The Principal Murderers of the Glubokie Jews
The following German assassins and their colleagues, who were saturated with Jewish blood in Glubokie and the surrounding Jewish shtetls, marked themselves with their depraved conduct:
The Germans: Tsanger, Kapfenvald, Becker, Krieger, Zeif, Heinliat, Smids, Vildt, Peterson; each and every one of them tortured, robbed and murdered the Jews of Glubokie and the surrounding area. About the wild deeds of each one of them we could tell a great deal. Each outdid the others in bringing fresh cruel acts against Jews. Could we possibly point out a wild animal, who would force its victims to take the head of a living mouse into the open mouth and bite off the head? It seems that the wildest fantasy cannot imagine such a thing. The German Smids did this, at the railroad station of Glubokie. While the Jews were being squashed together loading hay into the boxcars, he forced Hoichman, to bite off with his teeth the head of a living mouse. This and similar atrocities could be attributed to every one of them. But it is impossible to relate all the evils. The few examples that were cited are characteristic of the so-called bearers of Western European culture!
- Hochman The German appointed Justice Minister in the Glubokie area. He began his bloody work instantly following his arrival, in September of 1941. He was the Chief executive of the Civil Administration. In a refined manner he sucked out the last bit of "juice" from the Jewish population. In order to fulfill the objective of making the Jews give up their possessions and fortunes, they had to terrorize the Jews. There had to be victims so bribes would be paid! "Blood" was needed! And the Justice Minister filled the sewers of Glubokie with spilled Jewish blood. It was thanks to his efficiency in that task, that he constantly sent back to Germany, freight cars loaded with Jewish gold and jewels.
- Rebel - Supervisor over National Questions. The Jews suffered no less from him than they did from his chief (Hochman). His favorite assignment was his regular "stroll" through the Ghetto. This leisurely walk threw the Jews into a panic every time it occurred. Most of the time Rebel would "stroll" in the Ghetto together with his wife, who would master over the Jews in the identical style as her husband. During their "stroll" through the Ghetto they were always accompanied by a small dog who wore a yellow star ( the mark of shame that Jews were forced to wear on their outer garments). This German woman ruled with an iron fist, all the time the Jewish seamstresses had to make new wardrobe for her. She would constantly come up with new styles and fashions. These workers just couldn't satisfy her. She tortured them brutally. The same was true of cobblers and quilt makers, who had to fulfill every one of her wildest caprices by making elegant footwear for her. She warned the workers they should never make anyone else the same style of clothes, lingerie or shoes as those they made for her. The Jewish workers constantly found themselves between the hammer and the rock, in constant fear that she or some other official wife, would be displeased with the products and send them off to their death, to the Barok...
Rebel became very promoted for his pursuit of partisans in later time.
He would dispatch entire expeditions to the forest, and would very often accompany them. He would also distribute leaflets, addressed to the Partisans, asking them to leave the woods and promising them all sorts of wonderful things. Since he was in charge of all national matters, he was one of the most active perpetrators of the slaughters of Jews in Glubokie and the surrounding area. In various ways he managed to incite the Poles and Belarusians against the Jews, and he persuaded some of them to assist him in his homicidal tasks.
- Heberling - In charge of commercial and economic matters for the Justice Minister. He ceaselessly robbed the Jews and therefore he would post packages to his family in Germany on a daily basis. This was done besides larger shipments, which he would periodically send by railroad. Quite often he would travel to Germany and Warsaw with huge suitcases loaded with Jewish possessions and goods which he gave to his family and friends.
- Kern - Chief of the Gendarmerie in Glubokie. From the time of arrival until his death (the 17th of August, 1943) he did not cease burglarizing and assassinating.
- Hait - Captain of the Guard of the Gendarmerie, and a close associate of Kern in all of his evil actions.
- Bemmo - Chief of the "Service Unit". much has been said about his evil activities in a prior chapter.
- Voogdman - Bemrno's assistant. Like his chief, diligent participant in the swindle and the manslaughter.
- Shper - Captain of the Guard of the Gendarmerie - he carried out various killings in the Barok and other places, on his own initiative.
- Vitvitski (the Tsirkovetz). About his bloody abilities - see a special chapter.
