and the Jewish Participation in it in the Middle of the 19th Century VI. The Transition Period between Kovno-Government and Independent Country VII. The Social Aspects of the Different Peoples in Independent Lithuania according to the Census of 1923 VIII. The Economic Advancement of the Independent Lithunia IX. The Economic Condition of the Jews in Independent Lithuania X. Jewish Artisans in Independent Lithuania XI. Jews in the Professions XII. The Jewish Cooperative Movement.
| The Pioneer of the Leather Industry in Lithuania, Hyim Frankel Narrated by his son, Jacob Frankel.
His Parents and Youth Settling in Shauliai The Rise of his Tannery New Tanning Chemicals Our Shoe Factory Shauliai, a World Center of Leather Our Agents The Productivity of the Leather Plant Our Customers Relatives At Home and in the World The First World War and After.
|Jewish Artisans and Their Guilds in Lithuania||Dr. Mark Wishnitzer||971|
| Of Jewish Rural Occupations in Lithuania
Fishing and Inn-Keeping.
| Agriculture and Gardening Among Lithuanian Jews
||EngineerAgronomist Jacob Rossein||997|
|OF THE JEWISH LITERARY MILIEU IN INDEPENDENT LITHUANIA|
|J. Kissin||The Editors||1015|
|Lithuania in Poetry and Prose||J. Kissin||1019|
|My Years in Kovno||Abraham Reisen||1025|
|Baal Machshovot (Dr I. Eljashev)||S. Charney||1045|
|A Year in the Lithuanian State (Reminiscences of a Wayfarer)||Dr. A. Mukdoni||1071|
|Yiddish Literary Achievements in Lithuania (A General Survey)||N. I. Gotlieb||1099|
|Hebrew Literary Buds in Lithuania||Nathan Greenblat||1111|
|CITIES AND TOWNS REMINISCENCES DESCRIPTIONS|
|Vilnius and Lithuania||Baal Dimion (Nahum Shtiff)||1125|
|Vilnius Jerusalem of Lithuania||Dr Mordecai Kossover||1131|
|The Jewish Kaunas (Historical Outline)||Ezekiel I. Berlson||1155|
|The Dawn of the Socialist Movement in Kaunas||Victor Shulman||1161|
|Silhouettes of the Past Intelligentsia of Kaunas||Leon Savage||1173|
| Reminiscences of Kaunas
Childhood Years Kaunas, A Religious Jewish City Benevolent Associations Associations for the World Beyond The Revolutionary Era The Bund in Kaunas.
| From Pumpenai to Kaunas
Pumpenai Pasvalys Panevezhys Kedainiai In Jonuva in Shirvintai In Taurage In Kaunas.
|B. I. Byalostotzky||1203|
| My First Journey Through Samogitia
My Desire to See Lithuania Coachmen Birzhai Through Villages Seeing Off Travelers to the U. S. A. and South Africa The African Groom A Glimpse at Pasvalys Vashkai Zheimelis Kriukai Shauliai The Directorius Jonas Gruzdzhiai Papile.
|Of My Visits to Lithuania||Vladimir Grossmann||1251|
|The First Strike of the Bristle Workers in Lithuania||M. Ladsky||1259|
|Vanished Worlds||H. Smith||1263|
|Three Times in Lithuania||B. Z. Goldberg||1269|
|Wilno, a Chapter in My Life||Der Tunkeler||1279|
|A Contrabandist of the Jewish Book||Morris S. Sklarsky||1289|
| My Two Visits to the Lithuanian State
First Visit Second Visit Pashvitinys Linkuva Vashkai Shauliai.
|Zivion (Dr. B. Hoffmann)||1293|
|My Grandmother Hya Sarah||Dr. I. N. Steinberg||1309|
|The Family Eljashev of Kaunas||Dr. Samuel Eljashev (Friedman)||1313|
|In Independent Lithuania in 1933||Daniel Charney||1323|
|Of My Visit to Lithuania in 1938||Joseph Opatoshu||1327|
|What Lithuania Signifies for Us (Reflections of the Past)||J. Batnitzky||1331|
|In Joy and in Grief Among Lithuanian Jews||M. Mandelman||1333|
|Rabbi Hirsh of Slobodka||S. M. Sherman||1359|
|Reb Hirsh Nevyazher||Ben-Isaac||1363|
|Rabbi Joseph Zechariah Shtern (What People Told of Him)||A. Jerushalmi||1365|
|Rabbi Herzl||B. Shilman||1369|
|Rabbi Shloime Dayon (Batnitzky)||Dr. S. Melamed||1373|
| Types of a Past Generation of Lithuania
Reb Itche of Baltushov Reb Arele Shloime's Reb Moishl of Vishtytis.
