Lithuania

Translation of Lite

Edited by:
Dr. Mendel Sudarsky
Uriah Katzenelenbogen
J. Kissin
Berl Kagan

Published in New York, NY, 1951


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Acknowledgments

Project Coordinators

Max Heffler and Sonia Kovitz

This is a translation from: Lite (vol.1), ed. Mendel Sudarsky, and Uriah Katzenelenbogen.
New York: Jewish-Cultural Society, 1951.


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see also Lite (Volume2)


    IntroductionProf. Louis Ginzberg25
HISTORY  
    Lithuania in Our MemoryUriah Katzenelenbogen33
    The History of the Lithuanian Jews – From the Middle Ages to the First World War (A General Survey) Dr. Mark Wishnitzer43
        The Distinctive Traits in the History of the Lithuanian Jews – When Have the Jews Appeared in Lithuania? – The Realm of Lithuania in the Middle Ages – The Union of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1386 – The Charters of 1388 and 1389 for the Jews in Lithuania – The Reign of Vytautas (1386-1430), a “Bright Era” for the Lithuanian Jews – King and Grand Duke Casimir (1440-1492) Continues the Policies Regarding the Jews of Vytautas – The Expulsion of the Jews in 1495 – The Return of the Jews in 1503 – The Expanding of the Jewish Population in the 16th Century – The Conditions of the Jews under the Rule of Sigismund – Sigismund Augustus (1548-1572), a Liberal Ruler – Anti-Jewish Tendencies among the Middle Classes of the Urban Population and in the Circles of Impoverished Gentry – The Magdeburg Law Aggravates the Position of the Jewish Merchants and Artisans – Henry Válois, a Prince of France, becomes King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania – A Hard Struggle for the Morsel of Bread after the Economic Prosperity at the End of the 16th Century and in the Beginning of the 17th – The Disaster Brought by the Invasion of Moscow. The Initial Emigration to Western Europe – The Economic Decline Brings Social Discrimination – Vilnius (Wilno) and Kaunas (Kovno) – Spiritual and Cultural Upsurge in the 17th and 18th Centuries – Lithuanian Jews under the Rule of Russia – The Strife between the Hasidim and the Misnagdim – The Rise of the Haskalah – Under the Reign of Nicholas I – The Difficult Path of the Haskalah and its Progress – The Epoch of Alexander II – Changes in Social-Economic Conditions in the Second Half of the 19th Century – 1869, the Beginning of the Emigration from the Kovno Province to the U S A. – Emigration and Self-Help, Zionism and Bundism – The Revolution in Russia (1905) – On the Eve of the First World War.

