The Chronicle of Bialystok
(Białystok, Poland)

53°08' / 23°09'

Translation of Pinkos Bialystok

Written by A. S. Hershberg

Published by Bialystok Jewish Historical Association, Inc, New York, NY, 1949, 1950


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Acknowledgments

Project Coordinator

Mark Halpern

 

This is a translation from: Pinkes Bialystok; grunt-materyaln tsu der
geshikte fun di yidn in Bialystok biz nokh der ershter velt-milkohme

The chronicle of Bialystok; basic material for the history of the Jews in Bialystok until the period after the First World War,
(Volumes I and II) Written by A.S. Hershberg. Published New York, Bialystok Jewish Historical Association, 1949, 1950

Note: The original books can be seen online at the NY Public Library site: Bialystok (1949) and Bialystok (1951)


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Translated by Rita Ratson

SectionTitle and DetailsPage
VOLUME I
 Preface 
 From the WritersSociety for the history of Bialystok XIII
  From the Editor – Jules Mark XVIII
  Picture of the Author XX
  A Couple of Words about my Father – Henry Hershberg XXI
  Abraham Shmul Hershberg (of blessed memory)
    Bibliography of A. S. Hershberg's historical and Zionist writings -- Israel Halperin
XXV
  Introduction 1
A My connection to Bialystok and my work with the Book of Records 1
B Professor Moscicki's Polish Monograph about Bialystok 3
C Short review concerning what has already been done to research histories of various communities 9
  Chapter One
Short Overview Concerning the General History of Bialystok
13
A The oldest Epoch Era (up to 1665) 13
B The Bronze Era (1665-1795) 14
C The Prussian Era (1795-1807) 22
D The beginning of the Russian Era (1807-1830) 28
E Several important moments in the history of the 19th Century 31
  Chapter Two
Short Overview of the History of the Community in Poland, in General,
and the Community of Bialystok in Particular
35
A The value of the community to Jews 35
B The beginning of Jewish settlement in Bialystok 38
C The oldest origins of Jewish settlement in Bialystok, and the Kehilla 40
D Jews in Bialystok, according to German sources 50
  Chapter Three
The Community of Bialystok under the Rule of the Branickis
53
A The reality of Jewish equality 53
B The Charter, by-laws, for the Kehilla of Bialystok 56
C A few results of the decrees 62
D A version of an oath by a Jew 64
  Chapter Four
The Jews of Bialystok and their Community under the 12 year Prussian
Rule (1795-1807
)
67
A The Prussian regulation of Jews in the newly occupied territory 67
B The destructive results of the Prussian “Jewish Regulations”, and the battle against it 75
C The Prussian laws to spread furious wrath among the Jews in the department of Bialystok 81
D Non-Jewish witness regarding Jewish up-bringing and education 83
E The first Jewish print in Bialystok 83
  Chapter Five
What Stories the Old Records Tell
85
A The Jewish Ghetto 85
B The Book of Records from the old House of Study (Bais Midrash); The Society of Eternal Light 87
C More friends of the old House of Study (Bais Midrash) 93
D The Society of the Guards of Prayer (people who stay up to pray at first light) 95
E What we can still deduce from the Book of Records 97
  Chapter Six
The First Rabbis of Bialystok
102
A The first Rabbi Magid (Preacher) posts in Bialystok Rabbi in the first Rabbinical Court and head of the Rabbinical Court. The conditions, terms in Choroszcz. 102
B Rabbi Yeshua Szapiro 105
C Rabbi Yehuda-Leib Barbi Mordechai Mardishitz 108
