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[Page 122]

Our Fathers' Homes

Where They Were in Stepan

by the Editorial Board

1. Shkoolna Street

Shkoolnah Street was the center of the spiritual life of the town. On this street stood the synagogues and lived the rabbis, the religious judges, the slaughterers and the chazans. On this street were the central public institutes like the schools, the Tarbut (cultural), the Yeshiva “Talmud Torah”, the bath house and the hostel for the poor. Most of the town's Jewish-Zionistic events took place on the street of the synagogues: wedding ceremonies, meetings and political quarrels, funerals and eulogies, protest rallies and emergency assemblies in time of trouble. Most of the street served as Jewish dwelling places and only the other end, like a quarter of it, served as dwelling for Ukrainian goyem. This street continued to the Jewish cemetery and the other end led out of the town by the famous bridge that crossed the Horyn River. This street and its adjoining narrow streets, mainly those in the direction of the river, served as the town's Jewish ghetto. Here were concentrated the Jews of the town and the Jews of the villages that were in the vicinity of Stepan in the days of the rule of the Germans.

The Chait Family

Father of the family: Binyamin Chait. His wife: Meral. His sons: Yisroel, Avraham and Moshe. His daughters: Shoshanah, Rochel and Sarah.

Benjamin was busy with tailoring. Near the outbreak of the war he moved to live with his family in the railway station in Malynsk, nearby Stepan. Binyamin and his family escaped from the claws of the Nazis at the time of the slaughter to the forests and they lived among the goyem. His wife found her death in the forests from the ambush attack of the Ukrainian nationalists, while he and his children, who were saved, returned to Malynsk with freedom by the Soviets, in the year 1944.

Binyamin volunteered to serve in the special Soviet police to purge the area of Ukrainian nationalists. In one incident he fell during his guard watch.

Two of his sons, the first born Yisroel and the young boy Avraham - live nowdays in Russia with their family while Moshe and Shoshanah live with family in Haifa; Rochel lives with her family in Tel Aviv, Sarah lives with her family in Be'er Sheva.

In the same house near the bridge over the Horyn, also lived Binyamin's brother, Hershel, his wife and daughters, Raizel and Rochtcha, and another daughter and son. In the same house lived also the old mother of Benjamin and Hershel Chait, and she had another four daughters and a son who emigrated to the United States before the war.

Israel Nodel - A Widow

His daughters: Nachamah, who lived in Korets with her husband Lazar Rom; her sons Moshe Bear and Shaul and her daughters Chana, Dina and Rochel; the daughter Beila Yostein and her children: Perel Zalman, Yosef, and Moshe Dovid - her son from her first husband; the daughter, Elka, was married to Leibel Pakowitz and bore his children Shaul, Yisaschar, Nachum and daughter Manya. Shaul had a wife named Chana and children. The son Yisaschar had a wife, a son Hertzl and daughter Chana. Leibel had an additional son named Nachum and daughter Manya, who was married to the son from the Chait family.

Rabbi Israel, who was nicknamed Sroolkah, lost his legs in the Russian-Japanese War. He was a devout Jew and feared G-d, he enthusiastically supported the hostel for the poor and did a lot in order to enclose the old cemetery that was in the town. From this large extended family, the one who remains alive was the daughter of Beila, who was recruited by the Red Army and lives today in Israel, in Holon, with the children of his family.

The House of Nechamia Geller

His wife: Chaya. His sons: Zalman, Tzodek, Shmuel and Hershel. His daughters: Beila and Tziporah.

Remaining alive: The daughter Tziporah and her husban Konot from Stepan, who immigrated to Israel before the war, and also the son Hershel and his wife Tessie, from the family Wachs, who live in Israel.

Nechamia educated his children in the Zionistic spirit. His daughters and his sons were active in the Zionist youth movement in the town and they had many initiatives to instill the Hebrew language in the young children in the town. Nechamia, with his great diligence, was one of the few in the city who tended and grew a vineyard of grapes in his garden and this in addition to his daily troubles to sustain his family with honor.