|Dr. Mordecai Katz||1375|
|Moishele the Author||Dr. Z. Kadish||1383|
|A Blessing by Chofetz-Chaim||Abba Gordin||1385|
|Khane the Shoemaker (Markus)||Leib Nadel||1393|
| Among the Halutzim in Lithuania
Introductory The Centre Labor The Agricultural Cooperative Kibush (Conquest) The District of the Cooperatives Golil (Galilee) To the Exile We Shall Not Return."
|I. N. Gotlieb||1395|
| The Jewish Panevezhys
Social Activities The Old Mode of Living The Rabbi of Panevezhys Maskilim and Revolutionaries Deputy of the Duma (Parliament of Russia).
|Dr. Joseph A. Heller||1403|
|Panevezhys in 1906||Alter Epstein||1413|
|The Jewish Common Folk of Panevezhys||M. Birman||1415|
| Panevezhys After the First World War
The Market-Place and the Pharmacy Synagogues The Town Pump Rabbinate Karaites Jewish Writers People's Intelligentsia Organizations and Institutions Our Common Towns.
|A Visit to Panevezhys in 1938||Meir Kimmel||1425|
|Klaipeda (Memel)||Dr. Samuel Greenhaus||1427|
|The Town Kelme||Rabbi Hyim Karlinsky||1437|
|Alytus||Dr. Martin Lichtenstein||1477|
|A Short Visit to Alytus||Alte Arsh-Sudarsky||1479|
| My Town Dusetos (Types and Episodes)
This and That The Rebel Elijah Sarah-Mirra's A Page of Gemara Pinya The Dyer Itzikl Business Leibele Nie Rush..
|Israel Matz||The Editors||1497|
|My Home Town, Kalvarija||Israel Matz||1499|
|My Town, Skuodas||Leo Bernstein||1513|
|Merkine||Dr. Menahem G. Glenn||1519|
|Pilvishkiai||Dr. M. Z. Levinson||1533|
|A Semester in Krekenava||B. Shilman||1535|
|My Town, Moletai||Ben-Zion Riback||1539|
|Obelial||B. G. Zack||1543|
|Towns of the Region of Vilnius||M. S.||1547|
|Glubokoje||Alte A. S.||1551|
|Ratnitza||A. Zebulun Berebitches||1553|
| Through Lithuania (Cities and Towns)
Mariampole Vilkavishkis by Berl London Telshai Raseiniai by N. Ben-Chaim Utena Jonuva by Peisach Janever Taurage Birzhai by I. R. Kedainiai by Ben-Alexander Mazheikiai by Josephus Rokishkis by Yudel Gapanovitch Plunge by N. Rill Jurbarkas Lazdijai by I Dan Anykshchiai Zarasai Kupishkis Prienai Zhagare Kudirkos-Naumiestis by Z. Tumpovsky Pandelis Seredzhius by G-n Seta Balbierishkis Chekishkis by R. K. Gelvonai Pushalotas Veliuona Shiaulenai by Ben-Daniel Onushkis by L. B. E. Rudamynas by Daniel Riback Kuliai Taujenai by A. Walt.
|Dr. Mendel Sudarsky||1561|
|Vishtytis||Dr. Mendel Sudarsky||1627|
|Virbalis||Dr. Mendel Sudarsky||1633|
|DESTRUCTION OF THE LITHUANIAN JEWRY|
|The Annihilation of the Jews in Vilnius||Victor Shulman||1649|
|At the Vilnius Cemetery||Layzer Ran||1659|
|Lithuanians and Jews During the Nazi Occupation||Ona Shimaite||1661|
|The Ghetto Library of Vilnius||Dinah Abramovitz||1671|
| Most Significant Moments in the Ghetto of Kaunas
1. From the Beginning of the War to the Inclusion in the Ghetto 2. The Time of the Aktionen 3. The So-Called Quiet Period 4. Recurrent Aktionen, Exile to Estonia, The Liquidation.
