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Records of My Family


by Israel Solomon, New York, 1887

I

My grandmother, Esther, was a native of London, and her maiden name was Elias. Her father was a German by birth, and nick-named Fine Schneider; and being a tailor of repute, he employed many work-people. Esther married early in life an Alsacian by birth named Bernard Beer, who, on arriving in London, was seeking the house in which lived a townsman of Bernard Beer. The house was in the same street in which Esther resided, but Bernard was ignorant of the number of the house his friend resided in; so he knocked at hazard at the door of Elias, trusting that the inhabitant could give him the information. Esther answered the knock and, seeing the stranger was a Jew, said to him in German, "What do you want?" He told her the reason for troubling her. The name and residence were familiar to Esther, and she stepped into the street and pointed out the house, but her delicate and kind way quite captivated Bernard, who formed within himself the hope that fortune would be favorable, so that he might become her husband. He enquired of his friend the name of the family, etc, of his charmer, and very naturally it became the dream of his existence. He was by trade a soap boiler, and wished to obtain employment at the London manufacturers but the Shabas prevented his obtaining any employment unless he sacrificed his religious scruples, which he could not do, and was obliged against his wishes to become a pedlar of small wares for a sustenance. He struggled on until he arrived at Falmouth; there he was hospitably received by Zender Falmouth, whose real name was Henry Moses; but in those days any Jew settling down within a town and hav:ing a certain respectability amongst Jews had the name of the town attached to his first name. Zender kept a stock of buckles, small cutlery, jewelry and matches to supply to hawkers, and gave credit to young men on certain conditions and, where it was necessary, advanced money to obtain the hawker's license. The conditions were to return every Friday early enough to form one of the minyan, and on Sunday morning square up the accounts by paying over what money he had and receive fresh goods on credit. But when the hawker's license was procured, Zender insisted that his name should be quite a Jewish name, and, instead of the name Bernard Beer, his name was inscribed Barnet Levy, and the family ever after became Levy insted of Beer.

Bernard prospered, and lost no time in turning towards the magnet of attraction. He went to Lonon, called on Elias the tailor and told him his errand and hopes. Elias himself had no objections, if Barnet's references were respectable, etc., etc. Barnet then referred to Zender Falmouth, and as, by a strange coincidence, Zender was uncle to Elias's wife, a favorable answer was received from Zender, and Esther became engaged. Barnet returned to Falmouth, took a house and shop, furnished the house, and returned to London and was married. After the marriage, the time soon arrived in those days to enter the house and commence its duties, but in those days the distance from London to Falmouth was beyond three hundred miles by the mail coach. Fare was very heavy, and the cost of a post-chaise not to be thought of for people of moderate means. The next great travelling conveyance was Russel's wagon, an immense vehicle covered by canvas, with six heavy horses, a driver, and a guard, heavily armed with blunderbusses, and who rode on a stout pony either at its side or followed behind the wagon. It took from three to four days and nearly as many nights before the wagon from London reached Falmouth. In the front of the wagon space was kept before the packages and boxes for passengers, and their seats were straw and hay on which men, women, and children were placed. Such a conveyance could not suit Esther, so she rode behind her husband on what is called a packsaddle horse, riding all the way, stopping when the day was drawing to night at any inn on the road in the village or town frequented by Jews - and in that time, down to 1830, inns where Jewish travellers rested were to be found in all the roads and towns of England. The landlord then, especially to gain their custom, kept a cupboard or closet containing cooking utensils entirely for their use, so that they might eat kosher. The landlord kept the cupboard locked and guarded the keys on his own person, and when a Jew used the utensils he saw to the cleaning of them, and before putting them away he wrote with chalk within the bottom of the utensil his name, day of the month, and year, with the portion from the law read on the Sabbath of that week - all in Hebrew. Some of these hotels were in the centre of populated districts, and the pedlars going the rounds of the district would congregate of a Friday evening at these hotels and stay over Saturday, and on Sunday they trudged again on their laborious rounds. They generally formed a club and one of the number, who was licensed by the rabbi to slaughter animals, was paid by the club for one day's less of profit from his business to get to the hotel on Friday early enough to kill animal or poultry, purchase fish, etc, and either cook or superintend it that it should be quite kosher by the timr the brotherhood came there, and ushered in the Sabbath gladly singing hymns, and after a copious but frugal repast, some Hebrew literature or tales of the past and present were related by one or the other with all the happy freedom allowed to speech in dear old. England; although these happy lovers of English soil were not allowed the perfect equity now enjoyed by their children.

