[Page 93 - English]
Our Townsmen in the Wide World and in Israel
|The Holy One (Blessed be He) did a favour to the people of Israel that He scattered them among the nations.
(The Book of Pesachim)
Paraphrase of the above: A still greater favour did the Holy One, Blessed be He, grant to those he has brought to Eretz Israel.
As the other sons of the Jewish people, obedient to the command of ruthless destiny, which lay over the eternal wanderer, so did our townsmen always move about with the wanderer's stick in hand.
Young, and even older people, family men, were forced by economic and political factors to abandon their home and wander abroad.
There were among them some that left only graves in the cemetery behind them, there were, however, others that left in their home parents, brothers and sisters, who looked forward impatiently to receiving some aid from those emigrants as soon as the latter managed to get settled in the new country. There were, indeed, many families waiting anxiously for the monthly letter, containing a few dollars on which they subsisted. Even the shopkeepers, who granted credit to the families in waiting, would ask and enquire about the mail, if it happened that the letter was delayed, not once, but several times, then the receiver of letters would lose credit, which would lead to abuse and even bloodshed. There were, of course, shopkeepers, who did not press too hard and would wait patiently, even though they were sometimes themselves sorely pressed for cash. They should be remembered kindly and let this be a tribute to their memory.
There were cases where shopkeepers tried to find out from the mailman whether so and so had received a letter from America. One must not think ill of them, since it was the financial straits they were in themselves that made these shopkeepers so impatient.
One wonders if those receiving assistance from abroad realised how hard their loved ones toiled in foreign lands, how much they skimped and skipped, trying to save enough from their modest income to be able to support those in need of their help in the poverty and misery stricken Old World. And how could one expect those left behind at home to think of all these things, when their existence was one of bitterness and constant longing for the day of deliverance, the day, when they would be able to join their dear ones, and leave this Vale of sorrow once and for all.
In due course, many people, even whole families, would follow in the footsteps of their pioneers and emigrate to the various distant lands.
At the top of the list of those countries, as a land of emigration and absorption, figured the U.S.A. And, as a matter of fact, large numbers of our townsmen went there and thought themselves fortunate that they had succeeded in escaping from the poverty in which they vegetated in the cities and towns of Eastern Europe. Even if they did not achieve material success in the land of gold, they could at least breathe the air of civic freedom, which those formerly living within the Czarist pale of settlement could well appreciate.
At the beginning it was the runaways; that emigrated, and there used to be a well-known phrase So and so has run away to America It was, indeed, an escape, from the impending conscription into the Russian army or from the results of an expected bankruptcy in some miserable business, or again, because one was likely to get imprisoned for one's political leanings, or, last but not least, because there was simply not enough bread for all the hungry mouths at home. For one reason or another - they ran away.
The first, earliest emigrants came out of the ranks of the most ordinary, simple folk, those that had nothing to lose by emigrating. Those were also the people, who didn't lack the courage to leave home and face the unknown, without any knowledge of a foreign language, sometimes without a definite trade, as well as such who did not expect to practise their craft or trade over there. Their only equipment was their dire poverty, their spur - their distress. Respectable householders used to boast in those days that from their family nobody had run away, (as they said in Yiddish. Bei unz is kainer nit entlofen kain Amerike).
Later on, however, they had reason to regret this fact, but by then it was usually too late. After a few years, the expression ran away was replaced by gone away (in Yiddish: Er iz awek noch Amerika), and, in fact, people no longer disappeared in the night, there were no surprise escapes, there was no longer any need to feel ashamed. The whole town knew that a certain person was about to emigrate. However, those talking about it did not envy the prospective emigrant, but rather felt sorry for an honest man, forced by life's dire need to leave his home. These later emigrants came from a more respectable social stratum than the earlier ones, but even they did not belong to the elite of the town society.
The number of those going away grew from year to year. Free immigration into the United States of America did not last long, however: the gates of the United States began to close just at a time when many were compelled to emigrate. The town was caught in an emigration rush. Yet the flow of those permitted to immigrate into the U.S. soon became a trickle. The number of our townsmen in North America increased, the ties with the Diaspora became closer, but the flow of emigrants had almost completely stopped.
Among those emigrants were also Aaron Borovsky and his wife Selma.
Aaron was born in a distinguished family.
