by Yehezkel Cohen
Translated by Jerrold Landau
Donated by Steve Bolef
The influence of my grandfather Feibush Lipka of blessed memory (my mother's father) upon me was very great not only during my childhood, but also as I matured and became independent. His patriarchal personality and refined spirit always accompanied me. He was a scholar as well as a dedicated Zionist in his heat and soul, who infected others with his enthusiasm.
His refined and enlightened personality served as a symbol for the Zionist movement in the town, where he radiated his personality primarily upon the Zionist youth. I recall how I enjoyed sitting with him for hours on end, as he told me about his trip to the Holy Land before the war, about the holy places that he visited and the sights that he saw. At such a time, his eyes burned with the fire of enthusiasm, as his words expressed his great love for the Land of Israel.
His emotional words penetrated deeply into my heart, the heart of a youth, and influenced me for a long time. He was the one who planted in me, and in the friends of my age, the love for Zion and the faith in the return to Zion. Under his influence, many youths became enthusiastic Zionists, who were no longer satisfied in following the normative path paved by their fathers.
I recall how he worked for the election of Rabbi Brod of Lipna, the candidate of the Zionists, for the Polish Sejm (parliament). The religious circles supported the candidacy of my father to the Sejm, whereas the Zionists, including me, fought for our candidate. My grandfather Feibush Lipka supported us with his whole heart, and utilized all of his powers of persuasion to that end.
His influence in town was great, and was recognized in all spheres of life. He had a great deal of property: sawmills a flourmill, lumber warehouses, land, and an electric generator that provided electricity to the entire town. Nevertheless, his great wealth did not blind his eyes and did not harden his heart. His headed the charitable institutions and supported his poor brethren with his money and advice.
He visited the Holy Land twice. The first time was in the 1880s, and the second time in 1914, at the eve of the outbreak of the
First World War. He returned from these visits enthused, and urged the townsfolk to make aliya to Zion.
Feibush Lipka merited to have sons and daughters who followed his path and took part in communal affairs. He also had a great deal of satisfaction from his grandchildren who were affected with his love of Zion and stood at the helm of Zionist activities in the town.
He passed away full of activity and full of years.
|Reb Feivush Lipka|
Translated by Allen Flusberg
Yosef Chaim Ruda was an active community leader who had a particularly significant impact on the Dobrzyn community. Always empathetic to all that was happening among his Dobrzyn brethren, he devoted a great deal of his time to community affairs.
It would take too long to go into all the details of what he did for dozens of years, working tirelessly for the sake of the town with no expectation whatsoever of reward. To this very day, many of those who emigrated from Dobrzyn long ago remember him and his many good deeds.
During World War I the number of townspeople in need escalated sharply. Yosef Chaim Ruda came to their rescue, seeing to it that free groceries were distributed to them. In this project he found loyal, dedicated assistants in Avraham Hirsh Kohn, z.l., and Yaakov Beilowski, may he live long, who lives among us in Israel.
The First World War uprooted a large number of Jews from various towns. Some of them made their way to Dobrzyn, where they found a temporary refuge to wait out the storm. Chaim Ruda came to their rescue with great passion, working day and night to take care of them. He was always thinking about the poor among your people, and he took care of them the way a father looks after his children.
He was also one of the founders of the Cooperative Jewish Bank and continuously headed its administration. He considered it a very important institution and worked hard to expand its activity. And indeed, this bank helped many of the people of Dobrzyn with both large and small loans, its central goal being to be able to provide firm support for the little guy.
Ruda also served as a member of the committee that assessed taxes, which met right next to the incometax office. In this role as well he revealed his humane approach and his great dedication.
However, most of all Ruda stood out in his Zionist activism, for he was a Zionist in every fiber of his being. He did all in his power to instill the concept of Zionism among his brethren and to help build up the Land, even though he himself was living far away, in Dobrzyn.
When Yitzhak Moshe Offenbach and Adolph Riesenfeld were officiating as the heads of the Zionist Histadrut in the town, Yosef Chaim Ruda and Yaakov Beilowski, may he live long, served as deputies, together carrying the burden of operations. The two of them were also members of the local committee of Keren HaYesod.