 

Esther died early in life, leaving three sons and five daughters. The eldest son died unmarried. One son, Joel, married Rachel Joseph, sister of Lyon and Abraham Joseph. These two married sisters, one Hannah and the other Judith, both daughters of Esther. The third sister, Sheba, remained with her father and the other daughters until after Hannah and Judith married; then Barnet Levy, the father, who had been sick for a long time died. The fourth sister, Sarah, was a baby when her mother died, and Abraham, the third son, was a little boy, so that the management of the family and the trade in the shop devolved on the fifth and eldest daughter, my mother. Hannah and Judith before their marriages were dressmakers. Sheba, hearing about so many people becoming rich in London, left to search for the gold, but after spending nearly all her means, took service in a Jewish family, and some time after married Elias, the brother of her mother, who was much younger than his sister; and the father of Esther and Elias gave them, for that time, a liberal eduction for respectable middle classes of society. But the education of Elias gave him a foolish pride, and he would not become a tailor to follow the trade. He became a bookkeeper, letter-writer etc., and afterwards a trader in a species of dry goods. He failed in it, and afterwards came with his wife to Falmouth. Having no children, he was supported by the other members of the family.

Elias was a well-instructed Englishman, and very free in speech on political subjects. I remember him; his dress was then ample, the coat in Louis XIV fashin, waistcoat the same, breeches with buckles fastening at the knee, long wool stockings with shoes, and heavy large white metal buckles. His hair, with a long quantity behind the neck, tied with a large black ribbon in a knot, and white necktie, very ample, folding around the throat and half covering up the chin. We all trembled when he cursed the despotism of Lord Castereagh's ministry and the crime of the Cato street conspiracy - a plot gotten up by the secret police under that government, and I believe my memory says it was in 1823 or 1824 that Castlereagh committed suicide with a penknife he purchased from a Jew boy in the city.

Abraham, the third son of Esther, married and lived and died in Plymouth, and about the year 1828 he purchased the freehold house in which he lived, but being a Jew, although English born and the second generation English, he could not become possessor of any freehold in England The house was bought for him by his neighbor, and leased to him on a pepper corn rent for 999 years. Abraham left a large family of sons and daughters, and all, I believe, married and rich.

Joel Levy was very unfortunate in losing his wife and eldest son within one week. This unsettled his mind, and some months after he died, leaving one son and two daughters. The son and eldest daughter came to America and died, leaving no issue to regret their loss; but one sister became the wife of Professor Isaacs, of Manchester, and recently lived there, with one or more unmarried daughters.

Sarah, the youngest daughter of Esther, lived with my mother, who married Solomon Solomon, my father. Sarah never married, but helped in the housekeeping and, with my parents, brought up my brother and myself, and only parted from us after the death of our mother Betsy Solomon (née Levy, the eldest daughter of Esther).

My mother died and was buried in Bristol, and over her remains a very thick tombstone reposes, but so surrounded with iron guards that the epitaph was not at all readable.

My mother visited London at the time the old London bridge was being taken down and the new bridge was nearly finished. I went with her to see the two, and while regarding the structure she repeated what happened to her mother who, when young, went with a group of young girls to see the bleeding heads on poles on the entrance to London Bridge and on the top of Temple Bar; these were the heads of leaders of the last great Scotch rebellion, and the penalty for not going to see this barbarous exhibition was to be called by the neighbours Jacobite. [The executions took place about 1746.]

II

My grandmother, Bella Solomon, was a Dutchwoman by birth, and her maiden name was Wolf. She was married in Penzance, Cornwall, where a brother and a sister resided. Her sister was married to Eleazer Hart, father of Lemon Hart, at one time the largest spirits merchant in London and for many years contractor to the English government in supplying the British royal navy with rum.

The tombstone over my grandfather Israel Solomon's remains I could not discover, as many tombstones were injured by the atmosphere, and the letters nearly effaced. My grandfather, Israel Solomon, was a German by birth, and he was born in Ehrenbreitstein on the Rhine. His family name was Behrends, but he stood in the same position as my grandfather Barnet Levy wih Zender Falmouth, and altered his name to Solomon.