The House of Yitchak Moshe Weinstein

His wife: Dovah. The married daughter Raizel, her husband and three children. The married daughter Ainda Torek, her husband and two children. The son Berel, his wife Yocheved and their two children. Sons: Chaim and Nechamia. Daughter: Rochel.

The sons, Chaim and Nechamia, escaped from the killing pits, but Chaim was shot to death in the forests whereas Nechamia lives with his family in Russia.

The daughter Rochel was saved while she was in Russia and lives today with her family in Netanya. The name of her family is Gottfried.

The House of Altar Novak

He, his wife, two sons and two daughters, his son-in-laws, his grandchildren - all lived in the two story house, one of the few in the town.

Altar was a respected Jew who served as a Stepan representative to the Polish rulers. He was the owner of a store in manufacturing.

The House of the Tversky Family

From the offspring of the Maggid from Stepan. In most of the rooms in the house lived Rabbi Baruch Tversky before he left the town. Afterwards, there lived in the house Gittel and the helper Raizel. This house was also the Beit Medrish in which the Chassidim of the Rabbi learned and prayed. During the time of the Soviets, the house was used by his followers as a Yiddish school. In the ghetto, the house was used as the central kitchen for preparing the meager food for the citizens of the ghetto (see the separate report on the Tversky family).

The House of the Kraizer Family

The father of the family: Rabbi Levi, his wife Chanya, four sons: Shmuel Hirsch, a Yeshiva graduate, Yaakov, Moishele, and Baruch, who served as an officer in the Polish army and used to be the authorized teacher in the Tarbut school. The daughter Gittel was married to a Jew from a neighboring town.

Rabbi Levi Kraizer was the slaughterer and chazan in the great synagogue. He was a well-liked figure and very popular among most of the citizens of the town, Jews and goyem alike.

His son Baruch also used to be the policeman of the water cistern in the men's camp in the ghetto. He was different than the other policemen by his knowledge of how to behave when fulfilling his duty according to the Judenratt and together with this he would be careful not to harden the lives of the confined in the ghetto. His behavior was a shining example and he even curbed the degree of wild behavior of those who served as policemen who didn't know from restrained behavior.

The House of Yoel Hashochet (the Slaughterer)

In the continuation of the hill that was used for playing by children in the neighborhood, and primarily during the winter for skating on the ice and snow, was found the house of Rabbi Yoel the slaughterer, his wife and two daughters. The name of one of them was Henda.

The House of Berel Rassis

The house of Berel Rassis, his wife Dovah, their son Motel, who was married to Esther, and was born to him Shayna, Abalah and an additional small child.

The daughter of Berel, Sosel the very beautiful, was married to Gavriel Feldman and she moved to live in Kostopol. Berel was the son of Rabbi Yokel the main shamash (beadle) of the synagogue in the town. He was the owner of a carriage, industrious, peaceful and honest. His son Motel, who was an activist in Betar in the town, immigrated to Israel on the eve of the outbreak of the war and he lives at this time in the Moshav Bnai' Zion in Sharon.

The House of Rabbi Chaim Weinstein

His wife, his son Yosef and his daughters Malka and Chayka, who was married to Berel. Rabbi Chaim (his nickname was “L'Chaim - To Life”) used to be the teacher of small children and was a person full of smiles and beloved. Most famous in the family was his wife, who was engaged in buying and selling with the goyem in the neighborhood.

The House of Chana Tzasys

This widow had a family of three married daughters and their husbands: Blumah, Sosel and Beila.

The House of Hershel Gellman

Hershel Gellman, his wife, two daughters and his son.

Hershel was a peaceful Jew, a laborer, who served as night watchman in the flour mill of the Graz family.

The House of the Widow Freida Gellman

Freida Gellman lived together with her married daughter. The nickname “Kaloosh (thin)” stuck with the widow's family, who was busy with peddling and also served as a cryer (at funerals). Remaining alive is the grandson Yaakov “Kaloosh”, who spent the war in Russia and apparently lives in America.