Rav Benjamin of Blessed Memory, the father of the family, was a respected man. His opinions were always well balanced, his behavior pleasant and cultured. Highly active in public affairs he acted in accordance with the saying of the sages: And those who give a candle to kindle the light, and wine for the benediction, and bread to the guest and charity to the poor and all those who deal honestly in public affairs.
The mother matched her husband as a good wife is who acts accordingly to her husband's wishes; she had, however, her own, personal merits and did as many good deeds as her husband.
This was a home from which emanated warmth and cordiality which spread all over the neighborhood. In this home which cherished the tradition of the forefathers and fostered the beauty of Japhet, the son Aaro grew up and received his education. No wonder that he inherited from his parents their good and noble qualities and virtues, he acquired a rich life experience which strengthened the humane attitude towards his fellow-men.
Immediately after the first call from the Oshmana Immigrants' Committee in Israel had reached him, he mobilized all his resources, and placed himself in the first line of the activity. His wife, Selma-Sima aided him with devotion. Their initiative and efforts bore beneficient fruits and numerous are those who recall their names with blessing and admiration.
May God grant them health and long and active life among our fellow townsmen.
It was then that the gates of Cuba, the Argentina, Canada and South Africa opened. There, too, did our townsmen arrive and form small colonies, keeping in constant touch with their old home. One might say, in fact, that in the last few years before the outbreak of the Second World War, they emigrated to any country that allowed them to enter.
However, the new lands they settled in were very large, and keeping up the mutual ties and contacts in the new country was not easy at all. Let it be said to the credit of our townsmen that in spite of these difficulties, they found various ways and opportunities to gather and meet one an- other. These opportunities were supplied by the old home, forever in distress, always appealing to its more fortunate sons to contribute to Oshmana public institutions, such as synagogues, schools, orphanages, charitable foundations, etc.
One should mention here the fact, deserving our gratitude and appreciation, that Oshmana's sons scattered in the wide world have not let down their native town: there have always risen amongst them those that themselves carried on the good work and spurred on others to do it. From time to time even emissaries from over there appeared in Oshmiana, bringing contributions and eager to find out how effective their help was.
Slowly the gates of emigration lands closed all over the world and a deep depression descended upon the spirits of the young people left behind, stuck in the backwater and not knowing whither to turn.
At that time the pioneering Zionism with all its trends and shades entered Jewish life. The Hechalutz movement fanned the dormant national sentiments into a mighty flame and aroused the longing for action and fulfilment in the hearts of many of the young, who turned to Eretz Israel.
In this case it was a desire to uproot oneself from the old home not only physically, but also ideologically. Many young men and women began to organise themselves within a movement framework and started leaving for the Hachshara kibbutzim and from there - to Eretz Israel.
Before that time there had been isolated cases of Aliyah, but these could not be considered a movement. The proper Aliyah movement dates only from the time when groups of young people arose and set out for Eretz Israel with the watchword to build the country and build up ourselves in it.
In the year 1924 the first swallow arrived in Eretz Israel - Rachel Yakobovitz, born Lapidus. In 1925 a larger group arrived already. Rivka, the daughter of the Rabbi Haim Menashe Shmuelson, of blessed memory, Reuven Solel, (one of the founders of the Oshmana Immigrants Association in Israel), Rivka Avner-Cohen, Ida Port (deceased) Jehoshua Shrira, Arie Abelovitz, the whole Kovansky family, the Novik brothers, and others. After a short time there arrived: Esther Karchmer, Haim Hacohen Swiet, Menachem Shugol, Yona Livneh, born Baksht, Ze'ev Baksht, Rachel Gur, born Rudnik, the families Shmuelson, Moshe Shlomo Zisling, Rivka Shapira, Luba Pistol, Haim Zepelinsky, Golda Leibman Golda Swirsky, and many others. They did not arrive all in one year - I have only wished to draw attention to the, year 1925 as the one, in which the great Aliyah stream started f lowing.
In the year 1933 there arrived in Eretz Israel two teachers from the Tarbut school (one of them - Abraham Gur), together with them came Dina Kaplanovitz (deceased). In the year 1934 the flow increased. Then arrived Hoshe,a Soltz, Abraham Ben-Zur (deceased) and the Ra'anana group, i.e. Doba and Moshe Becker, Zelda and Eliokim Ziskind, Moshe Beinenson, Faivel Arievitz and others. Devora Katzer, Israel Ziskind, Haim Gertner, Haim Berkman and wife, the Itzkovitz families, the Port sisters, Devora Kotchevitsky, Fania Kamenietzky and many, many others, whom I cannot mention here on account of lack of space, and who, I trust, will kindly excuse me for not having put down their names here.