The family of Israel and Bella Solomon consisted of three sons and three daughters. Two sons and two daughters were married; one son and one daughter never married; this son died early, and the single daughter, named Leah, died very old in years. The second daughter ran away from home and married a soldier and went to India; from there she returned a childless widow, and her brothers allowed her a small income, but she was not to reside in Falmouth. I only saw her once when she came to Falmouth, and knew nothing further respecting her. The other daughter, Judith, married a German named Harriss; they had one son, who married a granddaughter of Zender Falmouth. He, Henry Harriss, was a noted silversmith and lived in Truro, from where he retired from business and kived in London. He had two sons and two daughters married, and lived in London. One, Samuel Harriss, was a bead merchant. Joseph Levy, general merchant, married a daughter, and other portions of the family are still resident in London. One son married a great great granddaughter of Zender Falmouth, and a daughter married one of the Franklins from Manchester, both of whom died early and left one son and one daughter, I believe, now very wealthy, and related to the banker, Samuel Montague.

III

My father was the son of Israel and Bella Solomon. He died suddenly in Lisbon in January, 1819, twenty-one days after his arrival from Falmouth. I was with my father, and his death occurred on Friday. We had just taken a suite of rooms or a flat in a tenement house, unfurnished, and an acquaintance from Cornwall, named Philip Samuel, a Polish gentleman, was invited by my father to sup with us. After supper I prevailed on him to stop for the night and to accompany us the next day to the synagogue. Some time after I was in bed and was awakened by the groans of my dying father. I called Mr Samuel, and I left him with my father and rushed away at midnight, at which hour, at Lisbon, the streets are filled with thousands of dogs, who lived on offal and garbage thrown every night from the windows of every house.

I rushed through the terrible night to the apartments of Madam Julia Delivant, an old London friend, who had taken up her residence in Lisbon, and how I reached her house is quite a mystery, what with the frightful yells and attacks of the dogs, and covered as I was with the refuse thrown from the houses; and after awakening the inmates and procuring a doctor, who declared life was extinct, the family of Mr Schemeya Cohen was aroused, and the domestics, of whom the cook was named Benrimo, watched and remained all the night with me. My father was about 55 years of age when he died. Mr Phillip Samuel remained with me, and never left until I had finished, with his aid, all the commercial affairs of my father that required attentin. This lasted more than one year, and then I returned to my mother's home at Falmouth.

Mr Samuel was a native of Warsaw, and his life was full of romance. He was the son of the secretary of the Great Synagogue there, and highly educated in Hebrew. Marriages in Poland in those days were at an early age, and his marriage was not a happy one. He had one daughter, who married, but her name I have forgotten. His trade was that of a silk merchant. He purchased from importers at Dantzig. Travelling in those days was done by caravan, and the Jewish trader took with him ten men, so as to say prayers three times a day. These religious observances became opposed to the activity required for commercial work, and quicker means of transit came in vogue. He then lived at Wilna, and when he was obliged to go to Dantzig in the winter, he left early in the morning in a sledge, arriving the same evening at Dantzig. For this breach of an old custom of travelling, the rabbis, so called, who formed the travelling party of ten, excommunicated Phillip, and in spite of the cherem, he burst asunder these superstitious trammels, not any more to be observed in any country or city.

He laughed at the edict, and continued on longer journeys without a retinue of followers. He traded with Russia, and, having a good customer in Moscow, it was requisite for him to visit that city to settle up accounts. The Moscow merchants invited him to his house when in that city. The merchant was at that time in advance of the general prejudices against foreigners and Jews in particular. He told Phillip in confidence that his wife and servant would have the sleeping apartment, bedding, and every which on which he had sat down scrubbed, washed and purified with the sprinkling of holy water to protect their Slavonic holiness from pollution that the Jew might leave behind him!