D Rebbe Kalonymus Kalman Lichtensztejn 110
E Rebbe Shlomo Zalman, son of the pious Rov Chaim 111
  Chapter Seven
Under the Rule of Alexander I and Nicholas I
113
A The zigzags of the “Jewish Question” 113
B Jews and the Russian-French War of 1812 117
C The situation after the Congress of Vienna 119
D The attitudes of the Jews of Bialystok to the Russian authority 122
E Heshl Medalshchik 123
F The evil Cantonist Decree 135
G Bialystok and the evil Cantonist Decree 138
  Chapter Eight
Features of Jewish Life in Bialystok in the 19th Century to the 1860s
141
A The economic situation 141
B The two philanthropic social societies: “Bikur Cholim”(society for visiting the ill) and “Gamilut Chasidim”(society for kind acts) 147
C The students of the Torah 150
D The societies of the school: Society of the Torah and Society of Tailors 152
E A payment for the right to wear a yarmulke 153
F A judgment over a dowry 154
G General impressions of a stranger, as well as, one of our own 155
  Chapter Nine
Religious Leaders and Prominent Men of the Torah in Bialystok
157
A Rebbe Leib, the author of “The Roaring Lion” 157
B Reb Moshe Zev Margolis, or “Reb Velveleh, ”The Make-up Mirror” 158
C Rebbe Alikum Getzel Mayer Podrabinek 164
D Rebbe Yom-Tov Lipman Halperin, or Reb Lipeleh 166
E Rebbe Shmul Mohilewer 170
F The prominent Rabbi, Reb Chaim Hersh Halperin 177
G The Rabbi's assistants, judges who were preachers of justice and distinguished righteous men
    Reb. Rubin Magid – counseling and justifications and “a true teacher”as well as a Rabbi who decides ritual matters. note: “Reb”: assistant to the Rabbi, charged with deciding questions of ritual cleanliness and settling minor disputes. Reb Israel, son of Yakov, a preacher with certain tasks. Rebbi Itzchak, son of the master, our Rabbi Abram. Rebbi Shmul, son of the master our Rabbi Yosef Segal, a scribe and a judge. Rebbi Naftali Zvi, son of the Rabbi Moshe Ifeh. Rebbi Itzchak Isaac, son of our master the Rabbi Abram. The judge, Reb Zev Wolf, son of our Master the Rabbi Benjamin. The good Rebbe Barbi Itzchak. Rebbi Kalonymus Kalman ,son of Rabbi Pesach Janower. Rebbi Shlomo Zalman, our own, Rebbi Naftali Zvi, the good. Reb Arye Leibson, son of the Rabbi Benjamin, a Cohen. Rebbe Chaim, son of the Rabbi Yonah, from Pinsk. Rebbe Yehusha Cohen (Blumenthal). Judgments of Bialystok were famous in the world. The list of pardons in order of the Holy Burial Society. Assistants to the Rabbi who were authors of important religious books. Preachers (titled as preachers as well as judges of ritual matters).
180
H Prominent men of the Torah, born in Bialystok
    Reb. Abraham Zvi Barb, Reb.Yakov Eizensztat. Reb. Shmul Slant (Salant). Reb. Shavtal Wallach. Rebbi Naftali Hersh, well dressed. Rabbi Reb. Zvi Hersh. Rabbi Reb Nachman, son of the Rabbi Yakov Moshe Goldberg. Rebbi Mordchai Menkes. The prominent Rabbi Reb Duber Menkes. The justifiably prominent Reb Naftali Hersh. The prominent Reb Mortke, son of Rabbi Zvi Hirsh Garfil. Rabbi Reb Arye Leib Rogoznitski. Reb Mordchai David, son of Rabbi Itzchak Adelberg. Rebbi Boruch Frajdenberg. The prominent, our master the Rabbi Yosef, son of Rebbe Abraham. The Rabbi Reb.Yochnan Aizenberg. Rabbi Reb Chaim, Doctor Hlr (Heller).
191
I Prominent men of the Torah raised in Bialystok