- Goldberg - In charge of the "Inspections". He robbed the people very vigorously, was a devoted Nazi, who actively participated in the various mass killings in Glubokie and the surrounding area, as well as expeditions against the Partisans, and so forth.
- Morre - The Supervisor of the leather factory. Took part in mass murders.
With humiliation and anguish, we must also acknowledge that our local Christians quickly learned the "Torah" from the Germans and showed that one need not necessarily be a member of the "super-race of poets and thinkers" in order to torture and murder human beings. The animalistic nature which lies hidden in people, could be awaken You just have to abide by an immoral and depraved ruler, and evil will flourish.
Of the local murderers, accredited for the assistance that they gave the Germans, there were:
The names of the Police members were already listed. All of them, as was mentioned above, actively helped the Germans in their savage homicidal undertaking.
- Valyukovitch - The supervisor of the wagon building factory. He was a member of the "Belarussian Administration", at the head of which there stood the well-known Belorussian official, Ostrovski (Minsk). Valyukovitsh was also an active member of the "White Russian National Committee", and since he was loyal in his position, he dedicated himself to the task of scoffing at and torturing the Jews.
- Grinevitsh - T, in sight of everyone he supervisor of the blacksmith's shop. An active member of the "White Russian National Committee".
- Paulski - Regional Head of the Province of Glubokie.
- Kozyol - Same as Paulski.
- Guzava - A folks-German woman, who served as a supervisor in the Provincial Government.
- Askerka Vladimir ; Active member of the "White Russian National Committee"
- Askerka, Henrich; Same as his brother.
- Subbatin - Inspector of Schools. An active member of the "White Russian National Committee".
- Agranat, Lapir - Well-known Jew-hater from a previous era. Now an active member of the "White Russian National Committee".
- Grudman - The Director of the cinema in Glubokie during the period of German rule. He used to beat Jews indiscriminately. One would try hard to avoid meeting him. He played an active role in murdering Jews during the liquidation of the Ghetto in August of 1943.
- Smolski, Aleksander - Served in the German Secret Police. This German spy alerted the Germans to the fact that the tailor, Yitzhak Lipshin, had been the Chairman of the Tailors Guild in Glubokie during the soviet occupation. He also reported about the tailor, Aronson, who, during the time when all of the sewing machines of the tailors had been confiscated, had not turned in his machine, and instead hid it. Lipshin and Aronson were arrested for these crimes.
- Shtshebes, Mietzislav - Served in the German Secret Police. As it was revealed later, it was because of his information to the Germans that 12 men from Glubokie were shot in the Fall of 1941. (This was written about in the early chapters.) Shtshebes brought to the Germans the fact that the barber-surgeon, Yehoshua Geiler, had openly appeared at a Soviet meeting on the 10th of October in 1939. Shtshebes informed that the other 11 prisoners had also been guilty of similar crimes.
- Kandratin, Pavel - Representative of the Z. T. A. in Glubokie. Thanks to him, Nathan Gitelzon's maid, Vavara Baziki, was arrested and tortured for helping her employers.
- Spakovski. - Participated vigorously in the search for Jews in hiding, during the period of the liquidation of the Glubokie Ghetto.
- Niedzieletz, Ivan - Took part in many of the robberies and murders of Jews in Glubokie.
- Ivan Trilop (the one who limped) - Worked together with the above mentioned Niedzieletz. During the mass slaughters, in June of 1942 and August, 1943, both Ivans went about with hatchets in their hands and knocked out the gold and platinum teeth from the mouths of the murdered, tore the rings off fingers, earrings from ears and so forth. (This had already been partially done by the Germans while the victims were still alive. The remainder was left for the two Ivans...)
- Naumov - Burgomeister of Glubokie.
- Filipak - Close associate of the Germans. Actively participated in the slaughter and robbery of the Jews.
- Yaremek - Closest friend of above mentioned Filipak, who, together with him carried on their bloody work.