Like many other people his age, Chaim was, in his youth, a yeshiva student who studied Torah day and night. Once he grew up he became secular and Zionist, bringing down upon himself the wrath of the ultraOrthodox. On one occasion they even got up and threw him out of the synagogue. None of this was enough to prevent his extensive activity in support of Zionism, for which he travelled a great deal to Warsaw to attend Zionist conferences and various meetings that were convened in the city.
Ruda practiced what he preached. Under the influence of his relative, Shmuel Zanwil Pozner z.l., a Zionist activist who was wellknown in his times (and who immigrated to Israel from Rypin before the war and passed away here), he sent two of his daughters to the Land of Israel. Although he himself longed to come on Aliya, as well, it was not meant to be.
Yosef Chaim Ruda, his wife Rivka, and their daughter Esther Yehudit (Yudka), perished in the Holocaust. So too also his only son, Pinchas, who lived with his wife in the city of Kutno, where he worked growing flowers on a farm that belonged to Katriel Isaac. Ruda's oldest daughter, Perl Leah, did not escape this fate, either, even though she immigrated to Vienna several years before the war to acquire property she had inherited from her grandfather, Rabbi Avraham Fuchs, z.l. She stayed there, and when the Germans seized Vienna she was caught and sent to a concentration camp.
Yosef Chaim Ruda's wife, Rivka, managed to escape to Warsaw after undergoing an extremely arduous journey that was the lot of all the refugees who were running away. In her testimony before someone from the Social Department, she related the story of the liquidation of the Dobrzyn community and told about the death of her husband. He, too, had fled with all the others from the town, carrying with him only a single suitcase containing his clothing. The tribulations of the journey and the deathly terror that he had experienced had sapped what little strength he had had left. During their wanderings he and his wife had hid out in a farmer's house, but he had fallen ill there and had never recovered.
The name of Yosef Chaim Ruda, who was among the active leaders of the community of Dobrzyn, is unalterably bound up with the community life of the town. His image and his activities are indelibly imprinted in the minds of those who came from the town; they recall his benevolence and kindness, as well as his great devotion to the Zionist ideal.
|Yosef Chaim Ruda,
one of the leading Zionists of Dobrzyn
by Yaakov Rimon
Translated by Allen Flusberg
My father and teacher, Ephraim Eliezer Granat, z.l., was born in the town of Biezun, in the province of Plock, Poland, on the 10th of Tevet, 5629 (1869 [sic]), to his father, Rabbi Yosef Tzvi, and his mother, Chana Chaya. (He was their twelfth child; his mother was 55 years old when she gave birth to him.) He was educated in the bosom of Torah and Hassidism, but he was also interested in modern Hebrew literature. While he was still young he moved to the town of Dobrzyn on the Dreventz River, where he lived and was active for many years, until he immigrated to the Land of Israel.
Already in his youth he was drawn to HibbatTzion, and he joined the Mizrachi movement when it was just getting started. He wished to attract the Hassidim to the religiousZionist movement and to the redemption of the People and the Land; since he was an author and a poet, he published an article entitled On Zionism and Hassidism in the monthly Hamizrachi, which was published under the editorship of the author and historian Rabbi Zeev Yavetz. He signed the article Ephraim Eliezer EvenShayish. He was active in and around Dobrzyn, supporting the settling of the Land of Israel, and he ran a campaign to favor citrons from the Land of Israel and CarmelMizrachi wine produced in the Land of Israel. He supported the Jewish National Fund in fundraising for the redemption of land from ownership by foreigners in the Land of Israel. On Yom Kippur Eves he would struggle with and fight against the fanatical Hassidim, placing a contributionbowl in the synagogue for the benefit of the Jewish National Fund; he was persecuted by these fanatical Hassidim because of his Zionism. He established a charity association in Dobryzn, and in addition energized his friends and acquaintances to participate in groups that were dedicated to the study of Talmud or Mishna. He served as a Talmud teacher in Dobrzyn; and since his love for the Hebrew language was boundless, he established a Hebrew library in Dobrzyn. As its administrator, he toiled to bring the young people closer to our national language.
