Memorial Book of Slonim
(Slonim, Belarus)

53°05' / 25°19'

Translation of
Pinkas Slonim

Editor: Kalman Lichtenstein

Published in Tel Aviv 1962-1979


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Acknowledgments

Project Coordinator

Zvi Shefet

 

Our sincere appreciation to Mr. Zvi Shefet, Chairman of the
Former Residents of Slonim in Israel, for permission to put this material on the JewishGen web site.


This is a translation of: Pinkas Slonim (Memorial book of Slonim),
Editor: Kalman Lichtenstein, Former Residents of Slonim in Israel, Published: Tel Aviv 1962-1979 (4 volumes H,Y, E)

Note: The original book can be seen online at the NY Public Library site: Slonim


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B O O K   ONE

History of the Jewish Settlement in Slonim

By Kalman Lichtenstein

Translated by Yocheved Klausner

Foreword I
 
Introduction 3
 
Part One - The Lithuanian-Polish Regime
From the Beginning of the Jewish Settlement to the Division of Poland in 1795
 
Chapter 1 5
History of the fortress and the city. - The Slonim Fort in the 17th century. - Slonim in Russian and Lithuanian chronicles. - The rule of the Princes from Southern Russia. - Under the control of the Lithuanian Princes in the 12th century. - Invasion of the Tatars in 1241. - The rule of the Halitz Princes. - The Slonim Principality. - The continuous Lithuanian rule until 1569. The Polish rule 1569-1795. - Ups and downs in the 17th and 18th centuries. - The Russian rule. - The renewed Polish rule.  
 
Chapter 2 7
The backward Lithuanian urban settlements in the 13th and 14th centuries. - The Privileges. - Jewish settlements in Lithuania in the 14th century. - Evidence about the existence of a Jewish settlement in Slonim in 1388. - The Slonim Fort and the Old Town on the right bank of the river. - The oldest remnants. - The old Jewish cemetery in Zamosce. - The archeological dig by the Russian Archeological Society. - Slonim on the map of the Jewish settlements in Lithuania. - Continuous Jewish settlement over 550 years.  
 
Chapter 3 9
The settlement from the 15th century to mid 16th century. - Jewish rights in Slonim until 11495. - Estate leasing and agriculture occupations. - The 1495 expulsion - Jews return in 1503. - Expansion of the town on the left bank of the river. - Slonim as the county-seat of the Novogrodek district. - Jewish settlement on the left bank. - The establishment of the Dyirdziki cemetery. - The Jew Yakov, the Staroste's servant since 1519. - The Gushka brothers and Yoske. - Slonim Jews leave for the suburbs.  
 
Chapter 4 10
Court rulings in Slonim in 1551-1619. - The Jewish Quarter in the mid-16th century. - Commerce, industry and leasing. - The Slonim Estates leasing to Jews. - Tax collection in the neighborhood villages. - Slonim Jews are trading with remoted places. - The settlement in the 16th century. - The Magdeburg Charter in 1532. - Violence acts of the Christian townspeople. - Attacks, murders and libels. - The Polish-Lithuanian population in town and the Jewish status in its midst. Foundation of Jewish settlements in the Slonim neighborhood and villages in the region. - Slonim as the seat of the Lithuanian Sejm members. - The Stolowitz and Zelba fairs and their influence on the town. - The two decisive facts in the life of the community in the second quarter of the 17th century.  
 
Chapter 5  
The internal life until 1623. - The Rabbinic Court as the Jews' sole legal instance concerning civil law. - The beginning of centralization around the Shilhoyf [“Synagogues' Courtyard”]. - The Jewish woman as business manager. - A folkloristic interpretation of Jewish names. 14
  15
Chapter 6  
Slonim in the Lithuanian Committee Register [Pinkas Va'ad Medinat Lita]. - The committees before 1648. - The name of the town in Jewish sources. - The settlements subordinate to the Slonim community. - Taxes paid to the Committee. - Slonim as the center of the region. - Tension between the Jews and the townspeople. - R'Zelig of Slonim as a prototype. - The Starostes of the Saphiya family. - The “Council of the Four Lands” appeals to the Slonim lobbyists. - The fire of 1634. - “The Great Synagogue”. -
  17
Chapter 7  
The Rabbi R'Moshe Lima. - The first known Head of the Rabbinic Court in Slonim: dates of his birth and death; his appointment as head of the community; his life-work: the book Helkat Mehokek, a commentary of the Tractate Even Haezer. - “From Moshe to Moshe there was never one like Moshe”. - The practical importance of Helkat Mehokek. - The rabbi in town in 1648. - The rabbi leaves Slonim. - R'Moshe Lima establishes the importance of the Slonim Rabbinate. - Slonim in the Talmud-commentary literature.
  19
Chapter 8  
Slonim in 1648-49. - The Kosack invasion in 1655. - The economic decline. - Harassment by the townspeople and the clergy. - The blood-libel in 1655 in Rozhnoy and its echoes in Slonim. - Impoverishment of the community. - The debts to the Zhiroba monastery. - The instigation of the Vilna Bishop. - Jesuits in Slonim. - Slonim as a “royal” town. - The settlements in the Derevna and Rahatna villages. - The Slonim community at the Supreme Court in Vilna. - Prohibition to hire Christian workers. - Anti-Semitic avtivity under the cover of religious conflict. - Continuous difficult situation in the 18th century. - The battles in 1764 and 1769. - The rule of Prince Michael Kazimir - 20 years of prosperity in town. - The Oginski Canal. - The Small Slonim Canal. - Oginski and the Jews. - The trade in cereals and wood.
  24
Chapter 9  
The “Kahal” institution in Slonim starting at the end of the 16th century. - The leaders of the community in face of great hardships. - The community as reflecyted in Pinkas Medinat Lita. - Slonim in the “State Accounts”. - Slonim as an organic part of the Lithuania Jewry. - Participation in the Rozhnoy libel. - The poll-tax as a demographic index. - The Jewish settlement in town in 1720-1761. - number of Jews in town according to the 1766 census. - Dependence of neighboring communities on Slonim. - Agriculture. - R'Binyamin Wolf and his son Shimon from Derewna. - R'Yakov from Rahatna.
  28
Chapter 10  
The Slonim rabbis after the author of Helkat Hamehokek until 5529 [1769]. - The “empty era” from 1648 to 1688. - The rabbi R'Refael from Lublin and his approbation to Hovot Halevavot. - The religious authority of Slonim over neighboring settlements. - R'Moshe SHA”TZ of Slonim. - R'Shmuel son of R'Mendel of Lwow, head of the rabbinic court. - The warning by the Council of the Four Lands against R'Shmuel. - Head of the rabbinic court, R'Asher the first - his mention in the “Visiting the Sick” register. - Foundation of the Gemilut Chasadim [Free-of-Interest Loan Fund]. - Rabbi R'Zelig Yeselesh. - Rabbi R'Asher son of R'Enzil. - Rabbi R'Simcha Halevi.
  31
Chapter 11  
Details about the battle near Slonim inn 1764. - The Duke of Radziwil, “Pan Kochanko” - his threats concerning Slonim. - The Jews of the town between the Kosacks and Radziwil's army. - The fast, a “private fast of the Slonim Jews”. - Description of the battle in the community Pinkas [register]. - The community scribe, R'Eliezer son of R'David. - Description of the battle as a poetic work and a historical document. - The Gemilut Chasadim Society. - The craftsmen's associations. Recording in the community registers. The registers of the Charity institutions and the crftsmen's unions.
  33
Chapter 12  
Rabbi Arie Leib Levinstein's relationship with Slonim. - His eldest son, R'Itzile Ginspriker as head of the community in Slonim. - R'Shimshon son of R'Mordechai, head of the rabbinical court. - The years of his youth and his European education. - The good friends R'Itzele and R'Shimshon. - R'Shimshon's treasure: his books. - R'Shlomo Maymon in Slonim. - R'Shimshon, head of the rabbinic court, the “herald”of the Enlightenment. - The Enlightenment Circle around the rabbi. - R'Mordechai benYakov is interested in mathematics. - R'Shimshon's Approbation on the book “Euclid.” - The GR”A establishes connection between R'Baruch of Schklov and R'Shimshon. - The pioneering importance of the Approbation. - Words of the historians and critics. - The Enlihgtenment arguments in view of the Approbation.
  37
Chapter 13  
The Governor of the town, Prince Oninski, a Polish intellectual. - His palace in Slonim as a center of science and art. - Slonim as a Polish center of Culture and Education. - R'Shimshon and Prince Oninski. - Two intellectuals in one place - their common humanistic inclination. - Probable Oninski influence on the wording of the Approbation.
  38
Chapter 14  
R'Shimshon - one in his generation. - R'Yehoshua Zeitlin and R'Chaim of Volozhin in Slonim. - The influence of the Vilna Gaon. The Torah Scholars in Slonim during the time of R'Shimshon. - R'Chaim-Zelig Slonimski's grandfather. - R'Eliezer son of R'Yakov Greiber. - R'Shimshon as supervisor of the charity institutions. The opening of the Rozhnoy Street Cemetery. - R'Shimshon as a preacher - his wise sayings. - The fire that destroyed his library. - The tragedy of his last years in Slonim. - R'Shimshom leaves town. - His importance in the history of the settlement.
  39
Chapter 15  
The storm from South-East and East. - Chassidism in town. - The spiritual-moral background in town. - Slonim - a stronghold of the Mitnagdim. - The visit of R'Dovid'l from Mikulew. - The conflict between the Hassidim and the Mitnagdim and its echoes in Slonim. - R'Binyamin Zev from Slonim and R'Yosef from Nemirow. - The book “Vicucha Raba” as a document concerning the history of Hassidism as well as the history of the local Hassidim. - A simple story of a Slonim Hassid. - Hassidim and Mitnagdim pamphlets distributed in town. - The Chabad Hassidism in town. Family tragedies in the wake of the conflict. - The Lubavitch shtiebl. - The influence of the Lubavitcher rebbe in Slonim.  
 
Part Two - The Russian Rule
From the Annexation of the Town in 1795 to the End of the Russian Rule in 1915
Appendix: The German Occupation in the Years 1915-1918
 
Chapter 16 42
The political, economic and social conditions in 1795-1880. - Three periods. - The rule of Alexander I. - Slonim as the Gubernia capital. - Renewed harassement of the polish townspeople. - The situation of the Jews under the new rule. - Local and international commerce in town. - Trade with Koenigsberg, Danzig and Memel. - Beginning of the lumber trade. - The contractor R'Hillel Spokoyni. - Slonim on the crossroads of the new thoroughfares. The social structure of the town at that time. - Craftsmen census in 1797. - Wagon owners and stage-coach drivers. - The Shilhoyf [synagogues yard] as a social center. - The craftsmen's Bet Hamidrash. - Jewish industry workers.  
 