    Rebbi Israel, son of the Rabbi, who was the Gaon (a great Torah scholar) Abraham Yikutial Zalman Lichtensztejn. Rabbi Reb Alihu Peretz. Rebbe Mordchai, son of our master the Rabbi Aryeh Leib, a Cohan. The prominent Reb Moshe Arie, son of our master, the Rabbi Zev Charlap. The prominent Reb Meir, the joyful Cohan. The prominent Rebbi Shmul Lifshitz. Reb Leib Slutzker. Moshe Gershon Epsztejn. Rebbe Abram Aba Klejnerman. Reb Yoseph, son of Kutner. The prominent Reb Kalonymus Kalman, son of Rabbi Mincham. Reb Yakov Moshe Margulies. Reb Chanoch, son of our master the Rabbi Yosef. Reb David Abram Kempner. Reb Israel, son of Rabbi Zev Heller. Reb Yiddidieh Perlis. Reb Itzchak, son of Rabbi David Maizel.
198
J Prominent men of the Torah, who were residents of Bialystok
    Reb Mordchai Shatz. The Prominent, Reb Zvi Hirsh Boyarski, son of the prominent, our master the Rabbi Itzchak Isaac. The prominent Rebbe Ari, son of the prominent Abram Shlomo Binkawicz. The prominent Reb Yakov, son of Rabbi Yehusha Rozencwaig. Reb Moshe (who gave loans) Rubensztejn. Rebbe Itzchak Nissinboim. The prominent Reb Yerucham Fishel. Reb Binjamin Ishaya, son of Rabbi Yerucham Fishel, a Cohen, Pashkowski. Reb Chaim Hendler (the box maker). Reb Yehuda Temkin.
206
K Chasidim, who were prominent men of the Torah
    The prominent Chassid, Reb Eliezer. The prominent Chassid, Reb Nachum , son of the pious Rabbi, ritual judge, Reb Shlomo Zalman, the noble. The Rebbe from Kobrin, the prominent Reb Nochum. Reb Moshehal from Kotsk.
210
L Primary Yeshiva of Bialystok
    Reb Moshe Yichzakal Sokolski. Reb Zvi, son of Rabbi Menachem Shor. Reb Itzchak Jewarkowski.
212
M Caretakers of Greatness of the Torah 213
  Chapter Ten
Maskilim (Adherents of the Enlightenment Movement) of Bialystok
214
A Reb. Eliezer Halbersztam 214
B Mayer Cohen 220
C Noach David Bloch 221
D The Haskalah in Bialystok around 1880 221
E Chaim Lublinski 224
F Personalities among Maskilim (Enlightened Men) of Bialystok 226
G The Choir School in Bialystok 228
H A Quarrel Between a Maskil, an Apikoyrus and a Pious Melamed 231
I More Bialystok Maskalim [followers of the Enlightenment] Authors and Dignitaries
    Rebbe Yacov Boruch (Bachrach). Yerucham Fishel Sznajder. Abram, son of Rebbe Nissin Szpiro. Reb Yechiel Michel Zabludowski. Dodieh Zabludowski. Reb Chaim Witkind. Menachem Mendel Rolitski. Itzchak-Shlomo Fox. Yakov Shmul Fox.
232
J Chaim Zelig Slonimski 236
K Dr. Izidor Zabludowski 240
L Shlomo Blanksztejn or Dr. Shlomo Shiller 241
M Assimilation in Bialystok 244
  Chapter Eleven
The Fifty Year Reign of Yechiel Ber Wolkowiski over the Kehilla of Bialystok
249
A The illegal Jewish community and its budget 249
B The personality of the “head of community” Yechiel Ber Wolkowiski 254
C The affliction of the informers 260
D Yechiel Ber Wolkowiski's downfall 263
E The negative results of Yechiel Ber Wolkowiski's fifty-year rule 266
 M Chapter Twelve
Religious Institutions of Bialystok: Schools, Houses of Study, Minyans
269
A Historical overview of the religious institutions in exile 269
B The Schools of Bialystok as compared to those of Vilna and Grodno 272
C The most important Houses of Study The old House of Study
    The new House of Study. Yechiel Neches House of Study. The House of Study for the Wealthy. Ogess' Shadow of the House of Study. Mendel Graves' House of Study. Tipperman's House of Study. Koppel Halperin's House of Study. Shmul Bulkowsztejn's House of Study. House of Study of Benefaction. The House of Study for those from Pulkowsky. The House of Study for those from Nowolipi. The (new) Green House of Study. Puzshe's House of Study. Wolkowski's House of Study. David Daich's House of Study. Bishke Zabludowski's House of Study.
274