While he was still undergoing persecution by the Hassidic fanatics for his Zionism, his older sister, who was also opposed to Zionism, aligned herself with the fanatics and decided to sit Shiva for him on the basis of the rumor that he and his family were preparing to immigrate to the Land of Israel. And not only that, she actually traveled to Otwock to speak to the elderly rebbe of Warka, Rebbe Simcha Bunimmay the memory of the righteous be a blessingand told him about the rumor. The elderly Hassidic leader sent a message to my father, telling him to come to him. When he asked my father his intentions, my father answered: It is true: we are immigrating to the Holy Land. The rebbe spoke to my father, who was a beloved follower of his, privately, for many hours. But in the end when my father left the rebbe's study, his face was glowing as he reported, The rebbe gave me his blessing and even promised to follow me to the Holy Land…And indeed, since the rebbe did not merit to immigrate to the Land of Israel during his lifetime, he stipulated, before his death, that his body be buried in Tiberias. The Torah scrolls and sacred books that were in the rebbe's house are presently located in the synagogue Kehal Hassidim that my father established in the neighborhood of Neve Shalom, in Yafo.
In the year 5667 (1907), my father overcame material hardships and immigrated to the Land of Israel. He settled in BateiVarsha of R. Shaul Fenigstein z.l., and served as a Talmud teacher for R. Shaul's children. After two years, in the year 5669 (1909), my mother, Esther Chava the daughter of R. Yechiel Bunim Elstein, z.l., immigrated and joined him. With her came two of her sons, Yechiel Bunim and Yaakov, may they live long. My sister, Chana Chaya Katcher z.l., the wife of Moshe Yaakov Katcher z.l., remained in Dobrzyn together with her husband and their children; and my brother, the wellknown poet R. Yosef Tzvi Rimon z.l., who came before any of us, was already living in Jerusalem at that time.
As stated above, my father settled in Yafo. He and my mother had an agreement that was like that of Issachar and Zebulun: she conducted business and my father studied Torah. My mother had a grocery store, and every day my father would come for an hour or two to do the bookkeeping.
In Neve Shalom that was in Yafo, my father established a BeitMidrash for Hassidim who had emigrated from Poland. It is in existence to this very day, under the name Kehal Hassidim, on Baal Shem Tov Street. Since he was affable and spoke knowledgeably and intelligently, my father became wellliked not only by the Hassidim, but also by the Perushim, and even by the freethinkers; and many benefited from and were helped by his good advice. Our grocery store became a meeting place for immigrants from Poland, who used to come to my father for guidance just after they arrived in the Land. Among them also were Jews from Dobrzyn who immigrated to the Land at that time. The Kehal Hassidim synagogue served as a center for the Polish Hassidim who came on Aliya and settled in Yafo.
My father was also an expert in modern [Hebrew] literature, and he published several articles, lists and poems in the Hebrew newspapers of that period: Moriah and Herut. In Yafo he initiated the founding of an association for purchasing plots of land to expand Jewish settlement on the basis of mutual aid, and he published a passionate leaflet on this subject.
My father authored four books: (1) Pelach Harimon: interpretations of various placenames that appear in the Bible, Mishna and Talmud; (2) Hadat Vehadaat: questions and answers between a father and his son on the subject of faith and religion; (3) Michteve Tzair Shehizdaken: ideas and thoughts on the revival of Israel and Judaism; and (4) Nachalat Ephraim: a compilation of articles on the subject of religion and faith. I am sorry to say that because of a lack of funds the only one of these books that appeared in print was Nachalat Ephraim, a book describing a father's testament to his son. It was published by Pinchas BenTzvi Grayevsky, Jerusalem; it was widely acclaimed, and the author Eliezer Steinman incorporated three of its chapters in his book Sefer Hamaala, which includes a selection of testaments throughout the generations, up to the present time. Since I feel that because of my impaired vision I will regrettably not be able to do anything with my father's manuscripts, I have transferred them to be preserved for all time in the manuscript department of the ReligiousZionist archives, which is near the Rav Kook Institute in Jerusalem. It is my hope that perhaps these manuscripts will someday see the light of day.