Chapter 17 44
The “Oprava”. - The Jewish Staroste. - Occupation of the town by the French in 1812. - The economic decline. - The “small businesses”. - The descovery of subterranean hiding places and the libel. - The monarchy of Nikolai I. - The “Cantonists”. - The “kidnappers” [forced conscription to the Russian army]. - The Polish uprising in 1830. Annihilation of the communities in the villages. - Jewish agriculture in the neighborhood. - Jewish population in the villages - relationship with the Polish peasants. - the “Korovka” and the tax on candles. - Living conditions and sanitary situation. - The Committee of the General Military Staff. -  
 
Chapter 18 46
Spiritual life during 1790-1880. - The Mitnagdic image of the community. - The harmonious work of the two rabbis of the community. - Head of the rabbinic court R'Itzele Ginspriker. - His descendant 6th generation: Yitzhak Ben Zvi, President of Israel. - Head of the rabbinic court R'Yitxhak son of R'Moshe. - Head of the rabbinic court R'Zev-Wolf son of R'Yosef-Yakov. - Head of the rabbinic court R'Shlomo son of R'Avraham Mintz. - The Slonim Yeshiva founded in 1815. - The connection between the Volozhin Yeshiva and the establishment of the Slonim Yeshiva. - The founder and first head of the Yeshiva, R'Shlomo Zalman Kahana. - Head of the Yeshiva R'Avraham son of R'Yitzhak Matityahu. - Head of the Yeshiva R'Lima. - R'Yehuda Leib Edel, who became famous as the author of Afikei Yehudaand as grammarian. - Reestablishment of the Loan Society. - R'Yehuda Leib in the eyes of the Maskilim. - Head of the rabbinic court R'Mordche'le son of R'Itzele Ginspriker. - Head of the rabbinic court R'Moshe-Yitzhak Avigdor. - Scholars and authors in 1800-1840. - R'Yakov Moshe, grandson of the Vilna Gaon, publisher of the Gaon's works. - Archive of the Vilna Gaon's manuscripts in Slonim. - R'Leib Diskin.  
 
Chapter 19 50
Management of the community and rabbinic authority. - The monthly treasurers. - Absence of rabbinic authority 1822-1835. - The weakened authority of the Community Management. - Moral decline in connection with the “cantonists decree.” - The resentment of the public. - Head of the rabbinic court R'Berush Ashkenazi. - The clash between R'Berush and the powerful community officials. - R'Berush the protector of the deprived. - The rav is punished and resigns his post. - The reaction of the town: mass demonstration in the Shilhoyf; a sleepless night; the rabbi's departure; the fear of the powerful leaders; the drama in the field when saying farewell to the rabbi. - The rabbi is brought back to town - the excitement of the people. - The priest Placide Yankovski and his story. R'Berush Ashkenazi, the greatest scholar in his generation; his books and his approbations.  
 
Chapter 20 54
Longing for redemption in Slonim. - Foundation of the Shomrim Laboker [watchmen in the morning] Society by “harness makers and other craftsmen”. - The popular character of the Society. - Their synagogue, their regulations and registers. - The Society's Regulations as a source of research.  
 
Chapter 21 55
The monarchy of Alexander II. - The Polish revolt in 1863 - its influence in town. - Jews collaborating with the rebels. - The visit of the generals in the Great Synagogue. - Improvement in economy and employment. - Revival of the grain and lumber commerce. R'Hilel Lipstein. - Beginnings of industry. - Pioneer industrialist R'Yekutiel Konitza. - Industrial enterprises of R'Luzhinski and his wife Menucha. - Leather, bricks and sawmill industries. - New crafts. - The kernel of a Jewish proletariat. - migration of craftsmen and enterpreneurs to other regions - immigrants from Slonim in Petersburg, Mocow, Charkow, Kiew. - The Jewish Scribes - the history of this occupation and its development in Slonim. - The enterprise of R'Yitzhak Yakimovski and R'Kalman Lidski.  
 
Chapter 22 57
“The purifying storm” at the time of R'Berush Ashkenazi. - The echoes of the kidnapping affair. - Cantonists return to town. - The rabbi R'Shraga Feitel Feinstein. - Public figures and scholars by the mid 19th century. - The interim period between R'Berush Ashkenazi and R'Eisele. - The miracle of the establishment of a Hassidic dynasty in Slonim.  
 
Chapter 23 58
The Lyachowitz Hassidim in Slonim. - R'Avraham Weinberg, head of the Yeshiva. - The contrast between his function as head of the Yeshiva and his being a Hasid. - His sudden retirement from the Yeshiva. - R'Berush Ashkenazi, the protector of R'Avraham. - R'Avraham, successor of R'Moshe from Kobrin. - Founding the Slonim Hassidic dynasty. - The main principles of the Slonim Hassidic method. - Te reaction of the Mitnagdim to the establishment of the new Hassidic branch. - The relationship between R'Eisele and the ADMOR. - Slonim in the shadow of these two personalities.  
 
Chapter 24 61
The three main characteristics of R'Eisele. - The importance of his Slonim-era. His book “Noam Yerushalmi”. - His fame through the Jewish world. - R'Eisele, arbitrator and leader of the community, member of the Yeshiva staff and charity institutions and protector of the faith. - The fanatic religious regime. - The three “luminaries” of the Slonim community. - R'Yitzhak-Yehoshua and R'Yehuda Wornikovski, heads of the Yeshiva. - Learning with R'Eisele. - Community workers, treasurers and philanthropists. - The first cantors with choirs. - R'Eiseles's relationship with the community leaders.  
 
Chapter 25 64
Ordinary conversations with R'Eisele. - His jokes and wise sayings. - Slonim types as heroes of his jokes. - R'Eisele as reflected in his jokes. - The writer Droyanov on R'Eisele's jokes. - The Collection of R'Eisele's Jokes and Sayings by Moshe Zablotzki. - The Slonim Community's Memorial to the bright R'Eise'e.  
 
Chapter 26 66
The Magid [preacher] Moshe Yitzhak Darshan - his importance in the history of the Russian Jewry and his role in the struggle against enlightenment. - His method, the descriptions of hell and punishment in his sermons. How he is remembered by his generation. - Slonim in the shadow of the Magid. - The military doctor, Dr. Levy and his family. - Genendil's burial. - The records in the Community Register.  
 
Chapter 27 68
Vilna, the cultural capital of the region. - The cultural contact between Vilna and Slonim - Vilna intellectuals in Slonim. - R'Yechezkel-Yakov Litbela and his book. - Litbela, the first Slonim correspondent for the Jewish press - a sample of his ornate writing. - The Slonim intellectual R'Avraham-Yosef Kahana-Markulis, his book on Grammar. - R'Yechezkel-Feivel Rabinowitz, the poet who wrote in Biblical style. - The brother of the writer R'Aizik Meir Dik. - R'Chaim and his program of a reform in education. - The maskilim Zvi Vishnyak, Meir Epstein. - Education in Slonim in the sixties and seventies. - Hadarim and Melamdim in the memoirs of members of the same generation. - The melamdim David “Flekel” and R'Yankel “Krupnik”. - A dibbuk on Bridge-Street. - A room near the pub. - The situation at the Talmud Torah - R'Chaim Manikov's “modern heder”. - New restrictions - fasting and prayers at the gravestones. - New kidnappings. - “The law of the Land”. - New times.  
 
Chapter 28  
R'Eisele's death and its impact in town and in the Jewish world. - The magid R'Moshe-Yitzhak Darshan is left alone. - The success of the Government Jewish School. - The teachers' staff. - Private teachers of the Hebrew language. - The press correspondents in the sixties and seventies. - Head of the rabbinic court R'Yosef Roisin. - The struggle between the magid and the maskilim. - Moshe Milakovski is founding a labrary. - The magid fights against the library. - A fateful sermon. - The fish in the river and “Moishe Torbe”. - The maskilim inform the authorities on the magid. - Policemen in the Bet Hamidrash. - A mass demonstration. - The magid is forbidden to preach in public. - His wanderings and his visits in Slonim in 1887 and 1891. - Maslianski on the attitude of the maskilim toward the magid of Kelm. - The opening of Avraham Weissberg's private school. - Modernization of the Talmud Torah.  
 
Chapter 29 76
The economic and political conditions in 1881-1894. - Atmosphere of terror in the Jewish street. - The reign of Alexander III. - The “Black Century” in the towns of Lithuania and Belarus. - Arson in the towns of the Pale. - Fear in Slonim - rumors of horror in the air. - Fire in Slonim on 25 May 1881 - the entire town is burned. - The terrible situation in Slonim after the fire. - Help from abroad. - Hate propaganda in town and surroundings. - The new restrictions of the minister Ignatyev. - Mass expulsion from the villages. - Anti-Semitic slogans in town: “Soon we will annihilate you all.” - The situation as described in a Jewish-Russian newspaper. - Terrible weakening of the economy - bancrupcy all around. - The libel trial and the instigation in the Russian press. - The article in “Novoia Vremia”. - The Slonim Jews on trial before the court. - Expulsion of the Jews from the Drobna village and the following trial. - Building the railroad through Slonim. - Some improvement in the economy. - Military units in town and disturbances in the market-place. - Blood-libel on market-day. - Murder of Jews in the inns. - Threat of renewed arson. - Mass emigratiom to America in the nineties. - The demographic changes in town in the 19th century.  
 
Chapter 30 81
The public institutions in 1881-1894. - The mood in town after the 1881 fire. - The community sends a delegation to the Diaspora. - Rebuilding the community - a new spirit. - The young people. The modern hospital. - Buying the house from the nobleman Posselovski. - Representative of the “young people”. - The modern House for the Aged. - The public pharmacy and other charity institutions: Free-of-interest loan Society; accomodation for the needy; welcoming guests; bread for the poor; flour for Passover; kosher food for soldiers. - The charitable women: Sabbath meal for the poor; assisting the needy; the woman Golda and the lumber plant. - The rabbis as coordinators of the public charity. - Funding the Charity activity: from door to door with the “charity-box.” -  
 
Chapter 31 85
Religious education in 1881-1894. - The rabbis R'Shmuel Ratner and R'Chaim Yehoshua Feinstein. - The death of the head of the rabbinic court R'Yosef Roisin. - His follower R'Yosef Schlosser. - A new factor: rabbi appointed by the authorities - the first “Rabiner” M. Horowitz. - Reconstruction of the synagogue and the Batei Midrash. - New prayerhouses. - The religious “Societies”: Ein Yaakov, Chayei Adam, Mishna and Talmud Societies. - The Bet Hamidrash in the eyes of a Saloniki intellectual. - R'Yoshe Slonimer leaves town. - A new cantor - a storm caused by the cantor Mendelewitz. - The death of the ADMOR R'Avraham, his follower R'Shmuel. - The Scribe occupation is expanding. - The religious-folkloristic activity: weddings in the Shilhoyf; R'Chatzkel's Klezmer group; the badchan [merrymaker] and “magician” at weddings. - R'Elyakim Zunser in Slonim. - Talmud-Tora, writers, and learners - the restoration of the Talmud-Tora and the Yeshiva buildings. - Teachers at the Yeshiva. Defense agaist breaches in the religious observance.  
 