I

    The Exile of the Lithuanian Jews in the Conflagration of the First World War (1914-1918)Louis Stein89
        1. Outbreak of the War – 2. On the Eve of the Exile – 3. The “Kuzhi Frame-up” and the Expulsion of Lithuanian Jews – 4. The Resounding Effect of the Exile and New Banishments – 5. The “Yekopo” (Jewish Committee of Relief) Aids the Hapless Wanderers – 6. Pogroms on Lithuanian Jews Who Avoided the Expulsion – 7. The Plight of the Refugees – 8. Lithuanian Jews on a Strange Soil – 9. The February Revoluticn of 1917 – 10. Repatriation.   
    Jews in the Independent Lithuania (Between the Two World Wars)Dr. Mendel Sudarsky119
         The Establishment of the Lithuanian “Taryba” (Council) – The Taryba of Vilnius Proclaims the Independence of Lithuania and Selects a King – Jews are Invited to Participate in the Taryba and in the Ministerial Cabinet – Lithuanian-Jewish Freindship. Dr. Vigodsky the First Jewish Minister – The Lithuanian Government Moves to Kaunas – The Molding of the Jewish National Autonomy – The Government Declaration of May 12, 1922 – The Jewish Part in Political and Industrial Life – Jewish Cultural and Social Achievements – The Origination of the Jewish National Council – Obstacles in its Activities – The “Golden Era” of the National Autonomy – The Downthrow – The Bitter Disappointment – The Resignation of the Minister of Jewish Affairs, Dr. Soloveichik – The Desperate Struggle for National Autonomy – Anti-Jewish Regulations and the Daubing of Jewish Signs – The Liquidation of the Ministry for Jewish Affairs and the Jewish National Council – The Blow at the Jewish Communities (Kehilot) – Anti-Jewish Decrees – The Fight of the Jewish Parliamentarians (Jewish Seim-Faction) for Jewish Rights – Smetona's Goup d'Etat, December 17, 1926 – Remnants of the National Autonomy – New Restrictions against Jews – The Inner Strength of the Lithuanian Jewry.
    The Last Year of Existence of the Lithuanian JewryDr. Samuel Greenhaus153
    Vaad of Lithuania (Council of the Union of the Jewish Communities, 1623-1761), Its Structure and Role in the Social Life of the Lithuanian JewsDr. Mark Wishnitzer163
         1. Origin of the Vaad of Lithuania and its General Character – 2. The Economic Legislation of the Vaad – 3. Its Regulations Regarding Education, Social Protection, Family Life and the Ways of Conduct – 4. The Discipline of the Communities and the Functions of their Councils – 5. The Defense of the Rights of the Jews and he Fighting Off of Instigators against Jews – 6. The Composition of the Vaad – 7. Its Business Order – 8. The Executive Body of the Vaad – 9. Contentions among the Leading Forces – 10. Cycles in the History of the Vaad – 11. The Autonomical Organization of the Communities in Samegitia.
    The Origin of the Karaites in Lithuania and PolandDr J. Brutzkus193
    The Karaites of the Last 150 YearsM. Uriel203
    To the History of the Conference in Kaunas in 1869Gregory Aronson209
    The Conference in Kaunas in 1909G. A.219
    The Jewish National Autonomy in Independent Lithuania (Reminiscences with a Critical View)Dr. Joseph Berger223
    The Second Conference of the Jewish Communities (Kehilot) of LithuaniaDr. E. Widans241
    The Jewish National Assembly in Lithuania L. Shimoni251
    The Jews in the Seim (Diet) of LithuaniaM. S.273
    The Jewish Faction in the Seim of LithuaniaDr. Jacob Robinson275
    The Jewish Faction of the Second Seim A. Makovsky279
    The Jews in the Municipal AdministrationAtt. Lazar Lowenstein287
    Lithuania and Its Fight for Vilnius Dr. Mendel Sudarsky295

II

LITVAKS

ENVIRONS – NEIGHBORS – MORES – LANGUAGES – PORTRAIT PAINTINGS

  
    LitvaksUriah Katzenelenbogen307
         1. The Ethnographical and Historical Boundaries of Lithuania – 2. The Heathen Lithuania – 3. In the Christian Lithuania – 4. The Jews among Subjugated Peasant Peoples – 5. Insurrections, Liberation of Peasants, Prohibition of Lithuanian and Whiterussian Languages – 6. Lithuania, a Hostelry of Jewish Learning – 7. The Language Milieu of the Haskalah – 8. Litvaks the World Over – 9. Hopes for Good-Neighborly Relations among the Peoples of Lithuania – 10. The Split Lithuania – 11. Litvaks after the Destruction of the Lithuanian Jewry.
    The Tribe of the LitvaksDr. Aaron Steinberg393
         1. The Air of Lithuania – 2. The Interpretation of a “Cross-Head" (Tseilom-Kop) – 3. King Solomon Receives the Last Word – 4. And This is the Blessing.
    The Litvaks of KurlandB. Rivkin407
    Jewish Dishes in LithuaniaHirsh Abramovitz417
    Our Lithuanian YiddishYudel Mark429
         1. Among My People I Live – 2. Not All of the Lithuanian Jews Talk Alike – 3. Common Peculiarities in the Sounds of all Colloquialisms – 4. The Notorious Confusion of S and Sh (Sabesdiker Losn) – 5. The Yiddish of Samogitia – 6. The Usual Lithuanian Yiddish – 7. The Yiddish of Suvlkija – 8. About the Origin of the Diversity of Colloquialisms – 9. The Grammatical Gender in our Usage – 10. More Idiosyncrasies in the Grammar of the Lithuanian Dialect – 11. The Vocabulary of the Lithuanian Yiddish – 12. Lithuanianisms in Yiddish – 13. Typical Proverbs of Our Localities.
    Types of Lithuanian Jews Painted by Jewish Artists  473
        Sholem Feigensohn – Jewish Women, His Mother; Mark Chagall – An Ethrog and Palm Branch Carrier, A Scroll Reader, A Preacher; J. Messenblum – A Lithuanian Jew; Max Band – A Laborer; Albert Rappoport – A Pauper-Wanderer; Sholem Feigensohn – A Village Pedlar, His Father, A Learner, Hermann Struck – A Porter, A Bricklayer, A Coachman.
TORAH – MUSAR – RABB1NATE – HASIDISM (HABAD) – MISNAGDIM – YESHIBOT  
    Learning in Lithuania in the 19th CenturyA. Menes483
        Introductory – Hasidot and Misnagdot – The Gaon of Wilno and his Disciples – The Yeshibah of Volozhin – The Yeshibot of Mir and Eishishkai – The Medium Yeshibot – Learners in Synagogues – Rabbi Israel Salanter and the Musar-Movement – The Musar-Yeshibot of Slabodka (Viliampole) and Novogrodek.
    The Gaon of Wilno Rabbi ElijahProf. Louis Ginzberg527
    The Originators of the Musar-MovementA. R. Malachi539
         1. Rabbi Joseph Zundl Salanter – 2. Rabbi Israel Salanter – 3. Rabbi Isaac Blazer.
    Rabbi Isaac Elchanan
         Transcribed for the Book “Lite” by Uriah Katzenelenbogen
Narrated by Prof. Chaim Tchernowitz567
    Rabbi Isaac of Panevczhys Rabbi M. S. Shapiro577
    Rabbi Abraham Duber Shapiro (The Last Chief Rabbi of Kaunas)Rabbi M. S. Shapiro583
    Habad Aaron Zeitlin589
    Hasidot and MisnagdotRabbi Moses Hyim Adler599
    The Method of Interpretation in the Lithuanian YeshibotProf. Samuel Atlas605