|The Arbeit-Einsatz (Forced Labor) in the Ghetto of Kaunas||Agronomist Jacob Oleisky||1713|
|Medical Aid in the Ghetto and in the Concentration Camp||Dr. Aaron Percikovitz||1719|
|A Day Behind Barbed Wires.||Dr. S. Dolnitzky||1735|
|Cultural Activities in the Ghetto of Kaunas||Dr. Samuel Greenhaus||1743|
|A Jewish Teen-Age Girl in the Concentration Camp (Katzet)||Vera Elijashev||1757|
|The Annihilated Family of Moishe Katz||L. Odes 1763|
| The Destruction of the Jews in the Ghetto of Shauliai and of the Adjacent Towns
The First Massacres The Tanneries The Jews Forced into the Ghetto The Aktionen Aerodrome The Hospital The Public School The Werkstuben (Workhouses) The Reduction of the Ghetto Area The Turf-Decree August 20, 1942 The List of the 27 The Winter-Camps Working Places Outside of the Ghetto The Abolishing of the Currency System Camps of 1943 The Gallows Reopening of the School - The Kasernierung (Transfer to Barracks) Children Aktion The Rescued Children Change in the Ghetto Administration Camp A. B. A. Evacuation from the Camps Evacuation from the Ghetto of Shauliai Foreign Camps of Panevezhys and Jonishkis Extermination of the Jews of Tytuvenai The Perishing Jews of Telshiai and Adjacent Alsedzhiai, Vevirzhenai, Varnel, Zharenai, Tverai, Luoke, Navarenai, Plunge, Plateliai, Rietava Why No Renstance? Our Annihilation and the Lithuanian Attitude.
| To the History of the Destruction of the Lithuanian Jewry
Introductory How the Jews Were Tortured to Death in Panevzhys Atrocious Killings of the Jews in Mariampole The Perishing of the Jews in Garleva, Pakonys, Veiveriai, Mavruchiai and Other Communities Near Kaunas A Lithuanian Professor Repents.
|The Last Days of Kelme||Rabbi Samuel Meir Karnovitz||1845|
|The Destruction of Jurbarkas||Zvi Levit||1849|
|Simnas and Its Annihilation||Zvi Levit||1853|
|Devastation of the Jews of Pasvalys and of Nearby Jewish Communities of Jonishkelis, Vashkai, Linkuva, Pumpenai, Salochiai and Vabalnikas||B. Rainus||1859|
|Skaudvile and Its Annihilation||Rabbi Hyim Stein||1861|
|The Devastation of the Jews of Kudirkos-Naumiestis||Dr. L. Goldstein||1865|
|The Destruction of Gargzhdai||*~*||1867|
|Annihilation of the Jews of Aukshtadvaris and of Trakai, Onushkis, Valkenikai, Rudishikis, Leipunai and Lantvaris||Jacob Sapirstein||1869|
|Annihilation of the Jews of Alsedzhiai Transcribed by A. Jerushalmi||David Factor||1881|
|Annihilation of the Jews of Vyzhuonis||Rabbi Shabbethai Katz||1885|
|In the Woods (Leaves of a Diary)||Berl Kagan||1887|
|Partisans of the Ghetto of Slabodka||Chaint Meiserovitch||1907|
|Lithuanian Jews Among the Jewish Survivors in Germany||Marion Gide||1919|
| The Bibliography of the Literature on the Annihilation of the Lithuanian Jewry
1. Books and Articles of General Content 2. Vilnius 3. Kaunas 4. Cities and Communities of Lithuania and its Neighboring Border Regions 5. Resistance and the Partisan Movement 6. Works of Literature and Folk-lore.
|Dr. Philip Friedman||1923|
|Index of Personalities||1941|
|Index to Places Mentioned||1977|
|Sponsors of the Book Lite (Lithuania)||1989|
|Partial Contents of Volume Two Lite (Lithuania)||2001|
Yizkor Book Project JewishGen Home Page
Copyright © 1999-2016 by JewishGen, Inc.
Updated 28 Apr 2016 by MGH