D The Houses of Study of the schoolyard districts since the recovery
    House of Study of the Society of the Order of the Talmud Scholar. House of Study of the Visitor Chaim or The Szkotz House of Study. The Life of Man House of Study and its House of the Second Temple (built by those of).
289
E The Houses of Study in the School Courtyard Region, on the south side
    Sender's House of Study (Braverman's House of Study). Torah Chassid House of Study. Krachmalnik's House of Study. Renowned Scholars of the Talmud House of Study. The Officers' House of Study.
293
F The Houses of Study of the Suraz District
    Moshe Melech's House of Study. The Mishna (Doctrine) House of Study. Szuster's House of Study. Torah Chaim (True Law of Chaim) House of Study.
295
G The Religious Houses of Study in the district of Piaskow
    The brick built House of Study of Piaskow. The wooden House of Study of Piaskow. The Argentinian House of Study. Society of the Talmud House of Study. Bialystocki's House of Study.
299
H The Houses of Study of the Chanayk District
    The Great Chanaiker House of Study. Beloved Rachel's House of Study. Bekersher House of Study. The House of Study of the Psalm reader. Eli Melech House of Study.
304
I The new Houses of Study
    New World House of Study. The Conservative House of Study. Najmark's House of Study. Batser's House of Study. Kacbish House of Study. House of Shmul House of Study. Academic House of Study. Jacob Pledges' House of Study.
306
J Houses of Study of philanthropic institutions 312
K Small Chasidic Houses 312
L Minyans for burials, who see themselves as Houses of Study 312
M Houses of Study who have become null and void 313
N Minyans in Bialystok 313
  Chapter Thirteen
Philanthropic Institutions in Bialystok
315
A The Jewish Hospital in Bialystok
    The beginning. The hospital is built. Income derived from the hospital. The metamorphoses the hospital endured
315
B The central charitable organization by the name of “Committee”
    The role of tzedaka (charity) in our history. The system of work of the “Committee.” Supporter of the Fallen. Reb Lippeleh and the “Committee.” The renewal of “Committee.” It's five divisions. The central role of the “Committee.” The moral strength of the “Committee.” The budget of the “Committee.”
318
C The old age home
    Overview of the attitude towards the elderly. The establishment of the Old Age Home. The further development of the Old Age Home.
327
D The second interest free loan 330
E The Society for Charitable Overnight Lodging for Pious and Righteous, and Charitable Overnight Lodging for Caring for the Sick
    Lodging for the Night for the Pious. Lodging for the Night for the Pious progresses. The plan to unite. Continued growth of Lodging for the Night for the Ill. The good results of the competition between both societies.
330
F The People's Kitchen called “Support”
    A short overview concerning “Support.” The People's Kitchen in Bialystok. In the years during The War.
337
G House for Orphans
    Support (aid) for orphans. The gift from a childless couple. During the final days.
339
H Bialystoker Endowments
    The business matters of the Foundations of Charity. The Registers of the Foundations of Charity of Bialystok. Legacy of the “Houses of Study”
341
  Chapter Fourteen
Educational Institutions in Bialystok until 1914
346
A The old traditional religious school (cheder) 346
B The progressive (cheders) religious schools