The Tzokar House

The shaky, small house of the Tzokar family, who had the nickname “Bon”. The father of the family, Rabbi Avraham “Bon”, his wife Elka and three sons.

Rabbi Avraham was known to the Jews of the town by his pleasant voice, while he roused the Jews to say Tehilim and the work of the Creator (prayers) on Shabbat at dawn. Besides this, Avraham worked in peddling.

The House of Hershel Stratz

His nickname was “Tzotzman”. His wife and three sons: Choneh, Yosef and Velvel, who served in the Red Army at the time of the war and apparently lives in Russia.

Hershel Stratz was a butcher and supported his family from the strain of his occupation.

The House of the Widow Adele Weitzman

Her son Motel married to the woman Feigel the daughter of Yitchak Weitznodel. A few of her children emigrated to Argentina and they or their offspring remained alive.

The House of Eliya Novogrodasky

Eliya Novogrodasky, his wife and their son and daughter. He served as a helper to the shamash (beadle) in the synagogues and proclaimed the arrival time of the Shabbat.

The House of Binyamin Wachs

As a tenant in the house of Hershel Wachs lived Binyamin Wachs, his wife Leah, his son and his very beautiful daughter Sofkah. Binyamin was an active partner in the flour mill and the power station with his brother Yosef and the brothers Tachor and Moshe Bebtchuk. Binyamin was active in the Zionist-Revisionist movement.

Before this, they lived in the apartment of Miss Rivka Kemnschein, the first born daughter of Rabbi Moshe Yosef Sheinbaum, and her daughter Aytzenka. After many days the two of them moved to a nearby city, Rovno.

The Family of Dovid Chait

His sons: Berel, who married Sonya Tachor as his wife; Aharon, who married Perel Stratz for as wife; and Binyamin.

His daughters: Rochel who emigrated to Argentina before the war and Berel who lives apparently in Russia.

The Family of Yankel Chait

His wife Devorah, the daughters Sarah and Gittel and the son Shayka.

The Family of Zalman Hasandler (the Sandalmaker)

Zalman, his wife and his married daughter with the children of her family.

In Zalman's house lived the administrator of the school, Mr. Abarboch and his family.

The House of the Families of Hershel Leib Dov (Hatzerterisker)

His wife Esther (Ethel), his son Yisroel and his wife Roni, and their sons: Yitzchak, Chaim, Bobyl, and daughters: Leah and Perel.

Also there lived in the same house a family of additional relatives: Dovid Moshe Yosef and his wife Golda.

The House of Asher Shechterman

His wife: Chasya.

He served as an advanced teacher and he was even active in the Zionist movement. He was known for the fine preparation of the youth of the city towards their Bar Mitzvah.

Asher's sister - Shayndel of the house of Shechterman (today named Beck) - served as a teacher in the Tarbut school in Stepan. She immigrated to Israel before the war and lives nowdays in Haifa.

The House of Rabbi Yokel Rassis

A house made of burnt brick, spacious, that before it extended a green, carefully tended garden. He became a widow and married a second wife.

Rabbi Yokel had four sons and they had their own families: Berel, Shmerel, Shmuel, and Yadel Leib, who died before his son Leib was born, who was called by the name of his father and lives today in Israel in Kfar Aviv.

Yokel served as the main shamash (beadle) of the synagogues.

On the area of the garden stood the house of Rabbi Shlomo Zolar during the period of the World War I and a little after that (see the separate section). The daughter Chasya and her brothers immigrated to Israel before the war and live in Israel in Kibbutz Nagvah.

In the second end of this house lived the son of Yokel, Shmuel Rassis, his wife Esther, his sons: Yonah and Sroolik, and his daughters: Chaya and Teyva.

Remaining alive is his son Yonah (about the ways that he escaped the fingernails of the Nazis - see the separate section). Yonah lives with his family in Kfar Aviv.