III

    In the Yeshibah of VolozhinBen-Zion Pecker615
    The Yeshibah of Telshiai Rabbi Elijah Meir Bloch623
    The Yeshibah of MirM. Hindes631
    Lyda, Its Rabbis and Its YeshibahM. Evensky635
    The Kibutz of PanevezhysIsaac Rivkind645
    The Yeshibah in Radun (Chofetz-Chaim Yeshibah)A. Rivkes653
    Midrash-KaunasPiesach Markus663
         1. Kaunas-Aleksotai – 2. How Simcha Zissl was Converted to Musar and his Disciple Nathan Hirsch– 3. Slabodka and Nehardea – 4. A Last Musar-Discourse.
HASKALAH (ENLIGHTENMENT)
    The Cultural History of the Haskalah of the Lithuanian JewsDr. Jacob Shatzky 691
         The Forerunners of the Haskalah Movement – The First Champions of the Maskilim in Lithuania – The Haskalah in Lithuania in the Period of 1794 to 1830 – Jewish Printing Establishments in Lithuania – Prince Adam Czartoryski, the “Maskilizator” – Jews in the University of Wilno – Lithuania after 1812 – Haskalah in Lithuania in the Years 1824-1841 – The Officious Haskalah (1841-1873) – The Rabbinical Seminary of Wilno – The Situation After 1863 – The Ideological Strife – Haskalah-Literature.  
    Mordecai Aaron Ginzburg and His Tract “Abiezer.”Dr. Menahem G. Glenn759
    The Sages of Zhagare Dr. Hermann Frank775
    Abraham MapuBaal Ditnion (Nahum Shtiff)785
    Micah Joseph Lebensohn and Mordecai Zvi Manne Mordecai Jaffe 789
    Eisik Meir DickS. Charney795
    Michel Gordon S. Charney799
         1. Michel Gordon, the Poet – 2. Michel Gordon, the Man.
    Eliakim Zunser and His SongsJ. Kissin817
ECONOMICS