One winter, in travelling with a train of wagons laden with silk and other merchandise, and crossing a frozen river, the ice gave way and the wagons sank into the river. He escaped with his life with just enough money to rush away from Russian dominion, because bankruptcy would have followed his loss, and for bankruptcy in Russia imprisonment follows. He arrived at last in England; but the life of the ordinary Polish emigrant, supported by peddling, was disgusting to the educated Phillip. Visiting at the house of the Chief Rabbi, Herschell, the rabbi got him the place as reader of prayers in the synagogue at Penzance, in Cornwall. For this he was not fitted. Attached to this office was then the slaughtering of cattle and poultry kosher, and as about this time the trade of collecting gold for government requirements to pay troops and war supply in the Continental war with the first Napoleon was profitable, he became an agent for buying gold for my uncle, Lyon Joseph, of Falmouth. Phillip trusted some money to a fellow polander to purchase gold, and the poor fellow, who was named Valentine, was enticed by a landlord at Plymouth Dock, and murdered. The murderer was discovered and hanged. After the gold business was ended, he and a fellow-countryman settled down in St Austell, Cornwall, as jewellers. I there for the first time met Phillip Samuel, whilst changing horses and the passengers of the mail coach upon which I was riding were taking refreshments, and we called at his shop and residence.

I may here relate that Highgate, then a village out of London, was the place whither we were going, because Hurwitz, the best schoolmaster in England, had a school there, and the best Jewish families in England sent their sons to be educated. Highgate at that time was three hundred miles from Falmouth: the journey took two days and nights; now it can be done in eight hours.

Disappointment in business matters seemed to follow Phillip, and my uncle Lyon Joseph advised him to go to Portugal, where my uncle, as well as my father, had commercial relations; and from there he bore letters of recommendation to Shemaya Cohen, the richest resident of Lisbon.

Phillip was a handsome gentleman, wearing a black beard. But, in those days, no one but Jews in European dress wore beards, and on board the ship on which he was the passenger he felt so impressed with the prejudice that his beard would arouse among the Portuguese rabble that, before he left the vessel, he shaved his beard. This he afterwards regretted, because he considered that at that time so many private Jewish families of the best mercantile class resided in Lisbon, and descended from the old Jewish families who became outward Christians, observing outward ceremonies to save fortune and family from the cruel butchers of the Holy Inquisition; but in the privacy of family worship they always remained Jews until the opportunity arrived to dispose of their possessions and property, and emigrate to Holland, Germany, and other countries. Phillip became acquainted with some of these secret Jewish families, and was always received by them as a friend.

I remember, one Saturday evening, two gentlemen came to Mr Cohen's house to ask the date of Kippur, and they bowed low to the Ark; one knelt and wept like a child.

I left in the year 1820 for Falmouth. My poor friend Phillip continued his commercial pursuits and had received from a French house a consignment of gold watches. He was always charitable, and a young poor orphan was recommended to him as an aid in his commercial affairs. He took the lad into his home and confidence, and one day, on returning to his home, he found the young lad in apparent trouble. He said that he had left the house for a short time and in his absence it was entered, and the stock of gold watches stolen. Poor Phillip was bewildered and went to the police, accompanied by the lad, who told his story. Some weeks afterwards Mr Samuel was advised to call personally at all the jewellers to see if any clue could be got, and he requested the young lad to go with him. At one house the lad said: "Don' go in - I have already been there." But Samuel went in and insisted upon the youth entering with him. But as soon as the jeweller espied the youth and heard Samuel's question, he said that he had bought of that lad a gold watch; and when such proved to be one of the stolen articles the lad was given into the hands of the police and put in prison. He was converted to Christianity, and was set free by the intercession of his godfather, an influential resident of Lisbon. The thief met my friend in the open street and insulted him. The sudden meeting of the culprit killed poor Samuel, for he went home and died in a few hours after, from a broken heart.

Poor Samuel was well versed in Jewish literature, and seeing so many educated Jews of Morocco and Arabia at our house, and talking with us discussing over their books, I could readily have learned much from these sources. They would gladly have taught me Hebrew to converse and read with them in the Hebrew books. But, like the majority of young people, light reading I preferred, and when reaching middle age I bitterly regretted losing that enormous fund of knowledge I could easily have gained.

IV

My uncle, Simon Solomon, son of Bella and Israel Solomon, was by trade a painter, and possessed artistic qualities which could not expand at that time in the town of Falmouth. His life-like panel painting of fish, and also a painting for a large round table, the subject of which was from the history of Joseph and his brethren, and his transparencies when national illuminctions took place, were the admiration of the inhabitants of Falmouth. He was married to Kitty Solomon, granddaughter of Zender Falmouth. Simon Solomon was a sickly man and died and was buried in Falmouth.