I have meant to stress the fact that the number of our townsmen in Eretz Israel kept on growing, and the above- mentioned names represent only a small fraction of those that were in Israel on the 1st September, 1939, the day on which the Second World War broke out, as a result of which six millions were annihilated in Europe, among them - the Oshmana community. On the day the War broke out, there were about 96 families of our townsmen in Eretz Israel.
There has been, throughout the years, constant (though fairly loose) contact among our townsmen, social relations mainly among those who knew one another more closely in the past. No general social gatherings were organised, not even among those residing in one town. The only exception were the Ra'anana people, who were bound by ties of friendship, or something approaching it, back at home, too.
True, there were some cases that an individual or a small group initiated a get together for the purpose of extending financial help to someone or other, who, as they heard, was unable to take advantage of the certificate permitting him to enter Eretz Israel, on account of lack of funds, but no proper general organisation was then established.
It was the awful outcome of the Second World War that provided the stimulus for creating a formal organisation of Oshmana immigrants. When the tragic tidings of the holocaust reached Eretz Israel and it became known what had befallen the Oshmana community, everyone was shocked. From day to day it became clearer that Oshmana natives in Eretz Israel would have to assist the survivors requiring help to immigrate here or those remaining in the place of their torment.
It is with great satisfaction that I am able to say that initiators of such activities appeared, volunteers enlisting for the work to be done, and thus began the unofficial organising process, without general meetings, without elections and discussions, people simply harnessed themselves to that intensive, urgent task.
In the year 1946 one of the survivors, B. Sh-k., arrived in Eretz Israel and told us about the horrors of the holocaust and the survivors still wandering about in different countries, without a place to call their own.
The Organising Committee decided to collect contributions and despatch parcels abroad to those in need of assistance. People were asked to give as much as their hearts told them to, and they gave freely.
It was then decided to assemble all our townsmen and get organised properly and officially, as well as pass re- solutions on the ways and means of extending aid. In the meantime, more immigrants kept on arriving, and their number kept on growing. It had become clear beyond any doubt that the single contributions and their distribution would not provide effective help and it was then (after many discussions) decided to found the institution called Mutual Loan Fund.
Now it was no longer a matter of giving a contribution, which might be rather modest and would not always be of real assistance; instead, the members would grant a loan for a long period, free of interest.
A circular was issued, a general meeting was held on the second day of the month Av (the day on which the ghetto was liquidated), elections took place and the Oshmana Olim (immigrants) Committee was elected and approved. Contributions were collected, a fund was started; the Committee even applied to our townsmen in other countries, especially in the U.S., and substantial contributions were received here. A considerable sum of money had been collected and the allotment of loans began.
One could not, however, deal with all these matters with,, out the official approval of the authorities. A formal constitution of The Organisaion of Oshmana Olim was submitted as well as an application for a special permit to establish a monetary fund called The Mutual Loan Fund. One should point out here that the Fund offered loans according to respective needs, amounts necessary to make the loan a real, constructive form of financial assistance, hence they proved of great usefulness to those to whom they had been granted. Up till today 300 loans have been allotted. The loan was generally given for a long period of time, and the instalments fixed in accordance with the ability of the borrower.
Nor is there any cause to complain about the non-repayment of the loans, though there may have been some isolated cases. Each sum returned to the Fund was at once put back into circulation for further loans.
The Organisation dealt not only with practical, financial matters: it did a great deal in the field of keeping in constant touch with our townsmen in Israel as well as with the natives of Oshmana scattered all over the world. Today one can find in the files of the Organisation a complete list of names and addresses of all of them, except perhaps those one has been unable to trace or those that did not answer. However, there are very few of such, one might say, isolated cases. Apart from that, the Organisation endeavoured to find ways and means of perpetuating the memory of the Oshmana community, and when the Keren Kayemet announced the project of planting The Martyrs' Forest in the Jerusalem hills, one thousand pounds was collected in Israel and a grove planted, bearing the name of the Oshmana Community. Moreover, a memorial tablet was erected in the Holocaust Chamber on Mt. Zion in Jerusalem.