The House of Rabbi Moshe Hazelaznik

His wife, his son Leibel his wife and their children, and his daughter who married a boy from Rovno named Chona.

Rabbi Moshe was owner of an iron store. His house was used as the house of authority in the ghetto and lived in it the head of the Judenratt and his family.

The son Leibel was shot to death during his attempt to smuggle wood for heat while in the ghetto. He was the first sacrifice in the ghetto, before the general extermination. The event caused heavy depression to all of the people of the ghetto, who didn't foresee what would be their bitter future.

The House of the Religious Judge Rabbi Ben-Zion Volinsky, Of Blessed Memory

His wife and the sister of his wife Perel. His son Sandrel and two daughters. The oldest daughter Perel Chaya was married to a young rabbi from a neighboring town, who inherited the position of Rabbi Ben-Zion upon his death, and the daughter Ethel.

Sandrel - despite that he was a genius in the wisdom of Israel and in Torah - never continued in the way of his righteous father as a scholar and was never attracted to judgeship. Sandrel was though an activist in the Betar movement and Brit Yeshurin, though not exactly with the consent of his father.

The House of Hershel Wachs (the Koroster)

A widow, his wife died at the time of the birth of the son of his old-age, Peretz. Additional sons: Shchana and Shaftal, and daughters: Chaya and Freidel, who was married to Aharon Stoller the famous photographer of Stepan and its surroundings, and another sister by the name Sarah.

The House of Ben-Zion Prishkolnik (the Gott)

A big house having three single, separate accommodations with balconies, and adjoining it a stable and a spacious, green garden.

His second wife Sarah from the nearby village of Zolozneh. The daughter Adele who was married to Zelik Weitchnodel and his little daughter, and the sisters: Ganya and Miriam.

Rabbi Ben-Zion had children from his first wife Sosel. Sons: Yaakov, Gedaliah, who lived with his family in Sarny, and Yoel. The daughter - Raizel, who was married to Mitshilik.

The daughter Adele was an activist in the Betar movement. The husband of Adele, Zelik Weitchnodel, remains alive. He married a second time and lives with his wife and his children in Stepan. Apparently the only Jew who remains there of the survivors.

The middle apartment of the house was rented out and the tenants would change many times. In the second end of the house, the apartment that faced the green garden, lived Yoel Prishkolnik, his wife Taibel from the house of Tzockerman from Barzna which was neighboring, the sons Shaul and Yeshayahu and the daughter Sosel-Sarah.

Yoel was a Zionist activist and in his youth he even belonged to the drama group of the town.

Remaining alive is Yeshayahu Peri, who lives with his family in Ramat Gan, and his sister Sosel-Sarah Kaplan, who lives with her family in Rishon L'Zion. The father of the family, Yoel, escaped from the ghetto, but was handed over to the Germans by a goy from the village of Zilna and taken out to be killed. The son Shaul was taken out to be killed even though he was in the work camp in Kostopol. The mother Taibel escaped to the forest, but froze to death during the time of a hard winter (see the separate section on this family).

The House of Yitzchak Weitchnodel Hakatzav (the Butcher)

Yitzchak Weitchnodel, his wife his robust sons Avraham and Yonah, and his married daughter Feigel.

Beside his house was a nice, cared-for orchard.

He was transported at the head of the Jewish convoy at the time they were taken out from the ghetto by wagon to the killing pits beside Kostopol, where the majority of the community of Stepan was ended.

The House of Tanya Weitchnodel Hakatzav (the Butcher)

Tanya Weitchnodel, his wife Chaya-Sarah, his sons Zelig and Yonah and his daughter Mindel.

Zelig was married to Adele and they had a small girl. The two sons - Zelig and Yonah - remained alive by serving in the Red Army and the two of them live with their families around Stepan.

The House of the Bebtchuk Family

The daughters: Chana and Batsheva, who was married, and the son Yankel who was nicknamed Tchemach.