    The weaknesses of standardized (cheders) religious schools. For the Jewish community and for the non-Jewish community. The value of the student as a result of his education. The two energetic teachers in Bialystok. The wild Czarist Law. Further proofs to create standardized religious schools. Schools for girls. The end of the struggle between old Cheders and standardized Cheders.
347
C The Russian Educational Institutions
    The Real-School. The first Jewish-Russian Folkschools. Institutionalized schools for beginner students. Jaffe's Russian-Jewish beginner's school. More schools in Russian. Schools for girls. The effect of the Russian schools on the youth.
354
D The Handworker's School
    Overview of the attitude towards work and craft. The rise of the handwork school in Bialystok. The ravage that the Germans caused. The school 's inventory. The school's budget. The condition of the handworker's school after the war. The value of the handworker's school.
360
E The Jewish Professional Women's School of Bialystok 369
F The first Jewish National and Religious Synthesis Schools
    Wisotski's School of Torah study. The religious schools for those who learn Talmud.
370
G Yeshivas of Bialystok and the major Yeshivas
    A very short overview of Yeshivas. The first head of Yeshivas in Bialystok. Head of Yeshivas who were well-known personalities. The exceptional head of the Yeshiva, Rebbe Pinchas Moshe Gordon. The proof to build a Yeshiva in a large building of their own.
375
H The first kindergarten in Bialystok
    The beginning of the long story. The changes The War brought. The arguments with Mrs. Meilach. The kindergarten transfers to the Yiddishists.
381
  Chapter Fifteen
National and Cultural Societies and Institutions
389
A The Society: Love of Zion
    The great role of The Society. “Tent of Moshe”
389
B Society of the Torah 392
C “Society who spread the Haskalah Movement” in the district of Bialystok
    The general purposes of The Society. The leaders of the Bialystok district.
393
D The first Zionist Choir 395
E The Teacher-Student Organization
    Before The War. During The War. After The War.
396
F “Commi” Organization, or Society for Mutual Aid to the Employed 401
G The organization, “Jewish Talent” 402
H The Library of Organizations 404
I The Society for those who love ancient languages
    The goals of the Society. The discussions. The young society members. Hebrew Publication.
404
J Newspapers of Bialystok 408
  Chapter Sixteen
Personalities in Bialystok
410
A Rabbis of the Crown of Bialystok
    The quality (essence) of the Crown's Rabbi of Bialystok. Yehusha Sztejnberg. Reb Shlomo Zalman Bendet. Mayer Markus. Doctor Yosef Mohilewer.
410
B Writers born in Bialystok, or inhabitants of Bialystok 414
C Bialystok residents who excelled in various fields of talent 425
D Bialystoker who aquired a reputation in various realms 426
E Personalities who excelled with character and good deeds
    Abram Trop. Gershon Sztejn. Yerucham Mowszowicz. Moshe Mordchai Manisewicz. Reb Abram, Cohan , (Abraml from Paris).
429
F Doctor Josef Chazanowicz
    His ancestry. His education. His family tragedy. His behavior. His love for Israel. Moshe Granowski. His Zionism. His love for the Jewish people. His manner of living. His work for the land of Israel. His work for the National Library. His final years. His death. His funeral.
432
  Appendix 1
The First Sources in the Book of Records of Tiktin Concerning
Communities of Bialystok
443
  Appendix 2
The Polish Text of Branicki's Statute of the Community of Bialystok
448
  Appendix 3
Wording on Gravestones

