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[Pages 151-154]

The Destruction of Dubiecko

by David Moritz

Translated by Alex P. Korn

I shall never forget the little town of Dubiecko. When I remind myself of Dynow, I must remember Dubiecko, as it is impossible to remember one twin and not mention the other.

From Dynow to Dubiecko is 9 miles (14 kilometers). Moshe Marshalek and his Klezmer band had enough time on a Saturday night after Shabbat had ended, to arrive by foot at a wedding in Dynow. On Purim when the poor people finished their begging in Dynow, they walked into Dubiecko. Young men and girls would walk from one little town to the other. The majority of these little towns were knit together as relatives or relations by marriage. All the stories about Dynow are well known to the Jews of Dubiecko, and the history of Dubiecko is well known to the Jews of Dynow. The same assaults that were initiated on Dynow did not miss Dubiecko.

Dubiecko is located on the river San, close to Przemysl. It is impossible to determine when the Jewish settlement dates from. At any rate it was several decades later than that of Dynow. But from the year 1648 there are no traces. It is possible that at that time there still existed a small Jewish community, which may have escaped during the horrible years. The last tombstone found there dates from 1700. The old Pinkas (Book of Records) burned during a fire many years ago. In the Dynow Gmina (Jewish Community) there existed a law dating from old Poland, from the seventeenth century covering the days on which markets might be held. It was specified that the markets in Dubiecko would take place on other days, in order that the Jews from Dynow could participate at the markets in Dubiecko.

Dubiecko drew her spiritual nourishment from Torah, and from the Chasidic Masters and teachers. At the author “Malei Haruim” (Maltitud of Shepperds) a great numbers of Dubiecko students were seen who were getting meals at the homes of the Dynow residents. Later they came to the great Tzadik Reb Yahoshua, and to the Rebbe Zvi Elimelech. The great majority of the Dubiecko Chasidim stayed in Dynow day and night. At the same time there were a great number of Chasidim who went to Belz to the Rebbe Sholem (May he rest in peace). Although Belz was a long way from Dubiecko, they would hire a covered wagon and would leave several days before the journey, so as to arrive in time for the holiday. Even in recent years, they went by a covered wagon. Often, there arose fiery discussions among the Chasidim who would insult and even hit each other.

Poverty in Dubiecko exceeded that of in Dynow; in Dubiecko there were few brick houses, in contrast to Dynow where most houses were of brick. At the Dubiecko market there was one brick house, which belonged to the pharmacist. The market days and the markets were very small. There was no railroad. Buses gong to Przemysl would stop in Dubiecko to pick up passengers.

I remember—as if it were yesterday—the Shabbat I spent in Dubiecko, as a Chasid at the Ribitzer Rebbe son of the Bloziv's Rebbe and author of “Zvi LeTzadik” when I was a young boy. It was wintertime. The entire little town was covered with snow. In some places the snow reached up to the roofs of the small crooked houses.

In the Synagogue there was great joy. A bright light shone from the huge gas lamp, and a warm Jewish atmosphere radiated all around. Piety and Chasidism shone from every corner. On Shabbat morning after davening (praying) we were invited from one house to the other for Kiddush. We could hardly drag ourselves back to the Synagogue to the table of the Rebbe.

After Shabbat we said goodbye to the friendly residents of Dubiecko, and got on our sleighs for the short journey home.

All this is like a dream, from Jewish Dubiecko which no longer exists. The horrible Hitler slaughter did not miss this town; it shared the fate of all Jewish towns in Poland of which only a small fraction had survived, through some miracle.

The following day, which was a Sunday—Fast of Gedaliah—when the Nazi murderers finished their gruesome work in Dynow, they came to Dubiecko, and started their horrible work, they killed eleven Jews. Among them were two sons of Rafael Yavorniker, Melech Melamed's son Mendel, a son-in-law of Yichiel Masenbaum from Dynow, Yakov Rebs, Moshe Strasler, Simcha Tisler an educated Jew and a giver of Charity active in community matters. He managed the Gemilut Chesed—The Chasidim Treasury—and was a Jew who would sacrifice himself in order to do a favor for another. They took him from bed and killed him. Horrors spread over town when they heard of his horrible death. He left a wife with three children, who perished later in 1942.

David Dobrush, son of Chaim Dobrush, Shmaia Fridman, the Krosno Rebbe the genius, Reb Shumel Firer (of blessed memory) were at that time in Dubiecko at the Synagogue, and the murderers hit them with outrage and fury. They hardly emerged alive from their hands. Then, they burned the Synagogue.

A day before Succoth the Jews of Dubiecko received an order from the murderers to leave town and cross the river San where they met with Jews from Dynow in Berch and in Przemysl. This is how the Jews from the little towns wandered down the river San on the other side. The Dubiecko Rabbi Reb Shmuel Aron Flam (descendent of martyrs) perished in Przemysl together with the Rebitzin.

LET THESE WORDS BE A GRAVESTONE IN HONOR OF THE DUBIECKO MARTYRS WHO PERISHED IN THIS TRAGIC MANNER.

“May God avenge their blood and turn vengeance against his enemies and may atone for ground of this people.”

“May their soul be bound up in the bind of life.”


[Page 155]

The Dynower society in New York

Translated by William Leibner

Edited by Phyllis Kramer

A few former residents of the hamlet of Dynow established the society in 1915. Amongst them the late Yehoshia Heifling, the late Leibish Rubinfeld, the late Baruch Kalman, the late Elkana Rubinfeld, the late Mendil Polisdorf the late Elkana Wilk, Hersh Neger, Moshe Neger, Meir Dawid Walner and Yehoshua Rabi.

Soon this association established a relief organization that helped greatly the Jews of Dynow that suffered during WWI The relief functions of the association continued to today. The committee was particularly active in providing assistance to the survivors of the shoa of Dynow.

The society and the relief committee were very active all throughout their existence and were the most active organizations amongst the numerous societies and relief organizations.

[Page 156]

Thank you

I would like to express thanks to all those that helped me financially to publish the book.

The Dynower Society

The Dynower Ladies Auxiliary Association

Israel Labtcher

Harry Landes

Karl Weitzner

Abba Miller

Awraham Zilberman

Meir Mildorf

Max Fishman

[Page 157]

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