Chapter 32 89
The Haskala [enlightenment] movement in 1881-1894. - The difference between the first and second wave of Haskala. - “The thunders of the Negev” against the maskilim - their slogan: Returning to the True Values of the Nation. - Their infiltration into the community institutions. - The fight over the management of the hospital. - The program to open a vocational school. - The religious people's fear from the competition wnth the Yeshiva. - The new maskilim on education: their vision - study of the Bible and Prophets; opposition to the melamdim. - Their attitude toward the Talmud. - Private lessons of language and literature studies. - The crisis in the Milakovski library. - Yosef Reznikovski's book store. - Eliezer Ben Yehuda publishes his first Dictionary in Slonim. - Collaboration between Ben Yehuda and Reznikovski. - The SHAY Society, in memory of S. I Peen.  
 
Chapter 33 92
Who are the new maskilim?. - The leader of the maskilim, the community worker and journalist Moshe Levin - his articles in the Hamelitz. - Yoel Sakheim and Menachem-Mendel Miller. - Moshe Zablotzki and his stories on the life in town. - Slonim in its biblical nickname, Azeka, in the stories of Moshe Zablotzki and Eliezer Beckenstein. - The “enlightened” literature. - The poet Mordechai Gvorin. - the educator Yechiel Yechieltchik. - Moshe Wallach and his writings. - The Jewish-Russian writer Ch. I. Katzenelson - his activity in town. - The grammarians R'Raziel Protzovski and R'Zvi Deichs. - The first “externs” in town. - Avraham-Shalom Kamentzki and Yitzhak Vornikovski. - From Slonim to Heidelberg. - Yakov Lidski, the pioneer of Yiddish publishing. - Gedaliahu Halperin and his books. - The correspondents of the Russian-Jewish press. - Maskilim are interested in the history of the Slonim settlement. - R'Hersh Kronenberg, Alexander Kovarski, R'Zev-Wolf Perelis. - The Hebrew teachers. - The situation in the Government School. - A Pravoslav priest teaches Tora to Jewish Girls. - Miss Yudkovski's School for Girls.  
 
Chapter 34  
The fight over the “cantorship.” - Social background of the conflict. - What flaw did they find in the cantor Mendelowitz? - The conflict between two Batei Midrash. - Butcher apprentices admire cantors. - “No one but Mendelowitz shall be the cantor!” - Mendelowitz was accepted and peace came upon Slonim. - The “new generation” breaks the rules of good manners. - A goyishcustom: walks in the fields and woods. - From the horrors of Hell to the entertainment of the circus performances. - Purim plays and “Itche Goy”. - The Goldfaden group without Goldfaden. - The plays Mirele and Hotzmach in Slonim. - Our mothers are singing songs about the pogrom in Odessa. - Housemaids and princes. - The bookdealer and his clients the women-cooks. - Love-letters in “The Letter Writer” published by Yosef Reznikovski Publ. - Shalom Aleichem on the “Jargon [Yiddish] readers in Slonim. - 95
 
Chapter 35 97
The political and economic conditions 1895-1903. - The reign of Nicolas II. - A new Czar and the same old persecutions. - “Hit the Jews and save Russia”. - New danger of arson - two hooligans about to set fire to the entire town. - Jewish - guards. - Fires in neighboring villages. - Establishment of the volunteer fire fighters union. - A new face in town: Zev Yakobson - active in the community, a man of talents and charming personality. - Improvement in the economic situation - in the lumber trade, banks and credit companies, as well as retail trade. - Stabilization of a Jewish proletarian class in town - thousands of laborers and clerks. - Change in the character of the emigration to America. - Emigration to the Jewish colonies in Argentina. - R'Noah Katzowitz's visit in Slonim. Craftsmen's Aliya to Eretz Israel.  
 
Chapter 36 100
Public Institutions in 1895-1914. - The hospital, the association for support of sick needy women, women association to aid new mothers. - A new building for “The Home for the Aged”. - Charity institutions: free-of-interest loan fund, sleeping accomodation for the needy, first mutual insurance association, soup-kitchen for Shabat meals. - Modest simple-folk charity and philantropic charity. - R'Eliyahu Kopelman. - R'Zev-Wolf Wishnyak. - R'Dov Itzkowitz. - Tzadok Dubinbaum.  
 
Chapter 37 103
Shokdei Melacha [craftsmen] Association, a superior public activity group. - Orphans and abandoned children. - Young Smaznewitz and his plan. - Crafts as the Governor sees it. - Moshe Levin is looking for people. - How they learned crafts in Slonim, long ago. - An apprentice serving as maid and nanny. - Moshe Levin and Zev Yakobson. - From rabbis to Judges. - Two associations. - The fire-fighters. - Bright hints of a new existence.  
 
Chapter 38 106
Religion and religious education 1895-1903. - A new term in Slonim: Orthodoxy. - The “traveling preachers” as propagators of propaganda. - The delegate of the Chafetz-Chayim R' Asher Herman. - Establishment of Bet Yaakov and Tif'eret Bachurim associations. - The magid [preacher] R'Moshe Zvi Grinberg - his mission. - Founding the Mahzikei Hadat Association. - The sermons of the rabbis from Syeni and Oshmyani. - The Yeshiva and the Talmud-Torah. - The retirement of Rabbi Yehuda Varnikovski. - Rabbi Avraham-Zvi Kopilowitz. - Retirement of the Mashgiyach [supervisor] R'Arie-Leib Mishkin. - Death of the head of the rabbinic court R'Yosef Shlyoper and the ordained rabbis R'Shmuel Ratner and Chaim-Yehoshua Feinstein. - The appointed (by the government) Rav, rabbi Horowitz, is welcoming the ministers. - Cantor Mandelewitz is leaving Slonim. - The cantors Arie Roitman and Aharon-Dober Strad. - The Maskilim [enlightened] “take control” of the cantor.  
 
Chapter 39 108
Haskala and Maskilim 1895-1903. - Petersburg. - The poet Frug. - The fire of enlightenment is spreading through the Yeshiva. - Writing on Shabat. - Zvi Shapira's school. - The “war of the posters”. - Meir Wolpowitz's school. - The chadarim of R'Israel Mirski and R'Israel-Yakov Salman. - The associations Maskil El Dal [education for the poor] and Dovrei Ivrit [speakers of Hebrew]. - The enthusiasm for reading books. - Parties and plays - The Esther-Rachel Kaminski drama group in town. The first local drama group. - Literary meetings. - The cantor and the lecture in Russian. - The Rothstein choir. - New times and new songs.  
 
Chapter 40 111
Chibat Zion movement - national speakers in 1890-1903. - The local representative of the “Odessa Committee”. - The difference between a religious magid [preacher] and a national one. - The magid R'Zvi, admired by the local maskilim. - The poem by Moshe Zablotzki. - The two preachers. - Local preachers. - The visits of the preachers Tzadikov and Dr. Avinovitzki. - The two anti-Zionist groups. - The scandal in the Bet Midrash. - The “Bund” against the Zionists. - Fist fights and escape through the windows. - The town police helping the preacher. The political situation at the turn of the century.  
 
Chapter 41 114
The Labor Movement in 1895-1902. - Statistics of Jewish labor by the end of the century - Slonim among the towns with the highest percentage of craftsmen. - The Jewish woman joins the work-force. - Working conditions in the workshop and factory. - Beginnings of labor unions in Vilna and Minsk - their influence in Slonim. - the first strike in town, in 1897. - The fiasco of the organized strike in 1988. - The creation of Labor-Circles. - The mission of the soldier Yakov from Minsk. - Zalman Kunitze. - The emissary Nathan from Minsk. - The strikes in 1901. - The desperate action in the furniture factory. - The emissary M. H. Gelman - his socialist activity in town. Proclamations in Yiddish. - The youth studying in Gelman's organization. - The “Bund” emissary Masha Zelkind. - The “Bund” regional congress in Slonim. - The local chapter of the “Bund”. - Establishment of the Poalei Zion branch in Slonim. - The the socialist front in town.  
 
Chapter 42 118
Political events in 1903-1906. - Echoes of the Kishinev pogrom. - New provocation in town. - Slonim in the Anti-Semitic press. - Jewish self-defense in town. - Slonim as a recruiting center of reserve soldiers. - “Eve-of-pogrom” atmosphere in town. - Jewish defense ready for action. - The “transaction” between Jacobson and the military headquarters. - Incidents in the market and along the shops. - Clash in the Town-Square. - The defense takes action against the rioters. - Riots in Halinki and neighboring villages. - Murder of a policeman by Jewish revolutionaries. - The revolutionary youth in Slonim. - The elections to the first Duma. - Jacobson is elected member of the Duma. - The pogrom in Bialystok and its echoes in Slonim. - Jacobson's historical role in the Duma. - The Slonim delegate protecting the honor of the Russian Jews. - Jacobson and Rosenbaum in the Slonim jail. - Pogrom following a blood-libel from the... 17th century. - Self defense is on guard.  
 
Chapter 43 121
Political and economic conditions in 1905-1914. - Deterioration of the economic situation following the riots and strikes. - Influence on the lumber trade and industry. - A tidal wave of emigration. - Slonim branch of J.C.A. Information Service assisting the emigrees. - Emigration statistics 1907-1914. - Echoes of the Beilis trial - feelings following the acquittal. - Blood libel in Slonim. - New expulsions from the neighboring villages. - Comparison of statistics between the Slonim region and the other regions in the Grodno gubernmia. - The situation in town on the eve of the World War.  
 
Chapter 44 123
The “unusual” phenomenon of the head of the rabbinic court R'Mordechai Weitzel-Rosenblatt. - R'Mordche'le the “miracle of the generation”. - Longing for miracles, on the background of the persecutions and expulsions. - A mystical atmosphere in town and in the villages. - The appearance of “miracle workers” who hand out amulets and herbs. - “The young man from Beyki”. - The Baal Shem (miracle worker) from Beitchet, dressed as a peasant, another wearing a prayer-shawl. - R'Mordche'le from Ushmina is a guest of the Community.  
 
Chapter 45 125
R'Mordche'le - a psychological riddle; his mystical soul. - A psycho-analitical explanation of his mystical nature - the dream as a subconcious revelation of his nature. - Rav Kook's testimony about R'Mordche'le. - His appearance in Slonim as head of the rabbinic court. His fame in the Jewish world - thousands are seeking his help. - How he is described in the memorial literature. - His love for the Jewish people - the main motive of his magical influence. - The mutual affection of R'Mordche'le and Jacobson, both of them “lovers of the Jewish People”. - From the memories of one of the Maskilim in town. - R'Mordche'le's activity in the community institutions and public matters. - His place among the great figures of the generation.  
 