Gravestones of neighboring Rabbis in the cemetery in Bialystok. About the
character of the text on the gravestones.
455
  Index of People 465
  Index of Cities 477
  Computation of Years according to Jewish and Christian Calendars 480
 
VOLUME II
  Introduction
From the Editors
History of the Society of Bialystok
1
  Chapter One
The Textile Industry of Bialystok up to 1880
5
A Bialystok as a business center
    Jews, wealthy landowners and those of the middle class. The development of Jewish business in the Bialystok region and Bialystok. The Zelver Market.
5
B The beginning of textile industry in the region of Bialystok
    In Slonim and in Ruzhany. Senator Orshenowski's journey. The situation of the textile industry in the Province of Grodno in 1815.
11
C The textile industry in the Province of Grodno in 1828
    In the city of Grodno and its circle. In the city of Wolkowisk. In Slonim and in the circle of Slonim. In the Prussian circle. In the circle of Kobrin. Around Bialystok. A concept concerning the general situation.
17
D The reasons for the development of the textile industry in Bialystok 22
E The first Jewish textile manufacturers in Bialystok
    The first Perlis Bank building. Sender Bloch's factory. Nochum Mintz's factory. Eliezer Halbersztam's factory. Dodieh Zabludowski's factory. Nch. David Bloch's factory. David Abram Kempner's Factory. Jewish factories in the years of 1850-1880. Betsalel Nowik and Sons. Israel Trilling and Son. David Hubinski. Aaron Surazski.
28
F Jewish factory towns
Horodok (Grodek). Knyszyn. Ruzhany.
38
  Chapter Two
The Textile Industry in Bialystok in the Years 1880-1900
41
A The fast growth of the textile industry of Bialystok
    The manufacturing in kunstvoll (German word for artistic/ornate)
41
B Bank buildings, business buildings (selling merchandise), commissioners 44
C The relationship between manufacturer and commissioner in the textile industry of Bialystok 47
D The numbers for the year 1898 49
E An alphabetical list of manufacturers up to 1900 54
F An alphabetical list of the cottage industry of home weavers up to 1900 70
G The silk-textile industry in Bialystok 73
  Chapter Three
The Jewish Worker of Bialystok up to 1900
74
A Information about Jewish textile workers in the year 1828 74
B General characteristics of the Jewish textile worker
    The relationship of the Jewish weaver toward his landlord.
77
C The weavers' strikes
    The battle against the home weavers. The great strike of 1894. The organization of the weavers.
79
D About the number and condition of Jewish workers in Bialystok in 1900
    Textile workers. Tanners. Cigarette makers. Bakers. Tailors. Key makers (Locksmiths) and Tinsmen. Furniture makers. Building crafts and others. Mechanical workshops and metal industry. Steam mills. A Jewish beer brewery.
84
E The worker becomes drawn into the political struggle
    The first pioneers of the political struggle. The second strike against the home weavers. Bialystok becomes the temporary (provisional) center of the Bund (Jewish social organization in Poland).
91
  Chapter Four
The stormy years of 1900-1907
96
A The crisis of 1900 96
B The rise of the Worker's movement
    The strengthened activity of the Bund. The massacre of September 12, 1904. The response to the events of January 9, 1905.
98
C The anarchists, their terror, their tactics
    Propaganda through deed. Terrorist acts.
103
D The power of the illegal organizations 108
E Two social organizational goals in Bialystok
    The influence of the revolutionary parties. The Zionists in Bialystok. The Poale Zionism.
111
  Chapter Five
The Massacre of 1905 and the Great Pogrom of Bialystok
114
A The first massacres – July 30, 1905
    The names of those massacred.
114
B The second massacre – October 18, 1905
    The names of those who suffered
115
C The general reason for pogroms in 1905-1906 116
D The Pogrom of June 1-3, 1906
    The evening before the pogrom. The first day. The second day. The official version. The blood sum-total. The storm in the Russian Duma (Council).
117
E The sacred martyrs 125
F The aid for those who suffered
    The committee's income. The committee's capital expenditure. The foremen of aid.
127
G The memorial 131
H The punishment to those who carried out the pogroms
    The Lecherlecher Trial of 1907. The death sentences from part of SR Maximalists
132
  Chapter Six
In the Years of 1908-1914
