History of the
Communities of Transylvania

(Hungary/Romania)

Translation of
Toldot ha-kehilot be-Transylvania

Edited by Yehuda Shvartz

Published by the Memorial organization of Transylvanian communities (Hadera, Israel 1976)


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Acknowledgments

Project Coordinator

Robert Friedman

 

This is a translation from: Toldot ha-kehilot be-Transylvania (History of the communities of Transylvania)
Editors: Yehuda Shvartz, Memorial organization of Transylvanian communities, 1976


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Translated by Shai Tzach and Eddy Portnoy
Center for Jewish History, New York, NY

Introduction5
From Genesis to Holocaust7
What is the Community?8
From the Babylonian Diaspora Until the Holocaust9
The Hungarian Communities, the Community and its Services11
The Rabbinical Torah Study 12
The Yeshiva, Jewish Elementary School, and Conditions for Emancipation13
The Law of Equality14
Reform and the Jewish Congress, the Right of Orthodox vs. Neologs15
The Mistake of the Secular and Orthodox17
Anti-Semitism and the Jewish Defense Units18
The National Hebrew Union19
The Political Situation20
The Jewish Party, the Jews in Transylvania21
The Regional Centers of the Communities22
Communication Among the Communities in Romania, the Legal Status of the Jewish School24
Education, Society—Culture and Welfare Organizations, Jews in Industry25
Secular and Rabbinical Literature26
Judaism and Zionism, Religion and Study Books27
Newspapers and Magazines29
History of Jewish Settlement in Transylvania30
Anti-Semitism and Pogroms, the State of South Transylvania Jews33
Chasids and Rabbis in Transylvania35
The Spread of Chasidic Culture36
Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews37
Rabbis and Chasids Stand During the Holocaust38
Rabbinical Centers in Israel of Transylvanian Rabbis39
The Yeshivas42
Bibliography45
 
The Communities
 
Jud. Cluj/Kolosz Megye47
Kolozsvar/Cluj48
 
[16 pages of photographs][unnumbered]
 
Mociu/Mocs53
Sarmas/Nagysarmas53
Sarmaselul/Kissarmas54
Calatele/Kiskalota54
 
Jud. Somes
Gherla/Szamosujvar55
Iclean/Iklod56
Hida/Hidalmas56
 
Jud. Huedin/Hunyad Megye
Huedin/Banfayhunyad57
 
Szolnok Doboka Megye
Dej/Dezs59
Beclean/Bethlen65
Tg. Lapusului/Magyarlapos66
Reteag/Reteg68
Ilanda/Ilonda69
Marghita/Margita70
Crasna/Kraszna73
Orisor/Alor74
 
Besztercze Naszod Megye
Nasaud/Naszod74
 
Jud. Turda/Torda Megye
Turda/Torda76
Campia Turzii/Aranyosgyeres76
Ludus/Ludas77
 
Jud. Mures/Marostorda Megye
Tg. Mures/Maros-Vasarhely78
Naznanfalva80
 
Haromszek Megye
Sf. Gheorghe/Sepsziszentgyorgy81
 
Jud. Tarnava Mica/Dicso Megye
Tarnaven/Dicsoszentmarton82
Blaj/Balazsfalva83
Reghin/Szaszregen84
Bozodujfalu84
 
Jud. Tarnava Mare
Bistrita/Besztercze85
Sibiu/Szeben86
Medias/Medgyes88
Sighisoara/Segesvar90
Fagarasi/Fogaras90
 
Jud. Huedin/Hunyad Megye
Deva92
Brad93
Hunedoara/Vajda Hunyad93
Hateg/Hatszeg94
 
[16 pages of photographs][unnumbered]
 
Jud. Satmar/Szatmar Megye
Satu Mare/Szatmar 97
Carei Mare/Nagy Karoly102
Baia Mare/Nagy Banya104
Somcuta Mare/Nagy Somkut106
Arded/Erdod106
Seini/Szinervarolya107
Halmeu/Halmi107
Turt/Turcz108
Kisgercze109
 