STATISTICS – INDUSTRY – COMMERCE – CRAFTSMANSHIP – TRADE GUILDS – PROFESSIONS – RURAL OCCUPATIONS – AGRICULTURE

  
    The Economic Condition of the Jews in Lithuania (1919-1939)Jacob Lestchinsky 827
         I. The Increase and the National Status of the Population of Lithuania – II. The Jewish Population in Kovno Government for the Last Century – III. The Population Movement of the Lithuanian Jews – IV The Emigration of the Jews and Non-Jews – V. The Economic Development of the Kovno-Government and the Jewish Participation in it in the Middle of the 19th Century – VI. The Transition Period between Kovno-Government and Independent Country – VII. The Social Aspects of the Different Peoples in Independent Lithuania according to the Census of 1923 – VIII. The Economic Advancement of the Independent Lithunia – IX. The Economic Condition of the Jews in Independent Lithuania – X. Jewish Artisans in Independent Lithuania – XI. Jews in the Professions – XII. The Jewish Cooperative Movement.
    The Pioneer of the Leather Industry in Lithuania, Hyim Frankel
        Narrated by his son, Jacob Frankel.
Transcribed by Uriah Katzenelenbogen941
         His Parents and Youth – Settling in Shauliai – The Rise of his Tannery – New Tanning Chemicals – Our Shoe Factory – Shauliai, a World Center of Leather – Our Agents – The Productivity of the Leather Plant – Our Customers – Relatives – At Home and in the World – The First World War and After.

IV

    Jewish Artisans and Their Guilds in LithuaniaDr. Mark Wishnitzer971
    Of Jewish Rural Occupations in Lithuania Hirsh Abramovitz985
        Fishing and Inn-Keeping.  
    Agriculture and Gardening among Lithuanian JewsEngineer-Agronomist Jacob Rossein997
         1. A Glimpse of History and Statistics – 2. Big Land Ownership – 3. Husbandry of Village-Peasants – 4. Farming in the Suburbs – 5. Suburban Gardens and Orchards – 6. House Gardening.
OF THE JEWISH LITERARY MILIEU IN INDEPENDENT LITHUANIA  
    J. KissinThe Editors1015
    Lithuania in Poetry and ProseJ. Kissin1019
    My Years in Kovno Abraham Reisen1025
    Baal Machshovot (Dr I. Eljashev)S. Charney1045
    A Year in the Lithuanian State (Reminiscences of a Wayfarer)Dr. A. Mukdoni 1071
    Yiddish Literary Achievements in Lithuania (A General Survey)N. I. Gotlieb 1099
    Hebrew Literary Buds in LithuaniaNathan Greenblat 1111
CITIES AND TOWNS – REMINISCENCES – DESCRIPTIONS  
    Vilnius and LithuaniaBaal Dimion (Nahum Shtiff)1125
    Vilnius – Jerusalem of LithuaniaDr Mordecai Kossover1131
    The Jewish Kaunas (Historical Outline)Ezekiel I. Berlson1155
    The Dawn of the Socialist Movement in KaunasVictor Shulman1161
    Silhouettes of the Past Intelligentsia of KaunasLeon Savage1173
    Kaunas Osip Dymoff1183
    Reminiscences of KaunasFrank Epstein 1191
         Childhood Years – Kaunas, A Religious Jewish City – Benevolent Associations – Associations for the World Beyond – The Revolutionary Era – The “Bund” in Kaunas.
    From Pumpenai to KaunasB. I. Byalostotzky 1203
         PumpenaiPasvalysPanevezhys – Kedainiai – In Jonuva – in Shirvintai – In Taurage – In Kaunas.  
    My First Journey Through SamogitiaUriah Katzenelenbogen 1227
         My Desire to See Lithuania – Coachmen – Birzhai – Through Villages – Seeing Off Travelers to the U. S. A. and South Africa – The African Groom – A Glimpse at Pasvalys – Vashkai – Zheimelis – Kriukai – Shauliai – The “Directorius” Jonas – Gruzdzhiai – Papile.  
    Of My Visits to LithuaniaVladimir Grossmann1251
    The First Strike of the Bristle Workers in LithuaniaM. Ladsky1259
    Vanished WorldsH. Smith1263
    Three Times in LithuaniaB. Z. Goldberg1269
    Wilno, a Chapter in My LifeDer Tunkeler1279
    A Contrabandist of the Jewish BookMorris S. Sklarsky1289