Chapter 46 128
Religion and religious education in 1904-1914. - R'Mordche'le's rabbinic court. - The judges R'Elchanan Jack, R'Yitzhak Lifshitz, R'Moshe Vinyarski. - R'Yakov Chaim Sarna. - The death of the Government-appointed Rav Horwitz. - Opinion of the Zionists concerning the “appointed rabbi”. - Rav Zalman Sorotzkin is elected as “appointed rabbi”. - Election of Rav Shelyoper. - In the Court of the Slonim ADMOR. - A new face in the management of the Yeshiva: Rav R'Shabtay Yegel. - The fame of the Yeshiva and its teachers in 1905-1915. - The last of the old Hadarim. - Learners and scholars in 1905-1915. - Old customs in the synagogues and Batei Midreash. - R'Shimon Kalecher conducting the elections for the cantor Strud. - “The charitable women”. - Waves of freedom and sacred way-of-life. - “New wine in an old vessel”.  
 
Chapter 47 131
The Zionist movement in 1897-1915. - Se'u Nes Tziona, the first Zionist association in town. - The women's association Benot Zion. - Zionist Youth association Mokirei Zion and Mokirot Zion. - The regional Zionist Convention in town in 1901. - The Slonim delegate to the 5th Zionist Congress. - Slonim delegates to the Zionist convention in 1902 in Minsk. - Slonim delegates to the founding assembly of the “Mizrachi” in Vilna. - Founding the Mizrachi branch in town. - Slonim delegates to the 6th Zionist Congress. - The connection with the Odessa Committee. - The visits of Rav Nissenboim in town. - The young Israel Merminski, his influence in town. - Zhochovitzki and Merminski, Slonim representatives at the Zionist Convention in 1909 in Drosgenik. - The craftsmen join the Zionist movement. - Ze'ev Jabotinsky in Slonim. - “The second Aliya”. - Students from Slonim studying in Jerusalem and in Yafo. - The Zionist anthem. Building the Zionist synagogue.  
 
Chapter 48 133
Education in 1904-1915. - A new phenomenon and a new name: “classes”. - Elementary schools for boys and for girls. - The “modern heder”. - The exciting bible study and idyllic views from Zion. - The new Hebrew teachers: Weitzel, A. Goldberg, Abramovski and others. - New counter-propaganda by the ultra-orthodox. - Attack in the press against the Slonim Yeshiva. - The two educational systems in co-existence. - New teachers in the Governmental school. - The “High-School dibbuk”. - Jewish-Christian cooperation in founding high-schools for boys and for girls. - How the Jewish founders have been trapped. - “Rights” and “percentage norms”. - The Pole Dr. Belski has pity on the Jewish fathers. - The traces of “Russification” in town.  
 
Chapter 49 136
The socialist movement in 1903-1904. - the “Bund” is organizing labor unions. - The Po'alei Zion branch in town. - Labor Circles and lectures in political economy. - Young men of “good families” join the Bund. - Strike on May 1st 1904. - Competition inside the Labor Movement. - Ideological controversy in town. - First demonstration in town. - Political strike in front of the Police. - Strikes on economic background.  
 
Chapter 50 138
The socialist movement in 1905-1906. - The Parties. - 1st of May demonstration. - Increasing conflict between the Bund and the Z. S. (Zionist Socialists). Guns, grenades and bombs. - The parties in view of the reaction in 1907-1914. - Depression and emigration. - “Angry winds” - the act of desperation of a young Bundist. - Cultural activity of the Parties. - A substitute of political activity.  
 
Chapter 51 140
The town before the World War. - Changes from 1880 to 1914. - Changes in cultural needs. - Change of attitude towards the spoken language. - Public libraries. - Literary works in Yiddish by young people. - The Slonim Yiddish. - Visits of Drama Groups. - The play that offended Shalom Aleichem. - Julius Adler, Gozshok & Tzuker, Vaslavski & Kompanjetz Groups. - Esther-Rachel Kaminski again in Slonim. - The visits of the Russian theatrical companies. - Waltz music and folk songs. - The Jewish character of the town. - The town on Shabat and Holidays. - The Slonim image as reflected in Shklov.  
 
Chapter 52 144
“Eve-of-war” in town. - General mobilization. - What the Comandant said to the Jewish demonstrators. - Deportation from the villages. - The Regiment Commander is afraid of the “Jewish curses” and asks for the blessing of R'Mordche'le. - Relocation of institutions from Grodno to Slonim. - R'Hilel-Iser Yanovski. - Military Staff and a wave of refugees. - Increase in commerce and industry. - Anti-Semitism in the Public Committee for the aid of the wounded in war. - The Community sets up a military hospital. - The Jewish initiative slandered by the oppressors. Deportees from Lithuania passing through town. - Aid to the refugees.  
 
Chapter 53 146
The “Gubernia” relocates to Slonim. - A new decree: shops must be open on Shabat. - OSE and YAKOPA (Jewish Aid Committee) delegates in town. - Yanovski attacks the “monthly treasurers” and the rich families in town. - Establishment of a local YAKOPA committee. - Yakobson, Rav MAZE and the attorney Gruzenberg. - A memorandum to Nicolai Nicoliewitz. - The visit of rav MAZE in Slonim. - Jakobson saves the community from general expulsion. - The expulsion from Albertin. - Evacuation from Slonim and retreat of the Russian army. - The Aid-Committee becomes the Community Council. - Establishment of the “citizen's committee” and the civil militia. - Jaacobson's personal tragedy. - The delegation to the Corps General. - The “secret weapon” of the Jewish community in Slonim. - Explosion at the factory and the bridges. - The Polkovnik and the rabbi. - The Germans enter the town. - Bombardment and fire in town. - A night of horror and the end of the battle.  
 
The German Occupation in 1915-1918
 
Chapter 54 152
The town after the end of the fighting. - The fire in the Zamoshtze suburb. - Riots of the Kozaks. - The occupation. - A German invention: paying for shopping with promisory notes. - The citizens' Committee. - The Catholic priest Klyas. - Confiscations and other persecutions. - Diffculties in the economic life - smuggling and smugglers. - Deportation of 500 men to a forced labor camp. - The first hunger victims. - Bread rationing. - Rumors of embezzlement in the Citizens Committee. - Mass demonstrations. - Dissolving the Citizens Committee. - Elections to a new committee. - The Military Mayor officer Kranen.  
 
Chapter 55 154
The community during the first year of occupation. - The decision of 25 Elul 5675. - The members of the Committee. - The work of the committee - a heavy load. - New institutions and urgent rescue. - The budget. - The relations between the Citizens Committee and the Community. - American and German Jews provide aid to the community. - The Rabbinate. A large number of needy families. - “The Great Assembly” on 11 Shevat 5676. - Taxes paid by the members of the community. - Daring activity of the Committee. - A general assembly, the old committee is dissolved and a new committee elected. - The three stages of the community committee.  
 
Chapter 56 158
Yanovski's statement against the saboteurs. - The community council handles supply and rationing. - The “selbsthilf” [self-aid] group persists in its opposition. - The cheap soup-kitchen. - The community auditing committee. - The “informer shame” is back in town. - The priest Klyas' verdict concerning the Community council. - Diisappointment and desperation among the members of the council. -  
 
Chapter 57 159
Death of the ADMOR R'Shmuel. - The last days of R'Mordche'le - his will concerning his replacement. - The imressive assembly discussing his will. - The rabbinic court. - The Yeshiva and the Talmud-Torah. - The fate of the traditional Heder. - Refugees in the Bet Midrash. Religious soldiers in town. - The German Jews recognize Slonim as “Ost-Juden”. - The Jewish Chaplain Dr. Arthur Levi. - The military physician Dr. Yeshayahu Wolfsberg.  
 
Chapter 58 161
The Slonim community Pinkas [register]. - From R'Eliezer ben David to R'Hillel-Isser Yanovski. - The dramatic lecture concerning the Pinkas. - Recording without discrimination. - “Epilogue of the Pinkas. - Yanovski's opinion on the “other side” of the community. - Description of the hunger in the Pinkas. - How Yanovski was remembered in the community.  
 
Chapter 59 163
The new Citizen's Committee. - The employment situation. - Forced labor. - Deterioration of the general supply situation in summer 1916. - Hunger in town. - Against the smugglers. - The tragic event in the Great Syhagogue. - Setting fire to a row of shops. - The whims of the Feldwebel [corporal] Kempe. - Discovery of the embezzlement by the Citizens Committee. - Arrest of the Mayor Kranen. - The martial trial. - Dissolving the Citizens Committee and appointing the officer Hanov. -  
 
Chapter 60 165
300 forced-labor workers are transported to the forests. - Thousands are evacuated from town. - The horror of the typhoid fever epidemic. - The entire town is taken to the public bath. - Supply is very low - the hunger in 1917 at its peak - high mortality. - “Every person to himself”. - Migration to the villages. - Assemblies in the synagogues. - The appointment of “The Commission”. - The mob attacks a smuggler. - Military police in town. - The Commission intervenes. - Improvement in supply in fall 1917.  
 
Chapter 61 167
The political-economic situation in 1918. - Improvement in supply and revival of commerce. - The big fire on 20 May - 3000 people without a roof over their heads. - Cancellation of the martial government in town. - Elections to the City Council. - The two Blocks - the “general” and the “democratic”. - The Jewish mayor Alexander Kovarski. - Rumors about the future of the town. - The appearance of the Polish-Austrian Regiment. - The Commander Prince Leopold leaves town. - “Soldiers Council Organization” in town. - Discussions between the various parties about establishing a defense power. - The end of the German occupation. - Two months of Soviet occupation. - A new war and a new front. - The Polish army.  
 
Chapter 62 169
The parties during the years of occupation. - Freeze in 1916-1917 and awakening by the end of 1917. - The Herzliya association. - The youth movement Benei Zion. - The Ivriya association and its weekly Hatechiya. - The first “daytrip” on Lag Ba'omer 1918. - The establishment of Tze'irei Zion. - Connections with Byalistok and Minsk. - The leftist parties. - The “Laborers Tea-Hall” club. - Activists of the Bund. - The first Halutzim [pioneers] circle. - The first pioneers training camp. - Greenblatt, the Zionist delegate from Minsk. - The death of Moshe Auerbuch. - The festivities around thr Balfour Declaration. - The Soviet occupation. - Welcoming the Red Army with... the blue-white flag. - What happened to the flag. - Zalman Konitze recites the Shehecheyanu blessing.  
 
Chapter 63 171
Charity institutions during the occupation. - The cheap soup-kitchen. - The special committee. - The crisis in the kitchen . - The kitchen at the time of Hanov. - “The aid-fund”. - The Home for the Aged. - The hospital. - The decline of the aid societies. - The activity of the craftsmen's group. - The new “Red-Star-of-David” institution. - Dr. Zvi Levin and his helpers.  
 
Chapter 64 174
Education and culture in the years of occupation. - The Modern Heder. - Evening classes. - The school founded by Mrs. Goldberg. - The Hebrew School founded by the Zionist organization. - Mordechai Konitze and David Rakovitzki's high-school classes. - Cultural activity in various closed circles. - The Circle in Moshe Zablotzki's home. - Byalik's 25th anniversary - Yanovski's pamphlet in honor of the occasion. - Yehuda Greenhouse's drama group. - Students returning from Russia. - The concerts of the Military orchestra. - The conductor “Mister Crazy”. - Hassidic melodies performed by trumpets and other wind-instruments.  
 