Owners of an oil press and crushing mill that was powered by horses. The wheels of the crushing mill also served like circus amusements to the children of the neighborhood.

According to the best knowledge, the son Yaakov remained alive by serving in the Red Army. He lives, apparently, in Russia.

Three children from this family emigrated to Argentina before the war.

The House of Nachman Shenker, the Gabbai of the Synagogue

His wife: Yentel. The sons: Aharon, Reuven and Dovid, and the daughter Chana.

The father of the family, was a glazier by profession and the owner of a well-developed agricultural farm, he served as the gabbai of the synagogue and community representative in the town council.

The daughter Chana escaped from the killing pits and remained alive. She lives with her family in Tel Aviv. The name of her family is Gondelberg.

The Korzek House

The wife and four sons: Gershon, Yisrael, Shmuel and Chanina, and married daughter.

The children of the family were busy with butchering and the selling of cattle.

The son Shmuel, of blessed memory, was saved and returned to Stepan at the start of the year 1944, with liberation at the hands of the Soviets. In his desire for revenge, he enlisted to serve in the special police to purge the Ukrainian nationalists and fell a hero's death on his guard watch.

The House of Moshe Sofer

His second wife, son by the name Noskeh and a number of additional children.

Moshe was a baker in the bakery of Bongart.

The Brothers Shmuel and Leibel Bazbasha

They were married with children. Among the children were two daughters: Beila and Zelda. The two brothers were butchers and cattle merchants. The families were poor and they lived with great difficulty.

The House of Yitzchak Bongart

His wife and three sons: Hershel, Shimon and Moniya.

Yitzchak was the owner of a bakery and bread store and other baked goods.

Hershel remained alive by his service in the Red Army and lives today in Russia. Shimon, who was a boy of courage and a good heart, was saved by hiding himself in the forests. In the year 1944 he volunteered for the special police to purge the Ukrainian nationalists by his desire for revenge. He continued to enlist in the Red Army to fight the Nazi enemies and from there he didn't return; apparently he fell on his guard watch.

In the house of this family lodged a young boy, a relative of the family, by the name Yerachmiel. He was saved by his service in the Soviet Army and apparently lives in Israel in one of the Kibbutzim in the Jordan valley.

The Family of Benzion Weitchnodel

His second wife Malka and his two sons - Yonah and Dovid.

Rabbi Benzion was a butcher.

His daughter Slobah immigrated to Israel before the Second World War and lives in Kibbutz Masilot. Another of her sisters, Ritzah, died not long after in Canada, and even her descendants and also another sister and her family live in Canada.

The Family of Meir Tzeizek

His wife Batya, his son Yankel, his daughter who was married to Motel Berel. Two additional daughters: Devora and Golda.

Meir was a sandalmaker by profession.

His son-in-law Motel Berel was imprisoned by the Polish authorities following Communistic activities that were forbidden in those times. Much later, in the time of the war, Motel Berel was called up by the Red Army, and according to the best knowledge, he lives today in Russia.

2. The Narrow Alleys Along Shkoolnah Street

The House of Rabbi Yaakov Prishkolnik (Yankel Gott)

He was widowed from his wife Margalite, of blessed memory. He had three sons: Yeshayahu, Moshe and Hershel, and five daughters: Chaya, Ethel, Raizel, Sosel and Ganya.

The father of the family was busy in cantorship and, as such, the primary breadwinner was the daughter Ethel, a well-known seamstress in the entire town. She also served as the manager of the household at the death of her mother. Together with her sisters, Raizel and Sosel, they raised the son of the sister Chaya. He was a beautiful child by the name Losik. Chaya herself was a sick woman and she lived in the village Bystrice with her husband Mendel. The sister Ganya studied and worked in the sewing profession in Barnovitz. Her brother Moshe studied in the technion of Vilna and he completed his studies as an authorized technician. The first-born brother, Yeshayahu Prishkolnik of blessed memory, immigrated to Israel in the year 1930 and served as a teacher in Jerusalem. He died from disease in the year 1935, was buried in the Kinneret and left after him a wife and son. Moshe and Hershel served in the Red Army. Moshe was injured in his fight against the Germans. He immigrated to Israel and lives in Netanya with his family. The traces of Hershel are not known and apparently he fell in the war. Ganya, who was an activist in Betar, immigrated to Israel and lives in Tel Aviv with her family. From the remainder of the children of the family, not one person remains alive.