- Dubrovski - Former chauffeur of "Pishtzepramtarg" for the Soviets. Was friendly with Abraham Shub before the Germans arrived. When the Germans occupied Glubokie, Dubrovski became a policeman and used his "friendship" with Shub... He robbed him blind. Dubrovski used to come to Shub, demanding from him suits of clothing and other things, telling him that they were going to slaughter the Jews anyway, and that his things would be taken by unknown "strangers ".Shub suffered a great deal from his "good friend", but by a miracle he escaped from his clutches alive.
At the end, Shub hid himself. Dubrovski took his revenge on all the Jews and participated in the slaughters.
When the Red Army liberated Glubokie from the Germans, in July of 1944, Shub went to work for the N. K. V. D. Dubrovski was arrested and imprisoned in the N. K. V. D. prison in Glubokie. Shub took him into his private office, when we were there. Dubrovski literally shook with fright, and was unable to speak. At our questions about his work as a policeman for the Germans, he would answer that he had never harmed Jews, and had not participated in the murders. When Shub, who was present, asked him why he had robbed him, he remained silent.
- Kaspzshitzki - Also served in the Police. Like his remaining comrades, he also robbed and murdered. He persecuted also non-Jews. As was later reported, he had at the time murdered three Ksiondzshn in order to rob them. The items that he stole he brought home as a gift for his wife. She was on a different level than her husband and she pushed the "gift" into his face and burst out crying. She just couldn't stand her husbands misdeeds, and one night she murdered him. His friends arrested her and had her shot. They left a little girl, who is being raised in Glubokie by someone named Pomieto, who lives on the 17th of September Place.
The list does not mention however, all of those who spilled Jewish blood in Glubokie and in the surrounding communities. We were able to list only the names of those murderers, whom we knew in the Ghetto. Could we have possibly listed all of the murderers who participated in the bloody work? There were thousands, and their names were unknown to those who were killed by them and those few who survived also know some of their names.
How painful it is to think about all of those murderers who remain unpunished, those who will never be brought to Justice by the civilized world, because they are unknown.
We believe in a higher justice, judgement that will eventually uncover all of the war criminals, no matter where they are hiding. Their punishment will reach them, and they will be burdened with the reprisals they deserve to the same degree that they tortured us...
In this conviction lies our bit of consolation.
At Combat Against the Enemy
Previously we told about the first Jewish Partisans of Glubokie. Now we want to provide some details about the activities of various Partisan groups who operated in the Glubokie region.
The Germans trembled when "Alyoshe" (Feigelman) used to show up close to one of their occupied points. They would lie in wait for him, but were afraid to encounter him, and thanks to that he managed to survive the war unscathed.
- Dr. Nahum Lekach left the Glubokie Ghetto in April of 1942, and settled in the town of Luzshki, where as he worked as a doctor in the hospital. There he searched for a way to contact the Partisans.
In October he took the surgical instruments from the hospital, and together with his wife and niece, Dora Rozet, join the Partisan group that was called "Pietrushenko". A short while later he joined the "Oktiaber" Brigade, where he remained active until the Red Army liberated the area. During this entire period he played an active role in various battles. His wife, who worked as a nurse, was killed in the Ushatzer region during a battle against the Germans in May of 1944. At about the same time his niece, Rozet, was also killed.
- A Jewish girl from Kalinin, who as a Partisan bore the name Klave, was also active in a specialized Partisan group named "Pietrushienko". She served as a courier between the youth of the Glubokie Ghetto and the Partisan group, which was located in the Ushatzer region. With the Glubokie youth "Klave" was connected through M. Shapiro. Klave was a very heroic Partisan arid died a heroine. This occurred in May of 1943, not far from Ziavki. She met an SS Oberlieutenant, whom she knew carried important documents and plans, which she wanted to obtain from him. "Klave" shot him. He fell and played dead. When "Klave" approached him to empty his pockets of the documents, he attacked her and knocked her down. At that moment other Germans arrived. They took her to Glubokie, where she was tortured to make her tell the location and names of her comrades. "Klave" held out and did not reveal any secrets in spite of all the tortures. The then took her to the "Barok", where she was shot.