Part Three - The New Polish Regime
From the Annexation of the Town to Poland in 1919 to the end of the Polish rule in 1939 and the Soviet Occupation in 1939-1941
 
Chapter 65 177
The Polish Eagle in town after 123 years. - Slonim back under Polish rule. - The difference between Slonim of 1794 and Slonim of 1919. - The continuity in the history of the community. - A bridge between the romantic past and the new reality. - Slonim as a unit of Jewish life in Eastern Europe.  
 
Chapter 66 178
 
The great changes in the life of the community. - The “old Jewish spirit” in the community along the generations. - Political events in town in 1919-1920. - The Polish army occupation in March 1919. - Riots of the Polish Legionnaires accusing the Jews of communism - persecutions, arrests, cutting beards at the train station. - The Morgenthau Investigation Committee. - The front moves to the East. - Renewing the connection with Minsk. - Demographic decline of the Jewish settlement in 1915-1919 . - The 1921 census. - First elections to the town Council. - War at the edge of town in the summer of 1920. - The second Soviet occupation and the liberation by the Poles. - Fear in the Jewish community. Moshe Zablotzki calls for help. The severe Martial rule after liberation. - Peace is signed in Riga and Slonim is finally annexed to Poland.  
 
Chapter 67 180
The Town Council as a local parliament. - First meeting of Christians and Jews on the basis of formal egality. - The temporary council March-August 1919. - Elections in August 1919. - The split in the Jewish vote. -  
 
Chapter 68 182
The community management in 1919-1920. - The “Joint” activity in town - lieutenant Shein's report. - The soup-kitchen is reopened - 4000 meals a day. - The visit of Dr. Bogen from the Joint. - The activity of the Red-Magen-David [star of David]. - The devotion of Dr. Zvi Levin - his death and the impression in town. - The death of Moshe Reznik. - The Slonim Relief-Aid. - Private aid from the US. - The problem of the war orphans. - The Committee's activity in the area of education. - The Rabbinate. - Zionist avtivity and the establishment of the Hechalutz branch in town. - Aliya of Zionist youth in 1920 and 1921. - Renewal of emigration to America.  
 
Chapter 69 184
General conditions in 1919-1920. - The decline in the lumber trade - ruin of the industry - sharp decrease in small businesses and crafts. - No improvement in 1921. - The Joint survey in town in 1921, concerning industry and crafts. - The “Jewish” productive occupations. - Jewish agriculture and gardening in the region - disputes with the peasants over cultivated areas. - The ORT survey on the agriculture in the Slonim region. - The factors that prevented the consolidation of Jewish agriculture in the region.  
 
Chapter 70 187
Political development in 1921-1925. - Artificial increase of the Polish population. - Slonim Jews return from Russia. - First census in 1921 - the number of Jews. - The town and government work force - “clean of Jews”. - Elections to the Sejm in 1922. - “The United Jewish Party”. - The Folkist party. - Greenboim and Rassner join the election campaign in town. - The Slonim Zionist Michael Stutchinski becomes member of the Sejm. - The Gravski rule in Slonim.  
 
Chapter 71 188
The Town Council in 1921-1925. - The Staroste Korkozowitz. - The United Jewish Fraction. - “Idyllic” Polish-Jewish relationship in the Council. - The Staroste becomes the patron of Hashomer Hatza'ir in town. - The ill-fated photo of Korkozowitz in the Hashomer camp. - “Happy Slonim, where are you located?” - The end of the idyllic relations - illusion and reality. - Korkozowitz is relocated. - The second council 1923-1925. - New faces: Dr. Shmuel Weiss - his role during the last generation of the Community.  
 
Chapter 72 190
The Community Council in 1921-1925. - The legal status of the community. - The fate of the Council is in the hands of the local governor. - The Staroste Korkozowitz and the Council. - Elections to the community council in 1922. - Moshe Zablotzki is head of the community. - The social activity of the Council. - Elections to the Sejm in 1922. - “Unzer Journal”, the Council's newspaper. - The budget. - Income from local sources.  
 
Chapter 73 192
The economic situation in 1921-1925. - The lumber trade - restoration of the sawmills. - High rate of employment in town and surroundings. - Partial revival of the industry - the matches plant, the cardboard plant, furniture factory. - Building, leather industry, crafts. - Improvement in medium and small businesses. - The stands in the market-place. - The taxation system. - A new economic crisis in sight. - The scribe [Sofer Stam] activity. - Improvement in the standard of living.  
 
Chapter 74 194
The new social institutions. - the problem of the war orphans. - Aid to the orphans in the first two years. - Establishment of the orphanage in 1921. - The peak of social activity - Combination of three factors: the Slonim Relief, the Joint, the community leaders. - The “Orphanage Society” - its establishment, donations, problems. - The “chain of aid” - how it worked. - The institution's vegetable garden. - Support from “The Relief”. - Sonia Marminski. - The well-ordered management of the institution, thanks to Dr. Weiss. -  
 
Chapter 75 196
The Maternity Hospital is founded in 1923. - “Aid to the Mothers” assocation. - The budget. - The social character of the hospital. - The women, founders and managers of the hospital. - Social oeganizations in the surrounding towns.  
 
Chapter 76 197
A branch of the TOZ association is founded in 1926. - The influence of the Vilna TOZ center. - The program of TOZ organization in town. - Medical supervision in the schools. - “Instruction Stations” for young mothers. - Summer-camps for schoolchildren. - Meals for children in the public schools. - Clothing for children. - Day-care center for the children of working mothers. - The community is the sole source of budget. - Institutions trying to help. - The “Purim banquet” organized by TOZ. - Dr. Kovarski and other doctors.  
 
Chapter 77 200
The charity institutions during the Polish period. - Continued activity of Magen David Adom and TOZ, the two health activity institutions. - The budget. - The director Dr. Epstein and his aides. - Free accomodation for the needy. - “Home for the Aged” in its new location. - Head of the Committee Dr. Wolf Berman. - “Welcoming Guests”. - 50 years of the treasurer R'Zvi Greiber. - “Wheat-money” - helping the needy before th Passover holiday. - Statistics of donors and receivers. - “Kosher food”. - 500 soldiers supported by the community. - Firewood for the winter. - Helping the neighboring villages. The charitable women in the last generation.  
 
Chapter 78 202
Political relations in town 1926-1930. - A new Staroste: Dorosh - his attitude toward the Jews. - “Polanization” of the town - the government elementary and High school education. - A mixed minority of non-Jews as a counter-power agaist Jews. - The visits of the Voyevod of Novogrovk and the Bishop of Vilna. - A new face in the Starostava: Pan Henshel - a new man and a new political climate. - The elections to the Sejm in 1928. - Anti-Semitism after the elections - the speeches of the priest Orathcevski . - The visit of the President. - The Jewish community council is boycotted by Henshel. The Slonim delegate is not allowed to speak. - The libel. - Arrests for singing Hatikva at the farewell party to immigrants to Palestine. - Mr. Henshel accuses the Jews of a hostile attitude toward Poles. - Three years of deteriorating relationship. - Mr. Henshel is fired. A new governor in town: Koslyatch.  
 
Chapter 79 205
The third Town Council in 1925-1927. - The Polish delegates. - Anti-Semitism in the Council. - The Staroste Henshel treats the Jewish members with contempt. - Conflict between the Jewish members and the Staroste. - The town council is dissolved. - Henshel appoints Plivanski as Mayor. - Elections to the fourth Town Council. - The maneuvers of the pair Plivanski-Henshel. - The attempt to accept Plivanski as mayor - approval with reservation.  
 
Chapter 80 207
Deterioration of the small businesses. - Taxes and more taxes. - The secretary attacks Dr. Weiss. - Cuts in the budgets of the Jewish schools. - The Jewish members in the town council against the mayor. - Plivanski's declaration against the Jewish majority in the Council. - Bitter dispute Plivanski-Weiss. - Henshel is removed from the Starostava and Plivanski from the town council. - The new Staroste Koslyash. Vladislav Yelski is appointed mayor.  
 
Chapter 81 210
The community council in 1926-1930, its activity during the rule of Staroste Zorosh. - New social institutions are established. - The Council's supervision in the area of education. - Welcoming guests. - Expansion of the “community regulations” to larger territories. - The surrounding communities under the management of Slonim. - Elections in April 1928. - The members of the Council. - Administrative sabotage in the community. The activity at a standstill. - “Rebellion” in the Council. - New promises that were not kept.  
 
Chapter 82 212
The economic situation in 1926-1930. - The building movement. - Causes of the crisis in the lumber trade. - The Soviet “Dumping” - its influence on Slonim. - Government competition against the Jewish merchants. - Dr. Lisovski's mission in Slonim. - The economic crisis in the light of Lisovski's research. - Decline of the wholesale commerce and small businesses. - From “the row of shops” to stands in the market place. - Crisis in the industry and crafts. - Government control. - The Jewish craftsman is suppressed in the name of modernization. - Rising unemployment. - Attempt of recovery by “Self-Aid”. - The “Slonim Relief” initiative. - The ORT program of reviving the economy - the mission of Mr. Eisorowitz, the ORT representative.  
 
Chapter 83  
Movements and parties during the Polish rule. - The second generation of the movements - the differences between the two generations. - Zionism conquers the masses. - “Politization” of the youth. - A small settlement and plenty of parties. - In town, there still are “plain Jews” - without a “party seal”.  
 
Chapter 84 218
Zionist groups. - JNF. - The Joint Zionist Committee in 1919. - 25 organizations participate in the JNF activities in town. - “The “Dunam Donation” and “Hagalila”. - The JNF delegates in town, the budget. - The 1929 convention. - The Keren Hayesod convention. - Reflection of the economic crisis in the fund collections. - The establishment of the WIZO organization - its activity and the yearly fair for JNF. - Cultural activity of WIZO. - Elections to the Congress. - The Aliya Committee and other acting committees. - The Slonim Jewry's demonstrations for Eretz Israel.-  
 
Chapter 85 220
The local branch of the Zionist Organization. - Regional Convention in Elul 5679. - The rift in the General Zionists' camp. - Greenboim visits Slonim. - Slonim representative at the Warsaw Convention. - The chairmen of the local branch M. Zablotzki and Dr. Efrat. - The youth association of the General Zionists joins the Committee. - The struggle with the Agudat Israel people. - Cultural activity. - Buying the Gebeliya land. - Slonim changes its name to Tel-Noam. - The regional conventions.  
 