In this alley was found The Orchard of Yitzchak Weitchnodel. In the continuation of this orchard stood a building, not too big, that served as a slaughter house of chickens. In this slaughter house three slaughterers found their livelihood: Rabbi Levi Kraizer, Rabbi Hershel Hochman and Rabbi Yoel.

In the continuation stood the House of the Weitchnodel Family. The father of the family was Yechial and he had five daughters: Pasal, Feigel, Mindel, Sarah and Malka. The father of the family Yechial was a butcher and a cattle merchant. His family existed with great difficulty, but the family was strict not to be in need of help from strangers. Yechial himself was a modest Jew, overflowing with humor and even very much helped the theater amateurs in the town. He inspired the young people with his knowledge and talents in the area of popular Jewish folklore. His daughters: Sarah and Feigel emigrated to Argentina before the war and apparently they, or their descendants, still live in Argentina. From the remainder of the children of the family, not one person remains alive.

Facing the house of Yaakov Prishkolnik, on the side opposite the same alley, stood the house of the old, lonely Jew by the name Zeleg. Zeleg worked in carpentry and he used to cultivate the small garden of his house. His one daughter lived in Zdolbunov and before the war he uprooted himself from Stepan to live with her.

The House of Ben-Zion, his second wife Raizel, his two sons: Zecharia and Leibel and his daughter Yacha. His two sons were married and fathers of children. Rabbi Ben-Zion worked in plastering and helped his son Zecharia, while his second son, Leibel, was a carpenter. Ben-Zion was a peaceful man, hard-working, modest and G-d fearing. This family was killed in the quarter by the bombing of the Germans before they entered the town, in the year 1941.

In the house of Ben-Zion lived the tailor Michel Shir, his wife and his two sons: Berel and Heliya. Michel was the son of Rusya the Gabbait, who used to bake cakes in the house for customers for different happy occasions, like weddings and circumcisions. Rusya had a daughter by the name Nachah. Michel Shir worked many days of the week in peddling in the surrounding villages and his family existed with great difficulty.

An additional house was the House of the Becker Family. The father of the family was Yoel Baruch, and his wife Bonyah from the Tachor house, a son Avraham and daughters: Batya and Bryndele, the small, frizzy, curly golden haired. Yoel Baruch, the owner of a manufacturing store and an oil press, was active in public activity and was a supporter of the committee of the Tarbut school. An ardent Revisionistic Zionist. Batya his daughter was saved by hiding herself in the forests among the goyem and Polish and she live nowdays in Tel Aviv, while her sister was saved while she was in Russia.

The last house in the line of these houses was the House of Motya-Styof Weitzman. With him lived his daughter Sosel the redhead, wife of Fesya and their two children. Rabbi Motya the popular Jewish widower, was an unparalleled merry humorist.

3. The Alleys That Led to the Horyn Along Shkoolnah Street

The House of the Religious Judge Rabbi Pinchas Gorenstein, Of Blessed Memory.
The owner of the nickname “The Yatzer Tov – The Good Nature”, and his wife the Rebbitzin Malka Barucha. They had three sons: Shayka, Hershel and Lazar. The three of them were slaughterers, and the daughters Chasya and her sister.

The first-born son Shayka got to Basravya in the years of the First World War. Hershel with his family lived in Kostopol and Lazar left Stepan, the place of his birth, because of a dispute with the remaining slaughterers of the town and the constant clashes between his supporters and his opponents. He moved to Rovno and served there as a slaughterer.