Jud. Maramures/Maramaros Megye110
Sighet/Maramaros Sziget114
Borsa120
Viseul de Sus/Felsoviso124
Havas Mezo126
Csarda126
Berbesti/Bardfalva129
Kovlica129
Szervis130
Szaplonca130
 
Jud. Bihor/Bihar Megye132
Oradea Mare/Nagyvarad132
Tiliagd/Mezotelegd137
 
Jud. Silaghi/Szilagy Megye
Simleul Silvaniei/Szilagysomlyo138
Szilagycseh141
Tasnad142
 
Valea Lui Mihai/Ermihalyfalva*145
Secueni/Szekelyhid*146
Beius/Belenyes*147
Ceica/Magyarcseke*148
Tinca/Tenke*149
Beliu/Bel*149
Salonta Mare/Nagyszalonta*149
Bihar Nagybom*151
Derescke*151
Barodul Mare/Nagybarod*152
Salard/Szalard*153
 
Jud. Arad/Arad Megye154
Zerind/Nagyzerend160
Cermiu/Csermos160
Sebis/Szaszebes160
Buteni/Kokosbokeny161
Curtici/Kurtos161
Rovina Pecica/Vilaagas Pecska [Magyarpecska]161
Pancota/Pankota161
Gurahont/Honczto162
Nadlac/Nagylak162
 
Jud. Timis/Temes Megye
Timisoara/Temesvar163
Buzias/Buziasfurdo168
Ciacova/Csak169
Jimbolia/Zsombolya169
Deta/Detta169
Resita/Resicabanya170
Lipova/Lippa170
Sanicolaul Mare/Szentmiklos171
Orastie/Szaszvaros172
 
Jud. Severin
Lugoj/Lugos172
Faget/Facsad174
Oravita/Oravicabanya174
Orsova175
Caransebes/Karansebes176
 
[8 pages of photographs][unnumbered]
 
Jud. Alba
Alba Iulia/Gyula Fehervar/Karlsburg177
Aiud/Nagyenyed178
Uioara/Marosujvar179
Teius/Tovis180
Vinteul de Jos/Alvincz180
Brasov/Brasso181
 
Jud. Hunedeoare
Lupeni/Lupeny183
Vulcani/Vulcan183
Petrusani/Petruzseny183
Petrula184
 
*Jud. Bihor/Bihar Megye
 
A List of Additional Communities185
A List of Rabbis from Transylvania Who Died Over “Kidush Hashem”186
Jewish Resistance During the Holocaust189
Anti-Semitism in Hungary190
The Nazi Might Folds193
Liberation194
How It All Started195
A List of Ghettos in Hungary196
Conditions in the Transylvanian Ghettos198
Under Szalasi Rule200
The Beit Din in Budapest202
The Condition of the Jews in Transylvania204
The Attempt to Save Jews and Its Failure205
The Stand of Observant Jews in the Ghettos210
Preparations for and Attempts at Resistance in Hungary and Transylvania212
The Resistance Action in the Capital213
The Zionist Youth in Helping Save Jews216
The Brave219
The Pope and Saving Jews224
Attempts to Save Jews in the Transylvanian Capital225
Organizing Help in Southern Transylvania226
Help Attempts in Bucharest228
Israeli Paratroopers229
Jewish Help from Israel231
The Runaway Train—Dr. Kastner235
The Tragedy of Hungarian Jews Presented in the Israeli Parliament237
The USSR, the Demise of European Jewry, and the Allies238
A List of Ghettos in Transylvania241
Numbers of Destruction243
Dates of Transportation and Yahrtzeit244
 
In Israel (Messenger of Zion)247
Hungarian and Transylvanian Jews in Israel248
Dreaming and Fighting253
List of Fallen IDF Soldiers from Hungary and Transylvania261
Plans for the Archive of Dr. Marton, z”l264
Bibliography267
List of Authors on the Subjects of Torah and Talmud269
List of Authors on the Subjects of Judaism and Zionism273
List of Authors of Historical Literature, Novels and Dramas276
List of Journalists, Newspapers and Magazines279
Dates and Events281
List of Subscribers284
List of Photographs of Synagogues in Transylvania286
List of Photographs of Community Rabbis287
Alphabetical List of Communities289
 
[Table of Contents]292


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