V

    My Two Visits to the Lithuanian StateZivion (Dr. B. Hoffmann) 1293
         First Visit – Second Visit – Pashvitinys – Linkuva – Vashkai – Shauliai.  
    My Grandmother Hya Sarah Dr. I. N. Steinberg 1309
    The Family Eljashev of KaunasDr. Samuel Eljashev (Friedman) 1313
    In Independent Lithuania in 1933Daniel Charney1323
    Of My Visit to Lithuania in 1938Joseph Opatoshu 1327
    What Lithuania Signifies for Us (Reflections of the Past)J. Batnitzky 1331
    In Joy and in Grief Among Lithuanian JewsM. Mandelman 1333
    Rabbi Hirsh of Slobodka S. M. Sherman1359
    Reb Hirsh NevyazherBen-Isaac1363
    Rabbi Joseph Zechariah Shtern (What People Told of Him)A. Jerushalmi1365
    Rabbi HerzlB. Shilman1369
    Rabbi Shloime Dayon (Batnitzky) Dr. S. Melamed1373
    Types of a Past Generation of LithuaniaDr. Mordecai Katz 1375
         Reb Itche of Baltushov – Reb Arele Shloime's – Reb Moishl of Vishtytis.
    Moishele the AuthorDr. Z. Kadish1383
    A Blessing by Chofetz-Chaim Abba Gordin1385
    Elchanan the Shoemaker (Markus) Leib Nadel1393
    Among the Halutzim in LithuaniaI. N. Gotlieb 1395
         Introductory – The Centre – Labor – The Agricultural Cooperative “Kibush” (Conquest) – The District of the Cooperatives “Golil” (Galilee) – “To the Exile We Shall Not Return."  
    The Jewish PanevezhysDr. Joseph A. Heller 1403
         Social Activities – The Old Mode of Living – The Rabbi of Panevezhys – Maskilim and Revolutionaries – Deputy of the Duma (Parliament of Russia).  
    Panevezhys in 1906Alter Epstein 1413
    The Jewish Common Folk of PanevezhysM. Birman 1415
    Panevezhys After the First World WarSelig Back 1419
         The Market-Place and the Pharmacy – Synagogues – The Town Pump – Rabbinate – Karaites – Jewish Writers – People's Intelligentsia – Organizations and Institutions – Our Common Towns.  
    A Visit to Panevezhys in 1938Meir Kimmel 1425
    Klaipeda (Memel)Dr. Samuel Greenhaus 1427
    The Town KelmeRabbi Hyim Karlinsky 1437
    PalangaYudel Mark 1453
    KedainiaiSholem Datt1475
    AlytusDr. Martin Lichtenstein1477
    A Short Visit to AlytusAlte Arsh-Sudarsky1479
    My Town Dusetos (Types and Episodes) Mordecai Jaffe 1483
         This and That – The “Rebel” – Elijah Sarah-Mirra's – A Talmudic Discourse – The Dyer – The Busy Itzikl – Leibele “Nie Rush.”
    Israel MatzThe Editors 1497
    My Home Town, KalvarijaIsrael Matz 1499

VI

    My Town, SkuodasLeo Bernstein 1513
    GargzhdaiIsaac Goodman1517
    Merkine Dr. Menahem G. Glenn1519
    RaguvaEnoch Stein 1523
         IntroductoryCommon People“The Flirt”Horse TradersTypesJesters of Raguva.   
    PilvishkiaiDr. M. Z. Levinson1533
    A Semester in KrekenavaB. Shilman1535
    My Town, Moletai Ben-Zion Riback1539
    ObelialB. G. Zack1543
    Towns of the Region of VilniusM. S.1547
    GlubokojeAlte A. S.1551
    RatnitzaA. Zebulun Berebitches1553
    Through Lithuania (Cities and Towns)Dr. Mendel Sudarsky1561
         MariampoleVilkavishkis by Berl London – TelshaiRaseiniai by N. Ben-Chaim – UtenaJonuva by Peisach Janever – TaurageBirzhai by I. R. – Kedainiai by Ben-Alexander – Mazheikiai by Josephus – Rokishkis by Yudel Gapanovitch – Plunge by N. Rill – JurbarkasLazdijai by I Dan – AnykshchiaiZarasaiKupishkisPrienaiZhagareKudirkos-Naumiestis by Z. Tumpovsky – PandelisSeredzhius by G-n – SetaBalbierishkisChekishkis by R. K. – GelvonaiPushalotasVeliuonaShiaulenai by Ben-Daniel – Onushkis by L. B. E. – Rudamynas by Daniel Riback – KuliaiTaujenai by A. Walt.  
    VishtytisDr. Mendel Sudarsky 1627
    VirbalisDr. Mendel Sudarsky 1633
DESTRUCTION OF THE LITHUANIAN JEWRY  
    The Annihilation of the Jews in VilniusVictor Shulman1649
    “At the Vilnius Cemetery”Layzer Ran1659
    Lithuanians and Jews During the Nazi OccupationOna Shimaite1661
    The Ghetto Library of VilniusDinah Abramovitz1671
    Most Significant Moments in the Ghetto of KaunasLeib Garfunkel1679
         1. From the Beginning of the War to the Inclusion in the Ghetto – 2. The Time of the “Aktionen” – 3. The So-Called “Quiet” Period – 4. Recurrent “Aktionen,” Exile to Estonia, The Liquidation.  
    The “Arbeit-Einsatz” (Forced Labor) in the Ghetto of Kaunas Agronomist Jacob Oleisky 1713
    Medical Aid in the Ghetto and in the Concentration CampDr. Aaron Percikovitz 1719
    A Day Behind Barbed Wires. Dr. S. Dolnitzky1735
    Cultural Activities in the Ghetto of KaunasDr. Samuel Greenhaus1743
    A Jewish Teen-Age Girl in the Concentration Camp (Katzet)Vera Elijashev 1757
    The Annihilated Family of Moishe KatzL. Odes 1763