The daughter Chasya emigrated to Canada during the 1930's. In the sunset of her days, she immigrated to Israel and died in Netanya.

Rabbi Pinchas was a short, chubby Jew with two shrewd eyes. He was very popular with his Chassidic congregation, most of whom were workers and very small merchants. Rabbi Pinchas died at the good, old age of 85, a number of years before the outbreak of the Second World War. His place was inhereted by a young Rabbi from Lonintz, the husband of his granddaughter Sorel.

The Adjoining Houses of Two Carpenters, Yaakov and Avraham and Their Families.
The father of the family Yaakov (Yankel) the carpenter, his wife and their daughter Chaya, an activist in the cell of the Shomer Hatzair (leftist Zionist youth movement) in the town, and also an additional small daughter and a son.

The father of the second family, Avraham the carpenter, his wife and their daughter Mindel, and talented son, an excellent, industrious student. Avraham was killed in a work accident before the war, at the time that he was busy fixing the dome of the Provoslavit church in the town. This caused heavy mourning for all of the town's Jews.

The two carpenters worked as partners with the understanding that through the work of their hands they supported their families, though with difficulty. Not always did an atmosphere of friendship exist between the women of the house and in the common kitchen, but the husbands overcame and therefore persevered in the active partnership between them in their professional work and their shared livelihood.

The House of Pinya Moteliks. The father of the family Pinya, his wife and their two daughters and son Simcha. He was a G-d fearing Jew. In this house once dwelled the Yeshiva Talmud Torah by the management of the teacher Shaul, of blessed memory.

Their business: owners of a store of candies and soft drinks.

Not one person remained alive.

The Father of the Family of Rabbi Leibesh who died before the outbreak of the war, and this house was inherited by his son Levi, a widower, and his old mother. The daughter of Levi was Gittel Kafka.

Their business: selling lime, guarding the public ice pits of the Jews of the town. He would announce the time of the coming of Shabbat. Thus he roused the Jews of the town to do the work of the Creator (prayers) by his pleasant voice.

The Father of the Family of Baruch Rafal, his wife Fayge, and to them: a married son Velef Rafal, his wife named Blumah and their married children: Miriam, Chaya, Sarah and Sosel.

The daughter of Baruch Rafal, Masya, and her husband Baruch Kartzar lived in a nearby town, Kalban. They had three daughters. Baruch Rafal had an additional daughter, Rochel, and son Zelek. The wife of Zelek was Masya and their daughter Malka. Zelek Rafal the son was saved while he was in Russia. He lives today in Rishon L'Zion.

In this house there lived and died before the war a couple extremely old in years - Yodka and his wife. Yodka, a person of short stature, old age and white, would predict the rain in times of trouble and at every opportunity farmers would ask him and he would anwer them willingly. His wife served as a rebbetzin for the teaching of Torah and Mitzvot (commandments) to the girls of the town.

The House of the Widow Devora, the Gabbait, Bronner (see the separate report, about her public activity). Two sons: Yisroel and Avraham - remained alive due to their service in the Red Army and they live apparently in Soviet Russia. In the same house lived another son who was married with children.

The sons were in the tailor profession.

The House of Rabbi Aharon Baas, his wife Basecha, son Motol and three unmarried daughters. The husband and the son worked most of the days of the week in a tree sawmill outside of the town. The youngest daughter Shayndel remained alive and lives apparently in America or Canada.

The House of Hershel Habader (the Bath House Operator), his wife and his children. His first-born daughter Chaya and other sons and daughters. His house was on the bank of the river, between houses of goyem. Hershel was a hard-working, modest Jew, who maintained his large family with great difficulty while making a living from his public position - manager and operator of the Jewish bath house in the town.

4. The Alleys Adjoining Shkoolnah Street in the Direction of the Horyn River

In the Hostel for the Poor lived a blacksmith by the name Berel, his wife and their two daughters. One daughter was killed by disease when she was a girl of 18. The parents had bitterness together with all of their surrounding neighbors.