When the World War broke out in the year 5674 (1914), my father and his family were supposed to be deported from the Land as enemy nationals. However, my father chose to accept upon himself all the tribulations of the war; he clung to the Land, hoping he would not be wrested away from it. Together with his family he went through the torments of the expulsion from Yafo and suffered for several months in the deportee camp located in Kfar Sava, where they lived in open tents built of eucalyptus wood. The main food there was sorghum seeds that are used as poultry feed. Under these harsh, morbid conditions, while he was suffering hunger, my father wrote his book Nachalat Ephraim. The expulsion remained in force, bringing the family to Samaria, where my mother passed away during a typhus epidemic on the 1st of Nisan, 5678; she was buried in Zichron Yaakov. My father dedicated his book Michteve Tzair Shehizdaken to her memory. After the expulsion ended my father returned to Yafo, where he fell ill from all the hardships he had experienced. He passed away on the 2nd day of Adar II 5679 and was buried in the Old Cemetery on Trumpeldor Street in Tel Aviv.
|R. Ephraim Eliezer Granat (Rimon) |
|Esther Chava Granat (Rimon) |
by Mendel Sonabend
Translated by Allen Flusberg
My departed mother, the Dobrzyn Rabbanit, studied during her youth in the Plock gymnasia together with the future Zionist leader, Nahum Sokolow. She knew four languages well: Yiddish, Hebrew, Polish and German.
She was well educated and quite intelligent; she would always be reading works of Tolstoy, Turgenev, Gorky, Mickiewicz, Heine, Bialik and Peretz. The Dreyfus trial caught her interest, and she followed it on a daily basis, reading in particular the reports by Max Nordau. She was also interested in music and art, to which she dedicated much time.
She ran her household with modesty and good taste; she dressed nicely and properly, and dressed her children well, too. She did not leave concerns for running her household to the housemaid only, but rather gave thought to every detail, like someone who wanted to leave the stamp of her personality on everything. Her esteem and fulfilment came from her husband and children.
No sigh ever crossed her lips; her face always glowed with a loving smile, and nothing was ever lacking in her home. We children wondered where she got it all from, as we knew full well that the salary of the town rabbi was not particularly high.
In spite of our great economic hardship, she did not hesitate to help all who were in need; she was willing to share her last slice of bread with others. I recall how she once stood on a Friday, as the Sabbath was approaching, in front of the candles she had just lit, covering her gleaming eyes with her hands and then passing them over the flames as she blessed the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. And while she was quietly murmuring the words of the blessing, she burst out in heartrending sobs. At that moment I saw before my eyes a Jewish mother who was asking God for health and success for her family members and for all the Jewish people. I got up on a chair and embraced her; I kissed her and comforted her, saying: Right away Father will be coming home from the synagogue; he will greet us with the blessing of ‘Shalom Aleichem’, so please don't let your face show signs of sadness. Immediately the sadness disappeared, her face lit up, and she stood ready to greet my father.
And indeed at that very moment the door opened. Our father came in with his face shining, cheerfully declaring: A Good Sabbath! A Good Sabbath! Two guests came in with him, Russian Jews who were about to cross the border on their way to the United States. My mother hastened to bring the gefilte fish to the table as she labored to make the guests' Sabbath as pleasant as possible.
My father noticed the sadness on the guests' faces. They were probably thinking about their families and were worrying about what would happen to them. My father quickly cheered them up, assuring them that everything would work out well. Don't worry, fellow Jews, don't worry! he said over and over. He poured some wine into their cups and toasted them, Lechaim, fellow Jews, lechaim!
Observing that the guests were wearing light clothing, my mother hurried over to the closet and took out some warm clothing. She gave it to them and wished them a safe trip, saying Go in peace and arrive in peace!
This is what my mother the Rabbanit was like, a modest and pure woman, whose heart was devoted to her children, her husband, and to all who were in need or were experiencing difficulties.
by Minda Lipka Bornstein
Translated by Jerrold Landau
Donated by Steve Bolef
My late father was born in Dobrzyń. He served as the communal administrator (parnas) and was active in the Chevra Kadisha (burial society). He concerned himself with the Yeshiva students and supported them with his money. His home was open to those passing through the town.
His sons Wolf and Aharon Lipka, as well as his sons-in-law Wolf Szeinbart and Aharon Szlechter continued in the traditions of their father.
His memory will never depart from my heart!
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