Since then and up till today, a memorial assembly to honour the memory of the victims of the Holocaust is held every year, on the second day in Av, and great numbers of participants come from every part of the country. That day has become a day of reunion of great interest to our towns- men, who throughout the year do not even hear of one another.
The Purim Party, too, has been introduced for the purpose of enabling the sons of Oshmana to meet one another. In the year 1964 a festive Purim Party was held, dedicated to the discussion on publishing a Memorial Book of the Oshmana community.
I shall not dwell on the tireless efforts devoted to the execution of this decision. The financial problem was, no doubt, a serious and difficult one. Once again, the stubborn ones set to work and turned to the sons of Oshmana, and these responded generously. Then the problem of com- piling the book presented most serious obstacles. Who will write it all down? It gives us great satisfaction to be able to say that writers have been found and we have lived to witness the publication of this book.
Our blessings and thanks are due to all those who contributed to the success of this work of perpetuating the memory of our community.
Today there are 300 Oshmana families in Israel - may they grow and increase!
[Page 102 - English, Page 525 - Yiddish]
(A report on its origin and activities)
Published by Hakibutz Haartzi
The history of the Oshmana Jews in America begins almost with the immigration of East European Jews to the U.S.A. in the 1880-ties. Already in 1888 do we witness the formation of the first group of Oshmiana immigrants. As all the other original Jewish landsmannschaft groups, so was also the Oshmianer Society made up of poor, simple orthodox Jews, grouped around a synagogue, in a rather primitive and old-fashioned pattern.
The younger and more radical elements amongst the new immigrants couldn't fit themselves into the framework of the existing group and thus the idea of founding a new, more modern Oshmaner society was born.
On the 23rd January, 1892, at the house of Jasha Epstein (66, Canal Street, New York), at a meeting in which 13 Oshmana workers participated, the Oshmaner Brothers' Mutual Aid and Benefit Association was founded. According to the New York State law, only one association member's name appears in the charter, and that is the name of Ike Blitstein.
The names of the 13 original founders of the Association are - (in alphabetical order): H. Arichas, L. Antavil, I. Blitstein, Isidore Gilbers, M. Chipkin, W. Tabaritzki, I. Silverstein, I. Epstein, H. Krever, M. Krammer, W. Krammer, and L. P. Cahan. The first President of the Association was M. Chipkin, the first Secretary - W. Tabaritzki. The first constitution of the Society was drawn up by William Baxt, who held a prestigious position in the Workers' Circle (Arbeter-Ring).
Already in the first year of its existence did the Society buy a cemetery plot, thus providing its members with an amenity they might need on reaching the age of 120.
The membership fee amounted at first to $1.25 cents per quarter of a year. When the Society's funds reached the first $300, it started paying its members sick benefits: 10 weeks a year at the rate of $ 5 a week. Moreover, it was decided to grant a head-tax of $1 to the families of deceased members.
The first revolution in the Oshrnaner Society broke out when member Joseph Brandes led the fight to change the name from Oshmaner Brothers to American Brothers. The Oshmana members won the day and the original name Oshmaner Brothers has remained up till this day.
The second revolution that took place was directed against the Society's managing board. The Oshmianer members did away then with the office of President of the Society and decided that at every meeting a chairman for the evening will be elected amongst those present. This democratic custom has been kept up till now.
The Society began to grow from year to year and made very good progress. In the year 1900 it boasts already of 125 members. As the sphere of the Society's activities grew, so did its expenditure, hence the membership fee was raised in the same year to $ 1.75 cents per quarter of a year.
In the year 1907 the Society boasts 268 members al- ready. This doubled membership put new life in the Oshmianer Society. All external formalities were abolished, as for example the different greeting ceremonies, the peculiar, rather queer way of wearing special bands, and so on. The above mentioned reforms resulted in a complete change of the Society's image, in making it more up-to-date and modern and in making way for further, far-going development of the Society, distinguished for its popular, democratic character.
The same period, which lasted till about 1910, also initiated further reforms concerning benefits and membership fees. The sick fund benefit was raised to $7 per week, and membership contribution to $ 2.75 cents per quarter annum.
The year 1917 saw the beginning of the glorious chapter in the history of the Oshmaner Society, a chapter that can be called The Relief Period.
When, at the end of the First World War and in the midst of the Civil War in Russia, the distress call of our unfortunate brethren in the old home reached America, the Oshmaner Society immediately established the United Oshmaner Relief Fund, to which all the Oshmaner groups, were affiliated. The Association of Oshmaner Brothers at once allotted $5000 from its own funds and put a tax of $10 on each of its members for the purpose of raising relief funds.
