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Hilchot Gitin Books
GM: Srch Old Names
GM: Srch New Names
GM: Srch Old Kinuim
About GNDBs, Names
DESCRIPTION: THE GIVEN NAMES DATA BASES
DESCRIPTION OF COMPUTER DATA BASES
3.6. SAMPLE GNDB SEARCH RESULTS
During the High Middle Ages (1000-1500), the use of German, Christian, and European secular names became so widespread that the rabbis decreed in the twelfth century that every Jewish boy must be given a purely Hebrew name at circumcision; this decree holds today. Thus, two names were given, the Shem HaKodesh (the Hebrew name) and a kinui. The non-Hebrew names previously chosen and the new ones chosen after the decree became part of the growing Yiddish lexicon via Yiddishization. It was these names and their descendant names that enriched Jewish given names over the centuries and resulted in the Hilchot Gitin books to bring order to the new system.
The GNDBs show the richness of the Jewish given names chosen in Europe, particularly Yiddish names in Eastern Europe. Many Legal Names were popular and led to multiple threads of Yiddish names; this resulted perhaps from the warmth, sweetness, ease of use, complementarity to Hebrew, and subtle support of family unity of the Yiddish language. Other Legal Names were not as popular and led to less use and fewer kinuim. Many European secular names were absorbed into Yiddish and lovingly Yiddishized with its special flavor. Many Yiddish names were kinuim for a number of different classic Hebrew names. Here are a few samples.
SARA: Gender: F Legal/Hebrew: Sara Origin: Genesis 17:15 Yiddish: Sara/Sare/Shera/Shora/Shore/Shura/Sora/Sore/Sura Yiddish Nicknames: Eska/Eske/Eshka/Eshke/Iska/Iske/Seril/Serka/Serl/ Shirka/Shirke/Shirla/Shosa/Shosha/Sirka/Sirke/Sirkl/ Sirl/Sorele/Sorkl/Sorl/Soska/Sosya/Soya/Yeshka/Yeshke Origin: Eska/Eske/Eshka/Eshke/Iska/Iske/Yeshka/Yeshke from Sarai's name Yiska Secular: Sonya US: Celia/Jessie(from Yeshka)/Sadie/Sally/Sarah/Selma/ Shirley/Sonia/Sydell/Sylvia US Nickname: Syd UK: Celia/Sarah South Africa: Sadie/Sara/Sonia/Susan SARA (Second thread): Gender: F Legal/Hebrew: Sara Origin: Genesis 17:15 Yiddish: Sara/Sare/Shera/Shora/Shore/Shura/Sora/Sore/Sura Yiddish Nicknames: Seril/Serka/Serl/Shirka/Shirke/Shirla/Shosa/Shosha/ Sirka/Sirke/Sirkl/Sirl/Sorele/Sorkl/Sorl/Soska/Sosya/ Soya/Tshira/Tsirele/Tsiril/Tsirka/Tsirke/Tsirl/ Tsirle/Tsirlya/Tsurl Origin: < Yiddish "adornment, jewel" Secular: Sonya US: Celia/Sarah/Selma/Sophie South Africa: Cecilia/Celia/Cilah EZRA DEMITKARI OZER: Gender: M Legal/Hebrew: Ezra demitkari Ozer Origin: Ezra 7:1 Yiddish: Eyzer/Ezdra/Ezre//Auzer/Azur/Eyzer/Oyzer/Ozer Yiddish Nickname: Ovzer Origin: Ozer < Hebrew "Helper" US: Ezra//Ozer YEHUDA LEYB: Gender: M Legal/Hebrew: Yehuda haMechune Leyb/Leyba Origin: Genesis 29:35 Yiddish: Ihuda/Yehida/Yehuda//Leb/Leyb Yiddish Nicknames: Yidele/Yidl/Yodka/Yuda/Yude/Yudka/Yudl/Yudya/Yutka/ Yutke//Lebus/Lev/Levik/Levke/Levko/Levon/Leyba/Leybl/ Leybela/Leybele/Leybish/Leybka/Leybke/Leybush/Liba/ Libe/Libele/Liva Origin: Leb (Yiddish/German "lion") Secular: Leo/Lyuba US: Isidore/Judah/Julius/Yidel//Leo/Leon/Leonard/Louis US Nickname: Sol UK: Julius//Lewis/Louis South Africa: Alfred/Israel/Judah/Julius/Levi/Louis//Leo/Leopold/ Lewis SA Nicknames: Udie
4. SUMMARY AND AN INVITATION TO PARTICIPATE
This document has described the conceptualization and realization of a set of given names data bases for fifteen European countries, including linked names adopted by emigrants to ten foreign countries. A number of properties of these data bases have been presented, giving a flavor of the rich, varied heritage which many had in Europe. The main benefit to the Jewish genealogical community is a large increase in the pool of given names that an ancestor might have used in alternative settings, and which will appear in different archival documents. When this capability is embedded in other databases, the effectiveness of one's research is multiplied many times.
A very difficult problem for this project is to find the nineteenth century vernacular names adopted in foreign countries by Jewish emigrants from Europe. Please help solve this problem by submitting from your own family tree the Hebrew, Yiddish, European secular, and foreign-country names using for each set of names, a format similar to this one:
Aharon, Aron, Arele, Orelis(Lithuania); Aaron(US)
A GROYSEN, SHEYNEM DANK!
1. Wigoder, Geoffrey, "Encyclopaedia Judaica," Jerusalem, New York
1. ben Uri Shraga Phoebus, Samuel, "Bet Shmuel: Shmot Anashim V'Nashim
(Men's and Women's names)," with "Even HaEzer Hilchot Gitin" Text, in
Hebrew, pp 31-36.