135
A The textile industry of Bialystok further develops 135
B The Jewish weaver of Bialystok reaches the mechanical loom
    Jews work only at hand looms. Jewish weavers begin the struggle for their justice. The question of The Sabbath. The further development in the years of 1908-1909.
136
C The condition of Jewish work in 1912
    Jewish work in the district of Bialystok.
140
D The old state of just and proper treatment, and our participation, and the Duma elections
    Jewish election workers from Bialystok.
142
E The two newspapers of Bialystok 145
F The last two meat tax budgets 147
  Chapter Seven
The Reconstruction of the Old Community Institutions
151
A The Talmud Torah
    The first mandatory schools in the Jewish communities. The internal order of the Talmud Torah school. Free institutions of learning. Sephardic and Ashkenazi Talmud Torahs. The Talmud Torahs of Bialystok come together. In a new location with a new face.
151
B The city school or the Synagogue
    The old city school. Building begins. The new school is completed. During the “fearful days” (New Year's Day, Day of Atonement, and days between), and at state or gala opportunities. The school's budget.
158
C The hospital for the poor
    The hospital gets a new building. The circumstance in 1933.
163
D The Mikvehs
    Mikveh in the Jewish tradition. The old Mikveh. The new Mikveh.
164
E The sacred cemeteries and Chevra Kadisha
    The grave according to Jewish Law. Chevra Kadisha. The first sacred cemetery in Bialystok. Where did Jews of Bialystok inter their dead? The second sacred cemetery. The new sacred cemetery. The existence of the old Chevra Kadisha.
167
  Chapter Eight
Bialystok during the Years of the First World War
175
A In the first War year
    The turmoil at the beginning of The War. The difficult condition of all the social institutions. The committee for homeless and those who suffered in the War. Under siege condition. Bialystok becomes evacuated. How the Germans entered Bialystok.
175
B Bialystok organizes itself under the Germans
    The Citizen's Committee. The Militia. The contribution of 300,000 marks. The head of the city and the peasants' council (farmers' council).
183
C The Hunger regime under the Germans 191
D The death toll of the Jewish population during the time of the occupation 194
E The strict regulations of the occupation authority 196
F Businesses during the time of The War 198
G The Jewish textile industry during the time of the occupation
    Requisitions. The entire industry receives orders for goods. In 1918, only privileged manufacturers remain.
199
  Chapter Nine
Jewish Organized Society during the War Years
205
A The cooperatives or consumer organizations
    The central consumer organization. The remaining organizations. The cheap store for youth organizations. The cooperative bakery.
205
B The inexpensive and free kitchens
    The people's kitchen. The school kitchen. The citizen's kitchen. The worker's kitchen. The kitchen at the Talmud Torah.
208
C The Women's committee
    Help for reservists and poor families. The workhouse. Clothing for those without clothing. The core of the spirit. The women's gallery for orphans.
210
D Organizations of merchants and of house owners
    The “Buyer-organization.” The organization for landlords
214
E Zionist Activities
    The Zionist “coordinator”. Renewal of “The Hebrew Movement of people who love ancient languages.” Various Hebrew courses. The Hebrew Children's Pre School and other kindergartens. Hebrew afternoon school. Educational courses. The movement to establish Hebrew Schools.
216
F In the Leftist circles
    The attack on the Community Council. The proclamation against the German regime. The agreement against the Community Council.
221
G The awakened striving for fine arts
    The organization “Jewish Talent.” The “Invitation.”
224
  Chapter Ten
The Community Council and its Activity
227
A The Community Council becomes organized
    The transition time. The thought concerning a Kehilla organization. The Community Council's task. The innermost workings of the Community Council.
227
B The first step and the first crisis
    The “ judgment” is chosen. The Community Council takes charge of the community institutions. Relationship with the reigning authority. The first opposition to the Community Council.
233
C The question concerning an enforcer