In the years 1919-1920 the General Relief Committee, with the Oshmaner Society in the lead, sent to Oshmana over $ 150,000 which included also individual aid for fellow townsmen and relatives.
An orphanage was founded, subsidized up till this day by a special Oshmana Orphanage Association in New York, the treasurer of which is the former Chairman of the Oshmaner Brothers, J. Silverstein. The following schools have received subsidies: a Yiddish language primary school, an Ort Vocational school, a Talmud Tora and a library.
The Joint loans and savings fund has with the help of the Oshmianer Society extended the scope of its activities. Various tools were bought and provided for craftsmen and small tradesmen, all the communal institutions were repaired, a free kitchen to feed the poor was opened, quantities of fabrics were bought to provide the needy with linen, 25 orphaned sick children were sent to Vilna for treatment. Last, but not least, one should mention the fact that the cattle and farm animals requisitioned by the German authorities from poor Jewish villagers, for whom these animals were often the main source of livelihood, were ransomed and returned to their owners.
In connection with all the above-mentioned relief activities, one must mention the name of Isidore Batris, the delegate of the Oshmana. Relief Committee under whose personal supervision those vast activities were being carried out on the spot. Nor may we omit to mention he names of the senior officers of the United Oshmana Relief whose untiring efforts in this field have produced splendid results: M. Kaminsky, chairman, Abraham I. Danish - treasurer, H Lieberman - secretary, L. Axelrod - financial secretary. For the correct business management the Relief Committee was at that time awarded a special distinction by the State Industrial Commissioner.
There is hardly any Jewish-national movement or de- serving Jewish institution to which the Oshmianer Society does not contribute considerable sums annually. Among tire Jewish-national organisations one might mention the United Appeal, Keren Kayemet, Trade Unions Campaign, The Ame- rican Jewish Congress, Ort, Hias, etc. As for philanthropic institutions, there are the Tzdaka Federation, Denver and Colorado Sanatoria, a Gan Yeladim (Hebrew kindergarten), Debora Sanatorium, Los Angeles Sanatorium, and many others. The average annual contributions to the different institutions amount to $1000.
The following cases should be particularly stressed: in 1922, during the great post-War emigration of Jews from East Europe and other countries to America, the Oshmaner Society made a single contribution of $1,000 (from its own funds); in 1929, after the tragic events in Eretz Israel, the Society contributed the sum of $ 400 to the Emergency Fund.
The participation of the Oshmaner Society in Jewry's social life is reflected not only in its considerable contributions, but also in the active and dynamic part its members played in the day to day work and leadership of various Jewish movements and institutions. In this connection one should mention the names of the following members:
M. Kaminsky, Sam Basin, P. Fleishman, A. Mates, Isidore Boris,
J. Danisch, David Boris, H. Lieberman, and others. Several members of the Oshmaner Society have gained a national reputation, such as the late Joseph Barandes and the popular John L. Berenstein, and others.
[Page 106 - English, Page 529 - Yiddish]
(An address delivered by Aaron Borowsky on April 25th)
I must confess that, as I stand here before you this evening, my mind travels and wanders in all directions, with crowded memories taking me back to the year of 1946.
For the benefit of the so many new visitors, I would like to take a minute or two, if I may, to reminisce with you and to review that era and the activities during that period.
At the beginning of 1946, as soon as we were informed by our Oshmaner Friends in Israel that several hundred of our Landsleit had survived the Nazi Massacre, a group of Oshmaner women banded together and organized the Oshmaner Sisters.
Each of these girls was endowed and blessed with a sense of loyalty and devotion, conscious of her duties and obligations, devoted and dedicated to an ideal, to a cause, the cause of their kin folks all over the globe, with one purpose in mind - to help, to assist, to aid and to stretch out a helping hand to all the Oshmaner across the sea.
For the two years and a half - once a month - they have met right here in this beautiful hall of the Esplanade Caterers and have planned their meetings, their activities, have mapped their strategy and consulted each other about the best method of soliciting funds.
And before the money was even deposited in the bank, it was spent and hundreds of parcels were on their way to Germany, France, Italy, Sweden and Israel - parcels of food, clothing, linen, medicine, tobacco, coffee, sugar and others - including cash.