Kitty Solomon, my uncle's wife, after his death resided in Penzance, where she died and was buried in the same cemetery where a nephew of our grandmother Bella was buried. His name was Jacobs. He went to London and assisted an elder brother in the business of their uncle, Lemon Hart, and took that name, and in the course of time these brothers became partners in the house, adding the wine trade, and Jacob, the younger brother, become intimately acquainted with the young Lord Palmerston, the intimacy arising from Jacob supplying the Clubs with wine. A quarrel arising between the uncle and his brother, he retired from commercial pursuits and through the friendship of Lord Palmerston obtained the place of English minister at one of the small German States, and after some years returned to England and took apartments in Mivart's aristocratic hotel, in London; but Jacob did not inform any one of his relations of his arrival, except his brother. He had two sisters and one half sister named Magnus, his other having married a second time. His two sisters were married, and one, living in London, married a manufacturer of combs. The other sister was married to a man called Simons, a native of the town of Truro and also a grandson of Zender Falmouth. This man and family were in very poor circumstances, living in Plymouth. His sister, the comb maker's wife, hearing that her brother Jacob was in town and at Mivart's Hotel, went to see him and sent up word by the waiter, without giving her name, that a lady wished to speak with him, and she was ushered into his apartments, accosting him with "Brother Jacob", but he insulted her and called her an imposter and the waiter was ordered to turn her out of the hotel.

Some months elapsed and Jacob was taken seriously sick and a medical man was called, who, seeing his dangerous condition, told his patient to prepare against accidents, and advised him to settle his worldly affairs. Jacob then requested the doctor to send for a solicitor. The doctor hastily procured a solicitor, and Jacob requested him to remain whilst he dictated his instructions for a will, and he commenced by leaving money to different charities. At last the doctor said to Jaoob, "Every one has some relations, and probably poor ones, to whom charity has first to be given, and you should leave them some of your wealth." The right cord to his heart was struck, and he said "Doctor, you are right. The solicitor must commence a new will; I have two sisters." - one of whom he had insulted so grossly, and he desired each to receive after his death twenty thousand pounds. He added that he was a Jew, and wished his remains to be buried in the cemetery at Penzance with the remains of his forefathers; but as to his poor half-sister Magnus, he never mentioned her name or left her any of his money.

V

My wife's maiden name was Caroline Mayer. She was a French woman by birth and was born in Paris, where I married her. Three children were born to us; one son died in infancy, and the second son was attacked with scarlet fever in his third year, which rendered him deaf and dumb and otherwise afflicted him. He is now and has been for about twenty-six years, in a great government institute and a private boarder to the governors of the institution, Messrs L'Abitte Frères

My son is now 40 years of age, a fine man, but quite incapable of doing anything useful. My wife's relatives are all dead, excepting a niece, the daughter and only child of her eldest sister. This niece was married to an Israelite named Shrameck

Shrameck's sister was married to the brother of a rising speculator who is now one of the noted millionaires in Paris, and he married his only daughter to the Prince Polignac. They were married by the Archbishop of Paris, who made a witty play on words in his address to the young couple, complimenting the bridegroom as a descendant of Sang Pure, and the bride of cent per cent, which in French pronunciation is pur sang. Since that marriage my wife's niece and family ceased all correspondence

The father and mother of my wife were natives of Nancy, Lorraine, and they were married in the year of the Terrorists in France, when all religious ceremonies were forbidden by the then governent under severe penalties. The marriage ceremony was in a square yard of a house into which no window looked, and it was inhabited by Jews who carefully guarded all entrances into the yard

My wife's father's occupation was a retailer of dry goods. At that time, the circulating medium was mainly paper, denominated assignats, coin having virtually ceased to circulate. These assignats soon depreciated. The government ordered an auction sale in the different towns of France of all the property that had been confiscated from the church and the nobility that had emigrated, payment to be made in assignats, at par value. My afther-in-law did not follow the advice of friends to purchase property at these terms, as he believed that the government would in time redeem the paper in coin; but such currenny depreciated more and more until it finally became worthless. My wife remembered having seen in her young days a whole room at her father's residence papered with these assignats, as a memento of "former riches."

In the house in Paris where my wife's family lived, their neighbors and intimates were the family of the Halevys - at that time supplying groceries to Israelitish customers. One of this family became the great musical composer, and another a poet. Their intimacy was kept up with my mother-in-law until after her death, when it ceased.