- Shapiro, B. ( Borka) son of Yosef and Chasia born c 1920 was an engineer. He actively participated in organizing the youth of the Ghetto and obtaining arms. In June of 1942, he organized a band of young people in the Ghetto and together with them went into the woods of the Liepler region to join the Partisans. There he distinguished himself in several of the battles against the Germans, killing many. He fell during one of the battles in 1943 while putting explosives on the train trucks . His sister in law, Sonia Shapiro of Hertzelia wrote about him. As well as his brother; Mordechai + wife and 2 children, and his father Yosef who were killed during the liquidation of the ghetto in 1943.
- On the 4th of June, 1942, Peretz (Zalman) Hershman (born in 1905- killed in 1944) and his family (wife, Lea nee Zipelevitz, daughter Chana and another child) fled the Glubokie Ghetto. He was accompanied by Mishe Kozliner and his brother Chaim, and also Hirsh Berkan. They went into the swamps of "Avzshada" near Luzki ( the place of Peretz home before the war). There they organized a group of Jewish youth, numbering about 20, who maintained close contact with the Glubokie Ghetto. They would receive arms from Glubokie, and they were active in various Partisan units. Mishe Kozliner was during this entire period, In the "Razviedke" of the "October" Brigade, and was wounded several times.
His brother was during this entire time a commander of a Vozvod of Sazikin's Brigade, which was active in the Disner and Fliser areas. Peretz Hirshman was a Starshina of "The First October" Otriad. He was very bold and brave in carrying out a number of military actions.
- Chava (nee Kaminska) Etkin left Glubokie to join the Partisans in the summer of 1943, shortly before the liquidation of the ghetto. She was a nurse. She could not take her 8 years old twin boys with her. She left them with her sister in law. She was active in the "October" Brigade and distinguished herself in carrying out various tasks. During a mission that took place two weeks before the liberation, in the summer of 1944, in the Dokshitzer region, she and the rest of the unit were caught by the Germans, taken to Dokshitz, tortured and afterwards hanged.
One of her twin boys survived. When the ghetto was annihilated ( 8-20- 1943) Michael Etkin refused to listen to his aunt. He ran out of the ghetto was shot and wounded, eventually he joined the partisans and now lives in Israel.
- On the 1st of July, 1942 Baruch Ben Shimon Tzimer, of Kazian, joined the Partisans. First he was with the "Spartak" Brigade. In December, 1942 he transferred to the "Suvarov" Brigade, where he participated in important missions until the liberation. In April, 1943, when the "Suvarov" Brigade had to cross the railway line between Padsvilye and Ziabki, they encountered German soldiers. With grenades they killed several Germans and under artillery fire and mortar fire they managed to seize an artillery piece from the German Garrison "Zabki", and managed to cross through the railway lines without casualties.. In this action, the above mentioned, Baruch Tzimer distinguished himself. Another Baruch Ben Shimon and Sara (Lifshin) Tzimer of Kazan and brother Yosef Zimer weres killed while fighting in 1942. Testimony given by their sister- Lea Ben Arie of Givataim. Also a Zalman Tzimer from Glubokie was killed as a partisan in 1943.
- Yitzhak Blatt (son of Leibl, born in 1919) - The tranquil young man from Lomzsher Street, who had been one of our senior students, distinguished himself by his heroism as well as his intelligence. He was an officer in Tskhapaiev's Otriad of Voroshilov's Partisan Brigade, and later he became Politruk. Blatt displayed so much courage, so much battle expertise, that he became one of the most important figures in the above-mentioned Partisan command. In February of 1944, Yitzhak Blatt died heroically during battle with the enemy,
In the middle of January, 1944, the German Garrison, which consisted of 40 Lithuanians, who served with the Germans, situated not far from Kamai in the village of Petritze, not far from the town of Kobilnik, was destroyed by the Partisans of Tshapaiev's Otriad. The third Vozvod of Tshapaiev's Otriad was supposed to eliminate the Petritzer Lithuanian Garrison. A group of 20 men under the charge of Commander Lenko, encircled the Lithuanians. The Lithuanians hid in a school building. The Lithuanians entrenched themselves in the school, in three prepared bunkers, from where they shot at the Partisans and did not let them come near. After an active exchange of fire which lasted for several hours, the Partisans managed to set fire to the building. The beleaguered Lithuanians ran to the cellar of the school and shot from there. Blatt wanted to take the Lithuanians alive. Together with three armed Partisans, he approached the besieged and demanded their surrender. The Lithuanians opened fire on the Partisans with machine guns, and Blatt was critically wounded. The Partisan, Tuvia Sheres, from Vilna, carried the wounded Yitzhak Blatt to Kamai. Ytzhak Blatt died on the way. The name of Yitzhak Blatt is written in the history of the Partisan movement, arid is on the list of those, who had heroically and selflessly fought against the enemy and died as heroes. The Partisans completely destroyed the Lithuanian Garrison in Petritze.