Believe it or not, the raising of the funds was an easy matter compared to the tremendous task that lay ahead of them - the task of shopping, selecting and purchasing of these articles, to assort them, to wrap, to pack, to address these parcels and to carry them to the Post Office in order that they may reach their destination without any delay.
If you only knew how many of our homes were converted into warehouses and shipping centers in order to increase the efficiency, to expedite, not to waste any time.
Hundreds of letters were read and every one acknowledged, each one being told not to worry over the future, not to fear the present, not to consider themselves forgotten, neglected, abandoned - The Oshmaner in America will not let them down. And the men, the husbands of the Oshmaner Sisters, encouraged by their wives, they too have reorganized and revitalized the United Oshmaner Relief. Together, with complete unity and the fullest cooperation, have raised and spent approximately $20,000.
$20,000.00! Quite a big sum, when you consider the so many small contributions.
And I remember very vividly, very clearly, the several men and women who come forward offering $1.00, $2.00, $3.00 and $5.00. Obviously, they couldn't afford, but nevertheless contribute they did, because they felt it was their duty to stand shoulder to shoulder. They too insisted on helping to bear, to carry the burden.
They had a GOAL to fulfil, and fulfilled they have, as evidenced by all the letters and acknowledgments.
All this could not have been accomplished without your support and cooperation, without your extending yourselves to the fullest and highest degree, without your sacrifice, without your efforts.
I see quite a few new faces in our midst, faces of new immigrants who arrived here in America during the past 10 years or so. To them I like to address a few words - Dear Oshmaner Friends! We are indeed happy that you are here this evening. We are happy because you are here of your own free will and accord, without pressure or coercion. You are here, even though you were informed of the appeal for funds that will take place this evening.
You are here, because it is your wish and desire to merge with us - the oldtimers - and to become part and parcel of the melting pot called Oshmaner Landsleit.
You are here because you are now willing and able to help your less unfortunate Oshmaners in Israel who find it necessary to take advantage of the Gmilas Chesed, the purpose of which we are here this evening.
We salute you and extend to you a hearty welcome! Ladies end gentlemen, a big hand for the New Members of the Oshmaner Family. It is my sincere pleasure, at this time, to direct a few words to our hostess, Bella Silver.
For two years and a half, and this evening, she had placed the facilities of this beautiful hall at our disposal. But, she was not satisfied with this alone and during the two years and a half she contributed money and shared with us her energy, her time, her talent and her experience.
Bella, you know and I know, that while you have not realized any monetary and material consideration, you have gained the satisfaction of your heart and soul, the justification, fulfilment and compensation of a free and clear conscience.
Ladies and gentlemen a vote of thanks to Bella Silver!
It was my good fortune to have been surrounded with several good and devoted workers in this Campaign, who have given me the fullest cooperation - without whose efforts this Campaign could not have been the success as it is at present, and as it will be, I am sure, by the time the evening will be over.
To all of them, and to the Members of the Refreshment Committee, my never forgotten gratitude.
And now, the last, but not the least, there is a little lady in this room, who is very close to my heart. When I received the Israel letter, asking me to organize this Campaign, I, at first accepted it, but as time went on I hesitated. There was so much to do and the more I thought of the work involved, the more I became scared and thought - suppose it will turn out to be a failure? But she kept on encouraging me, inspiring me with her confidence, words of wisdom and advice, promising to help me in every way possible. She is the one who instilled in me the desire to undertake it - I knew I couldn't fail!
Ladies and gentlemen - the first and only president of the Oshmaner Sisters - my wife, Selma!
Thank you all from the bottom of my heart.
Those lines are dedicated to a son of our home-town, to the highly esteemed Mr. Harry Ginsberg, Vice-President of the Oshmana Society in the U.S. Although a resident of the U.S. for some decades, having left his native country and home-town, he remains strongly attached to his origins. We still recall his visit to Oshmana after the First World War, showing his deep interest in public institutions, particularly contributing to the maintenance of the Orphanage.
Until this day, his interest in his townsmen and the problems of those saved from the Holocaust is still undaunted. He contributes to the Gmilot Hessed Fund of the Oshmana Association in Israel and has donated an important sum to the fund for the publication of the Oshmana Community's Remembrance Book.
Mr. Ginsberg is well-known to us for his activities as a businessman, as a generous and devoted Zionist, who has been one of the HIAS Directors, and is still actively taking part in all the campaigns on behalf of the State of Israel Bonds.
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