VII

    The Destruction of the Jews in the Ghetto of Shauliai and of the Adjacent TownsA. Jerushalmi 1767
         The First Massacres – The Tanneries – The Jews Forced into the Ghetto – The “Aktionen” – Aerodrome – The Hospital – The Public School – The “Werkstuben” (Workhouses) – The Reduction of the Ghetto Area – The Turf-Decree – August 20, 1942 – The List of the 27 – The Winter-Camps – Working Places Outside of the Ghetto – The Abolishing of the Currency System – Camps of 1943 – The Gallows – Reopening of the School – - The “Kasernierung” (Transfer to Barracks) – Children “Aktion” – The Rescued Children – Change in the Ghetto Administration – Camp A. B. A. – Evacuation from the Camps – Evacuation from the Ghetto of Shauliai – Foreign Camps of Panevezhys and Jonishkis – Extermination of the Jews of Tytuvenai – The Perishing Jews of Telshiai and Adjacent Alsedzhiai, Vevirzhenai, Varnel, Zharenai, Tverai, Luoke, Navarenai, Plunge, Plateliai, Rietava – Why No Renstance? – Our Annihilation and the Lithuanian Attitude.
    To the History of the Destruction of the Lithuanian Jewry Joseph Gar 1833
        Introductory – How the Jews Were Tortured to Death in Panevzhys – Atrocious Killings of the Jews in Mariampole – The Perishing of the Jews in Garleva, Pakonys, Veiveriai, Mavruchiai and Other Communities Near Kaunas – A Lithuanian Professor Repents.   
    The Last Days of Kelme Rabbi Samuel Meir Karnovitz 1845
    The Destruction of JurbarkasZvi Levit 1849
    Simnas and Its AnnihilationZvi Levit 1853
    Devastation of the Jews of Pasvalys and of Nearby Jewish Communities of Jonishkelis, Vashkai, Linkuva, Pumpenai, Salochiai and VabalnikasB. Rainus1859
    Skaudvile and Its AnnihilationRabbi Hyim Stein 1861
    The Devastation of the Jews of Kudirkos-NaumiestisDr. L. Goldstein1865
    The Destruction of Gargzhdai*~*1867
    Annihilation of the Jews of Aukshtadvaris and of Trakai, Onushkis, Valkenikai, Rudishikis, Leipunai and LantvarisJacob Sapirstein 1869
    Annihilation of the Jews of Alsedzhiai
        Transcribed by A. Jerushalmi
David Factor 1881
    Annihilation of the Jews of VyzhuonisRabbi Shabbethai Katz1885
    In the Woods (Leaves of a Diary) Berl Kagan1887
    Partisans of the Ghetto of SlabodkaChaint Meiserovitch1907
    Lithuanian Jews Among the Jewish Survivors in Germany Marion Gide1919
    The Bibliography of the Literature on the Annihilation of the Lithuanian Jewry Dr. Philip Friedman 1923
         1. Books and Articles of General Content – 2. Vilnius – 3. Kaunas – 4. Cities and Communities of Lithuania and its Neighboring Border Regions – 5. Resistance and the Partisan Movement – 6. Works of Literature and Folk-lore.  
    Index of Personalities 1941
    Index to Places Mentioned 1977
    Sponsors of the Book “Lite” (Lithuania) 1989
    Partial Contents of Volume Two “Lite” (Lithuania) 2001

VIII


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