- The Glubokie partisan Avner Feigelman of the Voroshilov's Brigade was the main nemesis of the Germans in the Miadler Region. The Germans had a "great deal of respect" for "Alyoshen", who boldly and fearlessly exposed himself to the enemy's fire during battle. Feigelman did not rest, did not remain in the same place for more then a few days. He was constantly seen, in Lipove, in Krizshanavke, Pilkavshtzine, Magduline, Uzle, Univier, on the "high island" and so forth. Often he would accompany the commander of the Brigade, Hlarkov.
Many heroic deeds could be written about other Jews from the Glubokie area. The credit should go to such heroes as Yaakov Ruderman, Bamke Genichavitsh, Yaakov Friedman, Feigel Michl, Tzipe Soloveitshik, Hirsh Gordon, Menashe Kapeliavitsh, Eli (from Krivitsh), and others. How many quantities of ammunition and arms, and, indeed, German lives the young men and women of Glubokie blew up on the railroad lines; how many garrisons they destroyed and confiscated entire warehouses full of arms, which were as important as to blew up the soldiers of the enemy.
In the struggle against the German enemy, the unassuming Jewish youth of Glubokie displayed a source of prowess capable of exploding mountains. They prepared themselves to destroy the German garrison in Glubokie and release the Jews from the local Ghetto. At the beginning of August of 1943, the Partisan Brigade "Suvorov" decided to free the Glubokie Jews out of the ghetto. The task was supposed to be carried out by the Otriad named "Kaganovitsh". The commander of that Otriad, David Pintzov, sent the Partisans, Baruch Tzimmer and Motke Lederman to Glubokie to prepare the youth of the Ghetto for an armed uprising against the Germans and the Police. A decision was made about the exact moment when the Partisan atriad will attack the German garrison in Glubokie. Tzimmer returned to the Otriad and reported that about 300 of the youth in the Ghetto could be organized. There were also arms in the Ghetto. There were guns, grenades, sawed off shotguns, and even two mortars. But it will take a bit of time to prepare for the planned uprising.
Tzimmer brought with him from the Ghetto about 20 youths to join the Otriad. Among them were Yitzhak Hidekel, Abraham Peikin, Hirsh Pintov, Alter Leizer, Moshe Skolnik, Hirsh Levine, Kopl Hoberman, Abraham Shub and others. Motke Lederman returned to the Glubokie Ghetto, in order to help the youth organize the uprising at the time of the Partisan attack. Unfortunately, the plan in its large aim was not carried out. After the defeat of the Glubokie Germans in their battle against the "Radagavtzes" in Krulevshizne, they probably sensed the danger in Glubokie, and decided to speed up the extermination of the Jews of Glubokie.
We've already told about that day that the Germans liquidated the Glubokie Ghetto.
We did not report that during the liquidation, Jews with arms in their hands opened fire at the Germans ( Motka Lederman ). Others managed to break through the German fire. They fled into the forest, where they were able to avenge themselves upon the enemy. At this opportunity it is necessary to favorably mentioning the "Kombrig" of "Suvorov", Y. A. Chamtzenko, who greatly helped those Jews who were saved from Glubokie and the surrounding area. Even before the liquidation of Glubokie, thanks to his initiative, there was the Jewish "Kaganovitsh" Otriad, organized under the command of David Pintzov. Chamtzenko helped a group of 23 Jews, who during the destruction of the Ghetto, escaped from Glubokie, and crossed the railroad line in the Ushatzer region. This was a difficult and extraordinary accomplishment. Thanks to Chamtzenko's help, David Leiman, Raiye Milchman and others were saved from death, at the time.
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