Chapter 86 223
Torah Va'avoda”. - The Mizrachi, its Zionist activity. - R'Bezalel Kandsvitzki. - The preacher R'Itzhak Dines. - Founding the Mizrachi Youth. - Regional conventions of the Party, visits by the movement activists Rav Neufeld, Rav Gold and others. - Religious craftsmen's organization. - Founding the Revisionist Section in town. - The regional convention in 1929. - The campaign for the Tel-Chai fund. - The first clash with the Zionist Left. - “The stormy Sabbath”. - The Grossman section. - Jabotinski's visit in 1933. - Disturbances following his visit - second visit in 1935. - Brit Nashim Leumiyot [national women] association.  
 
Chapter 87 225
Tze'irei Zion branch. - Death of Moshe Reznik. - Rivka Sakheim. - Israel Merminski visits town. - Regional convention in 1920. - “Collection of working tools”. - The attitude toward elections to the Sejm, conventions, city council and community. - The decision to unite with Poalei Zion. - The festive “union assembly”. - Poalei Zion in 1919-1920. - The Circle joins Poalei Zion Left. - Poalei Zion Right is founded in 1924 - its activity in the trade unions.  
 
Chapter 88 227
The Hit'achdut branch. - Avraham Katzenelson visits on Shavuot 5680 [1920]. - The Hapoel Hatzair circle becomes a branch of Hit'achdut. - Avraham Levinson's visit. - Yosef Vertchinski and the activists in the twenties. - Defeat of the Branch in the 1927 elections to the city council. - Regional convention in 1927. - Closing the Branch in 1936 - its positive activity within the Zionist groups in town.  
 
Chapter 89 229
The branch of the Poalei Zion party - its activity. - Coping with the Bund in the municipal domain. - Regional conventions in 1929, 1935. - The struggle with the Revisionists. - The Branch and the Union movements. - Founding the “League for Working Eretz Israel”. - The elections to the Congress. - Regional convention of the League. - Separation of the leftist circle from thr League. - Zerubavel's visit in town. - Reestablishment of Poalei Zion Left.  
 
Chapter 90 231
The ADMOR R”Shmuel of Slonim among the founders of Agudat Israel. - Cooperation between the Aguda and the local Zionists in 1921-1927. - The dispute in 1928. - Problems with the election of Stutchinski. - Dispute concerning funding. - Aguda's attitude toward the rabbi of the community. - Sharp dispute between the two camps. - R'Zalman Ivanski, head of the Community.  
 
Chapter 91 232
The Bund in 1919-1939 - its policy in the Town Council and its position in the professional movement. - The competition with Poalei Zion. - The Bund against the Zionists. - The Socialist party and the Bund. - The Bund receives a medal from the Staroste. - The Bund and the Community. - The arrest of a Comsomol group - the trial. - Arrests in 1933. - The struggle between the Bund and the comunists.  
 
Chapter 92 236
The three ways of the youth movements. - The local youth organizations under the sponsorship of the parties. - The Gordonia organization. - The “Freiheit” branch of Poalei Zion Right. - The “Jugend” circle of Poalei Zion Left. - Organizations affiliated with the Bund. - Hamizrachi and Hashomer Hadati. - The revisionists and the Massada and Beitar organizations. - A Beitar training camp sponsored by a Polish general. - The “General Zionist Youth” completes the colorful collection.  
 
Chapter 93 238
Scouts-pioneer organizations. - Hashomer Hatzair- its activity in camping, pioneer training and art. - The Hechalutz branch as an umbrella organization of the pioneer movement. - The training camp in Lovzovska. - Collection for the “Hechalutz Fund”. - A “training kibbutz” comes to town. - The Scouts movement publishes a literary anthology. “The General Zionist Hechalutz”. - “The Religious Hechalutz”.  
 
Chapter 94 240
Sports clubs. - Sport to the aid of the parties. - “Hapoel”. - “Trumpeldoria”. - “Maccabi”. - Anti-Semitism on the playing field. - Maccabi's cultural activity. - “Nordia”. - The Bund's “Morgenstern”. - The achievements of the Jewish Sports in town.  
 
Chapter 95 242
Religion and religious institutions in 1020-1939. - The last head of the rabbinic court R'Yehuda-Leib Feine - his merits as a spiritual leader, preacher and representative of the community. - The last rabbinic court. - The cantor Pesach Oskovski and his choir. - The slaughterhouse and the Hevra Kadisha. - New religious organizations: “Kashrut committee” and “Family Purity”. - The rift in the Slonim Hassidism. - The Slonim Hassidic center in Baranowitz. - Deaths of R'Yissaschar-Leib and R'Avraham. - The last ADMOR R'Shlomo. - Religious figures in town. - Change of values. - The Shulhoyf [synagogue yard]. - Assemblies in the Great Synagogue. - Customs that prevailed and customs that were discontinued. - The craftsmen's Beit Hamidrash. - Prayerhouses in the suburbs. - Restoration of the Beit Midrash Shomrim Laboker. - “Our old candle is still burning”.  
 
Chapter 96 245
The educational system as a reflection of the social situation. - The religious educational institutions. - The Yeshiva - the teachers and the supervisors. - The kibbutz affiliated with the Yeshiva. - Rabbis and writers, graduates of the Yeshiva. - The last of the old Hadarim. - The Talmud Torah. - The Beit Yaakov School for girls. - The Tachkemoni School.  
 
Chapter 97 247
The secular education in the last generation. - The public elementary schools. - The Zionist schools for boys and girls in 1919-1922. - The Yiddish School Tarbut. - The restrictions on the Jewish schools. - The Jewish Government School. - The private schools. - “Kadima” school (R'Meir Wolpowitz). - “Yavne” school (Mr. Yochevedowiyz). - “Moriya” school (Mr. Shilovitzki. - “Ivriya” school for girls (Messrs. Pomeranz-Heilperin). - Merger of “Kadima” and “Yavne”. - The Kindergarten. - The children's home “Tel-Chai”. - The veteran and the new Hebrew teachers.  
 
Chapter 98 250
High-school and professional education. - Founding the “Jewish Society for Mixed Education”. - The Jewish-Polish High-School. - New faces in town: teachers from Galicia. - “Matriculation” and “rights”. - Trouble from the Inspector. - Problems with the “Polish pronunciation”. - Jews in the Government high-school. - Shock and embarrassment: high-school rights denied. - The youth is demanding vocational education. - Encouragment from former Slonim residents in America. - ORT begins educational activity - courses of sewing, driving, knitting, accounting. - Slonim students at the universities in Poland and abroad. - “The Academic circle” in town.  
 
Chapter 99 252
Culture and education for the people. - Party culture-centers. - The Zionist Beit Ha'am [house of the people]. - The “Borochov House”. - Clubs, evening classes, lectures, authors - from town and from out-of-town. - Death of Moshe Zablotzki. - Popular-scientific lectures by the Academic Circle. - Public libraries and reading halls. - Yiddish literature. - Increasing influence of the Polish literature. - Jewish press. The symphonic orchestra and art galleries. - Decline of the cultural activity in the thirties. - Dark prophesies for the future.  
 
Chapter 100 256
The local press - Unser Journal [our newspaper], Slonimer Wort [the Slonim word] 1926-27, Unsere Stimme [our voice], and Slonimer Leben [Slonim life] of the Poalei Zion. - Slonimer Wort in 1929-1939 - its struggles and its rights. - The publicist Dr. Weiss. - The revisionists' Slonimer Woch [Slonim week]. - Aguda's Slonimer Yiddishe Stimme [Slonim Jewish voice]. - Der Weker [the waker] of the Bund. - Synagogue leaders publish “Leafs”. - Elections literature. - Hebrew publishing houses. - Hashomer Hatzair, Gordonia, Massad publishings. - the “learning youth” publishings - “The Spark”, “The Friend”. - “The Word of Slonim”, “Our Word”. - Slonim poets and their Yiddish works: Shmuel Auerbuch, Sender Stolovitzki, Nissan Eisin, Yitzhak Rachilevski, K. L., Menachem Hellberg. Slonim poets who wrote Hebrew: Chaim Lanski, Gad Goldberg, Gitel Mishkovski, Lima Hellberg. - The prose. - Comedies and folk tales by Zablotzki. - Songs, parodies, humor and satire. - Katzenelson, Shalioper, Zablotzki, Yechezkel Rabinowitz, Vrobiovski. - Memoirs: Perlstein, Yudelewitz, Zakroiski, K. L. - Documentary works. - Local reporting.  
 
Chapter 101 260
Theater and entertainement. - Local groups. - Director Yaborski and his Zionist drama group. - The Poalei Zion group. - The Bund drama group. - The Jewish actor. - Out-of-town groups. - Esther-Rachel Kaminska's last visit. - The Julius Adler group is back. - Performances of the Vilna Group (Vilner Troupe). - Ida Kaminska, Rudolf Zaslavski, Jonas Turkov. - Other theaters, operettas, songs. - Performances during the thirties. - Sigmund Turkov, Rachel Holtzer, Dina Halperin, Sam Bronetzki groups. - Moris Schwarz and his theater. - Guest performances of “Di Yiddishe Bande”, “Jung Theater”. - Soloists: singers, musicians, dancers. - Visits by Kipnis and Selinfeld, Vertinski and Ida Kraemer, Djigan and Schumacher. - Circus and movies. - Festive occasions by the institutions and organizations. - Anti-Semitic incidents in Polish coffee-houses. - Slonim is keeping its folk-culture.  
 
The Soviet Occupation 1939-1941
 
Chapter 102 263
Radical changes in the attitude of the rulers to the Jewish minority. - Influence of the Hitlerist venom on the Poles. - Poverty increases but life goes on. - War and Soviet occupation. - Radical changes in the traditional way-of-life. - Two stages in the destruction of the Slonim community. - Flood of refugees and brotherly help. - Annihilation of independent commerce and crafts. - End of national-Jewish education. - “Russification school”. - A wave of arrests and deportations. - Attempt of the young generation to adapt. - The Jewish heart refuses to lose hope. - The morning of 22 June 1941.  
 