    The free will tax. The first “enforcer”.
237
D The various incomes of the Community Council
    The sale of meat. Commerce (trade) of products. The foreign support. Support from the City management. The women's committee is created.
243
E The Community Council as the provider of the Jewish population 249
F The Community Council as a central institution and the battle against it
    New predictions in the community institutions – conflicts. The returned letters through the Community Council.
252
G The Community Council as the defender of Jewish interests and rights
    The battle against speculation
255
H The Community Council to learn the Hebrew language 258
I The work house for women 259
J Ups and downs of the finances in the years of 1917-1918
    The money crisis beginning in 1917. The project of a new estimate. The situation becomes easier in 1918. The existence of the aid committee. The distribution list for American money.
261
K The end of the first Central Committee
    “culture communities.” Revolution and soldiers' council. The new provisional democratic community.
266
  Chapter Eleven
From 1919 to the mid 1930's
269
A The era of the Democratic community
    The elections and the results of the elections. The first step of the democratic community. The sorrowful beginning of the Polish reign. A new era of productive activity. Jews boycott the city managing committee. The Joint department and the first funds of the Relief Committee of Bialystok. A revision of the government. Jews become under privileged by the magistrate. Dissatisfaction with the community. The Poles leave Bialystok.
269
B A month under the Bolsheviks 281
C The false-accusations (frame-ups) of Jews of Bialystok 284
D The community in the 1920's 287
E Jewish participation in industry in the years of 1919-1921 289
F Zigzags in industry of Bialystok in the 1920's and beginning of 1930's
    The crisis in the years of 1924-1926. The vitality and ability for competition of the textile industry of Bialystok.
292
G Textile industry of Bialystok in 1936
    Sokol and Zilberfenik. Shmul Citron. Aisr Szpiro. Further development
299
H The Jewish moneylender after the War 303
  Chapter Twelve
Jewish Educational Institutions since the Occupation
305
A The general picture during the occupation 305
B Improving and modernizing the Talmud Torah 306
C The Hebrew public schools
    The “The First Hebrew School.” “The Second Hebrew School”.
309
D The Hebrew Gymnasium (High Schools) 311
E The academic public schools 315
F The “Highly Educated” 317
G The Jewish schools of the Tsisha (YiddishSchool)
    The “Youth-Club” schools. The Peretz Orphanage. The Grosser School. The Mendele School. The Kindergarten. The Jewish High School (Gymnasium). The number of students of the Tsisha Schools. The weekly Shane Plan of a seven class Tsisha School in Bialystok. The management of the schools. The Bialystok division of Tsisha. The interior and the fundamental principles of the Jewish school.
319
H The standardized Cheders of the period after the War
    The 2-language, 7-class school by Eliezer Ecksztejn. Elson Elementary School. House of Daveer by Mordechai Boyarski. The school “ Flag of Israel” by Abram Goldberg. “Isud Hatorah” (Erecting the Torah). The Orthodox School by Israel Mayer Rubinsztejn.
330
I The Yeshivas of Bialystok after the time of the occupation
    The Kibbutz of Bialystok. The Yeshiva of Morals of Novagrodok or “Bais Yosef”
333
J The Bais Yakov Schools 339
K Private beginner schools for girls
    Girls School by L. C. Bogdanowski. Girls School by L. Greenhojz
340
L The Jewish-Polish private high schools (Gymnasiums)
    Gymnasium by Dr. S. Gutman. Gymnasium by D. Druskin. Gymnasium by Zeligman, Lebenhof, and Deretszinski. The social co-education community.
341
M The Polish war time Folkschools in Bialystok 344
N The Jewish libraries of Bialystok
    The Shalom Aleichem Library. The Library of Study of the Kehilla of Bialystok. The small Hebrew Gymnasium Library. David Suchowolski's Hebrew Children's Library.
345
  Chapter Thirteen
Looking Back and General View (survey)
349
A General impression of Bialystok in 1880 349
B The bad situation of the community institutions in 1880 353
C Bialystok develops 355
D General characteristics, features of the Bialystok Kehilla 358
E A word of farewell 366
  Index of People 369


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