My wife's uncle, Leon Mayer, was an excellent portrait artist, and, in consequence, on very intimate terms with rich and noble families in Paris, and amongst them the family of Prince Ghika, which formerly was the reigning family of Roumania, and I became acquainted with the Princess Victoria Ghika from seeing her in my brother-in-law's studio.

When Napoleon was overthrown, the Princess emigrated to London and was a constant visitor at my house. When Mr Peixotto was appointed American Consul at Roumania, my brother gave him a letter to me, and requesting me to introduce him to the Princess because members of her family still were prominent nobles. I introduced him to the Princess at her hotel and asked her to give Mr. Peixotto a letter. She did so and wrote also to her brother in Bucharest with whom Mr. Peixotto was on friendly visiting terms whilst he resided there.

My daughter married Henry Abenhein, a native of Stuttgart. His father was a pensioner of the Court, having for fifty years filled the position of Leader of the Opera and Maitre de Chappelle to the Ccurt. Henry's mother was of the Auerbach family, an aunt of the noted Author Auerbach.

My daughter's children are four: Bessy, born January 7th, 1871; Barnet, February 13th, 1875; Lina, September 23rd, 1878; Rivka, February 19th, 1881

My mother died in the early part of 1832, at Bristol, to which city we came from Falmouth, and in Bristol I carried on a retail silver and jewelry trade, combined with pawnbroking. My brother Barnet was there apprenticed to the cabinet and upholstery business. After the death of my mother, we broke up our residence and business in Bristol, with the intention of emigrating to Australia, but by the advice of our cousin Benedict Joseph, we determined to go to New York and in that year, 1832, our business transactions in England were almost completed, so that my brother and the late Benedict Joseph went down to Liverpool to secure three berths on a clipper ship sailing to New York, leaving me in London to close up all business left unfinished. Upon their arrival in Liverpool, the government had issued an order that all passenger ships must have a doctor on board, and on this account the price of passage would be increased five pounds for each passenger. To save the ten pounds that would have cost them had they waited for me, they started for America without me. When I arrived at Liverpool with the intention of following them, my cousin Barnet Joseph advised me to go to Paris and become agent or commissioner for purchasing French manufactured articles to send to England. His arguments being strengthened by an acquaintance of mine, one Behrends, I followed his advice, and on the saving of ten pounds passage money my future depended, until I abandoned England forever in June, 1881

My brother Barnet arrived in New York after a nine week trip. The cholera was then raging, which cause prevented him from getting any position in his trade, and after travelling over a portion of the United States he returned to New York and was induced to open a cigar store in which he continued for about one year, when, through the advice of a friend, he renewed his own trade in the year 1834, occupying a store on Broadway, between Grand and Canal streets. The location was considered then far up-town. He succeeded in business, and in the yer 1835, he married Julia, a daughter of John I. Hart, of New York. My brother's family consisted of four sons and five daughters, all of whom married, and are now living happily in New York, excepting, however, the youngest, who died in 1879, leaving a daughter to emulate her virtues. My brother remained in active business for nearly fifty years, retiring in 1878, since which time the firm he established has been continued by B L Solomon's Sons.

Israel Solomon was born in Falmouth, England, August 28th, 1803, and Barnet L. Solomon on June 14th, 1806. We remember very well the celebration of George III's jubilee after his reign of fifty years, and this year (1887) we hope to read about the ceremonies attending Queen Victoria's jubilee after reigning a similar period.

Ether Levy, died aged about 40 years.

Barnet Levy, died aged about 50 years.

Bella Solomon, died aged about 90 years.

Israel Solomon, died aged about 78 years.

My mother, Betsy, lived to be 75 years old, my father died in his 56th year.

My brother Barnet and myself were the only children of our parents Solomon and Betsy (née Levy) Solomon.

My wife died September 8th, 1873, and was buried in the Jewish cemetery at Ham, London.

My brother's wife died May 28th, 1880, and was buried in Salem Fields Cemetery, near Brooklyn, New York.

When I first went to Paris to live, my firm was Joseph & Solomon and subsequently for many years the name remained without the conjunction, Joseph Solomon. After returning to England, retaining my business connection with France, and having an agency for Delicourt's famous paper-hangings, I added the optical business and became known to photographers throughout the world by the magnesium lamp that I patented and manufactured. All legal documents I signed thus: Joseph Israel Solomon.

 

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