Bibliography and Sources 266
Notes 268-280

 

List of Slonim Martyrs extracted from the Memorial Pages

 

B O O K   T H R E E

Translated by Yocheved Klausner

Edited by Zvi Shefet

Foreword VII
Foreword [Y] VIII
 
Memories Section 1
History and memories, introduction Kalman Lichtenstein 3
History and memories, introduction [Y] Kalman Lichtenstein 5
Sixty years in Slonim, Part One [Y] Mendel Perlstein 9
My childhood years in Slonim [Y] Lea Kubovitzki 17
Reminiscences about the first Chasidic rabbi in Slonim, author of “Chesed LeAvraham” [Y] Yechezkel Kotik 28
Dialogue between the ADMOR and the Maskil (intelectual, “enlightened”) YAHALAL (Yehuda Leib Levin) 32
 
Correspondence in the Hebrew Press 33
Correspondence in the Hebrew Press, Introduction Kalman Lichtenstein 35
Correspondence in the Hebrew Press, Introduction [Y] Kalman Lichtenstein 39
Correspondence from the years 1859-1890:
   Hamagid 42
   Halevanon 46
   Ivri Anochi 50
   Hatzefira 51
   Hamelitz 56
   Hayom 65
   Knesset Hagdola 80
Additions to the correspondence 1859-1890 82
Sixty years in Slonim, Part Two [Y] Mendel Perlstein 85
From the cradle to the wedding-canopy in Slonim [Y] Keila Kamenetzki-Crasnapyorka 92
Notes amd memories about R'Eisele Charif:
Plain R'Eizele - means R'Eisele from Slonim Rav Y. L. Maimon 95
R'Eisele attained a life of calm and creativity in Slonim Eliezer Steinman 96
R'Eisele - as seen from a distance and from close-by Dr. Shimshon Rosenboim 96
My childhood and adolescence years in Slonim [Y] Mordechai Ginsburg 97
A small gift for my town of birth [Y] Cheikel Lunski 101
Venice in Slonim [Y] Ch. I. Katzenelson 101
Memories from old days, chapter one David Yochevedowitz 103
Memories Noah Broyda 105
From Lachewitz - in the Slonim Yeshiva [Y] Dr. I. Mokdoni 108
Memories from old days, chapter two David Yochevedowitz 109
Examination day in the Yeshiva [Y] Eliezer Vilentchik 112
My rabbis [Y] Gershon Stein 113
My “Days” in Slonim [Y] (1) Z. Sha'ar 114
From Odessa – in the Slonim Yeshiva [Y] Shmuel Pinchas Scheinfeld 116
Golda Meir's father “eating days”* in Slonim [Y] Sheine Korngold 117
Correspondence in the years 1891-1900:
   Hatzefira 118
   Hamelitz 127
 
Folklore Section 145
The folkloristic meaning and the Slonim background of R'Eisele's jokes [Y] Kalman Lichtenstein 147
Jokes, sayings and small-talk by R'Eisele Slonimer, first series [Y] 149
Sixty years in Slonim, Part Three [Y] Mendel Perlstein 161
The first decade of the 20th century Yosef Dror 166
Four generations of “writers” and Starostes [Y] Mordechai Sapir (Rubinovski) 168
Children's games in Slonim at the beginning of the 20th century Yehoshua Aluf (Wolopyanski) 172
Memories from the time I served as cantor in Slonim Yosef-Dov Pasovski 175
Rabbinic teaching and Torah education in Slonim in the last generations Rav Chaim-Chaikel Grinberg 176
The young man from the Beiky village [Y] A. Litwin 177
The Slonim chapter in my public life Shmuel Zakif (Zhuchowitzki) 178
The mysterious shot [Y] Eliezer Kalir 182
How I arrived in Slonim and joined the Slonim Chassidism David Cohen 184
The power of the Slonim rabbi A. K. Epstein 187
Correspondence from 1901-1905:
    Hayehudi 189
    Hatzefira 205
    Hatzofe 218
Slonim, the cradle of our youth Chaim Orlan 218
Sixty years in Slonim, Part Four [Y] Mendel Perlstein 219
Three years as a “realist” in Slonim [Y] Dr. Chaim Shoshkes 225
Bits of memories from my old home Dr. Shmuel Chananowitz 234
The water-carrier has disappeared [Y] Yosef Erishewitz 236
Mrs. Yudkovski's Middle-School for Girls Rachel Rakovski-Zaklad 237
The first years of the Labor Movement in Slonim [Y] Yoel Yudelewitz 238
My Slonim memories as a member of ZS (Zionist Socialist Party) in the years 1904-1906 [Y] Yosef Erishewitz 240
The Shulhoyf (“synagogue yard”) and neighborhood [Y] Chaim Rizikof 252
The “Stolipinkes” (prisoner-cars) originated in Slonim [Y] Moshe Lichtenstein 253
From R'Markel Shershevski to Rose Reitz [Y] Frieda Shapira-Berman 255
Sixty years in Slonim, Part Five [Y] Mendel Perlstein 259
A meeting with writers-revolutionaries [Y] Dr. A. Mokdoni 262
Trivial matters - 1904-1906 Yosef Dror 264
A home full of revolutionaries [Y] Sheine Wollach-Mogilanski 265
Memories of a Bundist [Y] Shalom Shklavin 269
My memories as a member of Poalei Zion [Y] Efraim Polanski 269
My memories as a member of ZS (Zionist Socialist Party) [Y] Isidor Savitt 269
The Slonim “good Jew” [Y] A. Litvin 270
The great scholar R'Mordechai Rosenblatt-Weitzel Hillel Isser Yanovski 272
My visits with R'Mordche'le [Y] Mendel Perlstein 274
The rabbi's alley [Y] Dr. Chaim Shoshkes 276
The spiritual personality of R'Mordche'le of Slonim Akiva Ben Ezra 278
Around the Yeshiva street [Y] Chaim Rizikof 279
The end of the “Lamps Street” Chaim Orlan 282
Chilshood-years in the “Drugstore-Alley” [Y] Miriam Lichtenstein-Shereshevski 282
The Bridge-Street quarter Shlomo Eisenberg 284
The Jews in Albertin (a suburb of Slonim) A. Israeli 285
Fire fighters in Slonim Yakov Zelevianski 285
My brother-in-law Chanoch Grodonski Hilel Isser Yanovski 287
With Moshe Zablovski and Dr. A. S. Kamenetzki Hilel Isser Yanovski 288
Teachers, intellectuals, writers Chaim Orlan 289
On the border between two eras: [Y] Kalman Lichtenstein
   Part one: July-August 1914 294
   Part two: September 1914-April 1915 305
My memories from the beginning of the War and the German occupation of Slonim Hilel Isser Yanovski 312
The rabbi and the Polkovnik (colonel) [Y] Efraim Svetitzki 321
Magen David Adom (Jewish first aid service) in Slonim [Y] Chaim Averbuch 324
The “Laborers' Tea-Room” [Y] Benyamin Skuditzki 325
The first Lag Ba'omer walk in 1918 [Y] Chaim Averbuch 326
Two episodes of the Soviet occupation in 1920 [Y] Yitzhak Lichtenstein 328
Memories about public activists and community workers Yosef Dror 330
"The Great Synagogue” during the last two generations Yosef Dror and Mordechai Sapir 334
R'Yakov Chananowitz Kalman Lichtenstein 336
The “Chevra-Shtiebel” [Chasidic prayer-house) Dr. Noah Kaplinski 336
R'Israel Kaplinski Kalman Lichtenstein 339
Jokes, sayings and small-talk by R'Eisele Slonimer, second series [Y] 339
Folk tales about R'Mordche'le 354
Foreword to the Folk tales about R'Mordche'le 354
List of the Slonim Jews who made Aliya 358
Slonim Olim (immigrants) and their offspring who fell in the Israel Wars a
Memorial Pages k

 

B O O K   F O U R

Foreword VIII
Foreword [Y] X
The volumes of Pinkas Slonim (with photograph) President SHAZAR z”l XII
Mordechay Sapir z”l XIII
Baruch Yakimovsku z”l XIV
 
Section A: Sheinberg- Levadi 1
Introduction: from Slonim to Pilanowa, from Schoenberg to Levadi Kalman Lichtenstein 3
Introduction: from Slonim to Pilanowa, from Schoenberg to Levadi [Y] Kalman Lichtenstein 6
With the translation of selected chapters from Shvelen (Thresholds) Chaim Orlan 8
Eight selected chapters from Shvelen, Hebrew translation: Shlomo Levadi 10
   Dyecha's house (Dyecha was the wife of R'Meir'l) 10
   Among flowers in the garden, in a thicket of the tree 12
   In the “Tents of Shem” 14
   Among the flowers of the old cemetery 15
   Days of vacation, greenery and splendor 17
   Difficult days 19
   To my fathers home 21
Four chapters of Shvelen in the Yiddish original [Y]: 24
   In the old cemetery [ Y ] 24
   In the back alley [Y] 25
   The Passover Seder at my grandfather's home [ Y ] 26
   The pogrom-atmosphere in town [Y] 28
   The glow of s dream (translated to Hebrew by the author) 30
   The Dream of Stone and Gray (the same chapter in the original Yiddish) 32
Two semesters (lit. “times”) in the cheder with Shlomo Schoenberg Yosef Dror 36
Memories about Shlomo Levadi the writer, the doctor, the human being Uri Keisari 40
My friend Shlomo Levadi Moris Alexander 42
Sixty years of friendship with Shlomo Levadi [Y] Yitzhak Elchanan Ranch 44
I remember Chana Leah Levadi 46
My Father Victor Levadi 48
His last letter Slomo Levadi 50
Shvelen” (Thresholds) - a symbolic work [Y] Dr. I. Mokdoni 51
The works of Shlomo Levadi Dr. David Groibart 53
Farewell to Shlomo Levadi Dr. Shmuel Zakon 54
The trilogy “Shvelen” (Thresholds) has enriched the Yiddish literature [Y] Aba Gardin 55
The literary achievement of “Shvelen Max Bressler 58
Such a work is created one time in a century [Y] Yitzhak Elchanan Ranch 59
The meaning of the title “ShvelenRabbi S. I. Jacobs 62
Shvelen” - a great work [Y] Nathan Kravitz 63
As I remember [English] Chana Leah Levadi 65
My Father [English] Victor Levadi 66
My friend Shlomo Levadi [English] Moris Alexander 69
From his letters Shlomo Levadi 72
 
Section B: Memories 73
1. Memories from the Beginning of the Century
The Slonim landscape at the beginning of the century Yosef Dror 74
The Slonim landscape at the beginning of the century [Y] Yosef Dror 74
Introduction: The author of “The Slonim landscape”Kalman Lichtenstein 75
Introduction: The author of “The Slonim landscape” [Y] 76
   Mote'le the book-seller Yosef Dror 78
   Who is the crazy one? - asked Welvele the “ring-owner” 80
   From the life of Moshele Fuxman 81
   R'Sholem Gelmann (R'Sholem the yellow one) 82
   R'Naftali, the mentor of the first Slonim ADMORs 83
   R'Shlomo Samsonowitz (“Shlomo Sutchkes”) 84
   Leizer'ke the doctor 86
   The Sabbath candles and the “Chastising Preacher” 87
   R'Asher Slonimski, carpenter, cantor, commentator and cicumciser 88
   The true “Trade-Mark” 89
   R'Noah the chandler 89
   The hunchback lady 91
   Barber-surgeons and doctors in the years 1900-1925 92
   Mid-Tamuz, the “New-Year for renting apartments”) 93
   Rosh Chodesh [First day of the month] 94
   The street lights 94
   “Let's go to the Badans house” [Y] 95
   The new cooking-fat “Kunerol” 97
   (“Borders”) “Grantzn 98
   The Jewish kitchen in the last generations [Y] 99
   Righteous and charitable women 102
   The Bet Hamidrash in Slonim 103
   Means of transportation at the beginning of the 20th century 105
   The beginning of the Gordonia movement 107
   JNF activity until 1925 107
   The (Commerce) Stores Line(Center) [Y] 108
   The commerce-streets around the Stores Line (Center) [Y] 110
   The jetty on the Shchara (stream) 111
   Zvi Chomski z”l 113
From the author of Chelkat Mechokek to the author of Noam Yerushalmi (Dr) Yosef Shershevski 114
In Slonim I listened to the talk of the Kelmer Magid (preacher) [Y] Dr. I. Mokdoni 116
“One must die!” - the sermon of the Magid of Kelm Arie Leib Horowitz 118
The shofar of R'Eli Shmeitchiches [Y] Moshe Mishkin 118
The beginning of the century Ch. Shoshkes 120
The “Breite Gass” (“The Wide Street”) at the beginning of the century Esther Broshi-Wollach 121
From the nickname “the goat” to the title Laureate of the Israel Prize [Y] Kalman Lichtenstein 123
From the nickname “the goat” to the title Laureate of the Israel Prize in Physical Education Kalman Lichtenstein 125
My teachers - the elementary education during WWI Dr. Noah Kaplinski 127
From the modern cheder to the moderen elementary school [Y] Rivka Shapira 133
Bits of memories from a manuscript Yehoshua Alluf 136
My memories from ZS (Zionist Socialist Party) during 1904-1906 (continuation) [Y] Yosef Erushewitz 138
The poalei Zion movement in 1903-1916 [Y] Yehoshua Rozhanski 141
Sixty years in Slonim, Part Six [Y] Mendel Perlstein 151
Sixty years in Slonim, Part Seven [Y] Mendel Perlstein 156
Sixty years in Slonim, Part Eight [Y] Mendel Perlstein 160
Vasilevitch Chaim Orlan 165
The poalei Zion movement in 1915-1920 [Y] K. L. 166
The murder of the sexton of the Briker synagogue Avraham Stolowitzki 167
2. Memories from the Years 1921-1939
The restricting decree on R'Moshe'le the Chasid [Y] Kalman Lichtenstein 169
Dr. Yitzhak Efrat Dr. Noah Kaplinski 172
The Slonim sermon of the “Baranowitz turner” [Y] Yitzhak Lichtenstein 174
My grandfather died dancing [Y] Rose Luski 176
Two streets - figures from the last generation: Kalman Lichtenstein 177
Moshe'ke Keiler 178
Mashiach Zhidovski Tzalia Patzovski 179
A day on a kibbutz - pioneering training in Slonim David Cna'ani 180
A winter walk through the forest with the scouts of Hashomer Hatza'ir Eliezer Shapira 181
R'Yankel the blacksmith [Y] Kalman Lichtenstein 182
A visit in Slonim in 1935 [Y] Israel Rabinowitz 184
Our last trip to Slonim [Y] Mere Lichtenstein-Shereshevski 189
 
Section C: Leibel Luski z”l 191
Leibel Dr. Noah Kaplinski 193
   Leibel Luski - the heir of a Slonim legacy of many generations Yosef Fuxman 195
   Leibel Luski - the heir of beautiful Slonim generations [Y] 197
   The first memorial day of my brother Leibel Luski z”l Rose Luski 198
   The first memorial day of my brother Leibel Luski z”l [Y] 199
My dream (in memory of Leibel Luski z”l) [Y] Eliezer Vilentchik 201
At the unviling of the Memorial to Leibel Luski [Y] Joseph Fuxman 202
Leibel Luski [English] Joseph Fuxman 203
The first yortzeit of my brother Leibel [English] Rose Luski 205
 
Section D: Folklore 207
The local folkloristic meaning of a folk-play and a folk-song [Y] Kalman Lichtenstein 209
“The Torah Song”, a folk-song Recorded by Shlomo Levadi 210
A Purim-Shpiel (Purim play) [Y] Recorded by Shlomo Levadi 212
Folk tales about R'Mordche'le (Cont.) Stories that I remember [Y] Yehoshua Rozhanski 221
A mad one and a dibbuk seeking help by R'Mordche'le [Y] Mordechai Sapir Rubinovski 222
To late (a happening with R'Mordche'le) [Y] Avraham Stolowitzki 223
My reminiscences about R'Mordche'le of Slonim Chaim Shalev 224
A Slonim legend about the Rav R'Shimshon Ben Mordechai Cheikel Lonski 226
The author of “Chesed LeAvraham” as a doctor (from Chasidic folklore [Y] Moshe Frumer 226
The Crusade of the goat Jonah Melodek 228
 
Section E: Israel Mereminski-Marom z”l 229
Living for the nation: chapters from my childhood and youth in Slonim [Y] Israel Mereminski 231
    Part One 231
    Part Two 240
The life of Israel Mereminski Israel Ritov 247
Personal memories about him Anshel Reiss, Repetor, Gelb & Aharon Cohen 250
Israel Mereminski Golda Meir 252
The socialist, Slonim version Israel Stolarski 254
The old market-place in Slonim Israel Mereminski 256
The old market-place in Slonim [Y] Israel Mereminski 257
How R'Lyate Mereminski rose a storm in Slonim [Y] Mendel Perlstein 258
A book dedicated to Israel Mereminski-Marom 260
 
Section F: A Memorial to Sonia and Zvi Mereminski z”l 261
The “Yiddishe Mame” (Jewish mother) of hundreds of Slonim orphans Kalman Lichtenstein 263
Sonia was our mother Aharon Shochet 270
The pleasant atmosphere at the orphanage Nathan Shochet 272
“Mother Sonia”Jonah Golan 273
Sonia Mereminski's work in Tel Aviv Dr. David Riffen 274
Sonia's reward - plenty of nachat (satisfaction, pleasure) from her pupils Yitzhak Honn 274
Twenty years of the House for Abandoned Children in Tel Aviv Sonia Mereminski 275
Sonia's life after her retirement [Y] K. L. 277
The life of the scientist and educator Zvi Mereminski K. L. 279
An exceptional figure in education Yerucham Meshel 284
Zvi Mereminski - the superior teacher Malka Alper 28
Reminiscences about him from the Krakow ghetto Tzelina Shatil 286
 
Section G: Slonim in the General and Regional Literature 287
A miniature Slonim literary anthology [Y] Kalman Lichtenstein 289
“The walker” in Slonim (fragments from a poem) [Y] Menachem Baryesha 292
Leizhe the wood carrier from Smolarny [Y] Noah Luria 295
There once was a town (poem) Chaim Lanski 296
Mother (poem) Gitel Mishkovski 297
Gitel Mishkovski's book of poems Shlomo Eisenberg 297
To my town of birth: a farewell poem [Y] Kalman Lichtenstein 298
To you. Poems dedicated to his bride Chaia Gozhanski from Slonim [Y] Leib Neidos 300
A memorial to the poet and fighter Israel Deretchinski (Ben-Menachem) Chaim Orlan 301
Idyllic Pictures [Y] Yitzhak Rachilevski 303
    1. Sabbath eve 303
    2. The Market 304
On the highway bridge, a sonnet [Y] Kalman Lichtenstein 305
The Pinkas Slonim series of volumes Chaim Orlan 305
Towards Evening (poem) [Y] Nisan Eisen 307
Each generation and its blessings Kalman Lichtenstein 307
The river Isse (poem) [Y] Nachum Alpert 310
The work of Shmuel Averbuch Kalman Lichtenstein 311
The convert. A popular poem [Y] Shmuel Averbuch 312
The “model” for Averbuch's The convert [Y] Kalman Lichtenstein 313
The Slonim Legend, a poem. Hebrew: Yechezkel Raban Sender Stole 316
On the poem The Slonim Legend and its poet Yechezkel Raban 320
At night by the river (poem] [Y] Sender Stole 322
Memories about my brother Sender [Y] Avraham Stolowitzki 322
   Memories from the chasidic Shtiebel 324
   Three true tales 329
   How Itche the baker put out a fire 329
   How R'Noah the matchmaker found a match for Berl the whitewasher 330
   How our neighbor's daughter decided not to rely on luck 331
Niewsk, a humoristic couplet [Y] Shmuel Averbuch 333
“God Evening” - a satire [Y] K. Avner 334
“Auto-da-Fe” in Slonim [Y] K. Lichtenstein 337
Niewski Street during winter [Y] Yitzhak Rachilevski 339
Slonim Couplets [Y] Kalman Lichtenstein 341
The Christian street on Sunday [Y] Shmuel Averbuch 342
A last walk through Slonim. Translated from Yiddish by the author Yechezkel Raban 343
Last Stroll through Slonim. [English] 344
Visions from Holocaust and heroism Chaim Orlan 345
   1. In my town [Y] 345
   2. In my town 346
   3. Jewish bravery in Slonim [Y] 346
The prophecy of the Holocaust Kalman Lichtenstein 347
Never will anyone be able to heal the wounds [Y] Yitzhak Rafael (Rafalovski) 350
 
Section H: Jewish Slonim in the Polish Literature 351
Two Polish “Bil'am”s (Biblical Balaam) in Slonim, Introduction Kalman Lichtenstein 353
Two Polish “Bil'am”s (Biblical Balaam) in Slonim, Introduction [Y] Kalman Lichtenstein 354
The return of the rabbi. Hebrew: Yehoshua Aluf Placid Yankovski 356
Shor Habar (the Legendary Bull). Memories from days of youth. Hebrew: Yehoshua Aluf Julian Horein 360
 
Section I: Pinkesei Hakehila (Community Registers) and Documents 367
The pinkasim of the community and of various Societies [Y] Kalman Lichtenstein 369
Remarks on the pinkasim of the Shomrim Laboker Society (burial society) Cheikel Lunski 370
Fourteen records from the Chevra Kadisha Shomrim Laboker Pinkas 371
Last chapter of the “Adat Israel in Slonim” Pinkas 375
Last chapter of the “Adat Israel in Slonim” Pinkas [Y] Kalman Lichtenstein 376
Pinkas of the Committee for the Aid of those damaged during the 1914-1916 War 377
A document: Report from the Jewish Hospital, end of 19th century Dr. Noah Kaplinski 400
Photocopy of documents in R'Mordchele's handwritinge 403
R'Mordchele's agreement concerning his part in the World-to-Come Akiva Ben-Ezra 404
 
Section J: Appendix - Family Memorials [Y] 406
To Perpetuate the Memory of Yekutiel Chepelevsky and his Wife, Liebe Vernikovsky Chepelevsky Kalman Lichtenstein 408
Recollections of my life with my parents Shmuel Sapir 417
Letter – Document: Introduction to the letter of Reb Yekutiel Czepelewski Kalman Lichtenstein 421
Correspondence from Yekutiel Chepelevsky to his Children Yekutiel Chepelevsky 422
The Wooden Beis haMidrash Reb Yekutiel Czepelewski's House of Prayer Yosef Dror 426
 
Memorial pages
In memory of the soldiers fallen in Israel 1-4
In memory of individuals and families 5-52


* “Eating days” refers to the accepted custom whereby poor Yeshiva students were assigned to different homes for each day of the week, where they were provided with meals (look up Google: “eating days” Yeshiva Return


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