The House of Berel the Cleaner of Chimneys, his wife and their son and a number of daughters. This Jew was the only cleaner of chimneys in the town. This was an attraction in the eyes of the children when he appeared equipped with all of his special tools and accessories: chains together with weights, brooms and brushes. Berel was hard working and most of the days of the week he was covered in soot from his foot to his head. To see him clean was possible only on Shabbat and on the holidays.

In the House of Freida the Cryer Lived Her Son-in-Law, Koven, with the Nickname Kotek

The House of the Shenker Family- the father of the family Tzvi Shenker, his wife Zlata, the sons: Yitzchak and his family, Pesach and his family, and Shalom Shenker and his family who immigrated to Israel before the war and he lives with his family in Tel Aviv.

Berel Greenstein, his wife and daughters: Chana and Michla, and son Shlomo, who was saved by hiding himself in the forests among the goyem. He lives today in Israel.

Berel was a hard-working man and sustained his family with great difficulty. He worked as a watchman and miller in the flour mill of the Tachors.

Moshe the Invalid, the lame, married to one of the daughters of Yachneh. His profession was butchery.

The Zelberberg House - the son of Rabbi Berel Aharon Hershles, his wife and their four daughters and one son. The name of one of the daughters was Chaya.

Nearby the Slope of the River Lived the Two Sisters of Nechamia Geller

5. The Third of May Street (the Koroster Street)

One of the central streets of the town. This street continues from the marketplace until the popular state school, a continuation of the way that leads to the nearby town of Korets. This was a paved street with sidewalks and lighting, and on its entire length were dwelling houses with stores in front.

The House of Rabbi Avraham Bebtchuk (Bravaar, the Brave One), his wife Menucha, the daughters Sonya and Edele, and the son Ben-Zion. The father of the family, Rabbi Avraham, who was the owner of a grocery shop, was a G-d fearing Jew, peaceful and modest.

The son, Ben-Zion remained alive and lives with his family in Haifa, another daughter Edele, who escaped from the claws of the Nazis and was saved by hiding herself in the forests, arrived in Israel, and lived in Ramat Gan with her family and died in the year 1973.

The House of Leib Pach-Gruber - the owner of a carriage by profession. His wife and his three sons: Sheilik, Yeshayahu and Yosef. Sheilik and Yeshayahu were husbands of families. Remaining alive were Yosef Gruber the son and Yosef Gruber the grandson, son of Sheilik. The two of them live nowdays in Russia.

The House of Tzvadya Garber - in the same house lived Aharon Leib the sandalmaker and his family. Berele, the son of Rabbi Tzvadya lives in Argentina - and even his two grandchildren, the son and daughter of Berele, live in Israel in Kfar Saba.

The Family of the Widow Maachlaya Malamud - the daughter Leah, her husband Dovid Gorman, their son Avraham and their daughters Esther and Sonya, lived in the nearby Kostopol; the son Yechial, his wife Rivka, and their sons: Yehoshua and Avraham, lived in nearby Rafalovka; the son Dovid and his wife Sima lived in Pietchyov. The son Yankel, his wife Zelda and their son Avraham and the son Moshe. Remaining alive from this family branch is the son Yehoshua Malamud, who was from the first activists of the Shomer Hatzair (leftist Zionist youth movement) in the town. He immigrated to Israel before the war and lives nowdays with his family in Haifa.

The House of Shmeiril Rassis, son of Yokel the shamash (beadle), his wife Bryndel and two daughters: Golda and Teyva. Shmeiril, the owner of a carriage, was industrious and well-off.

The House of Sander Leibes Bebtchuk. The sons: Hershel, Motel and Yoalik. Hershel and Motel were married and heads of families. The family had a flour mill in a nearby village. Hershel was a fish merchant and Motel was a cattle merchant. The daughter of Motel, Perel, was saved after she hid herself in the forests and she lives nowdays in Ramat Gan. Yoalik, the son of Sander Bebtchuk, lived, at that time, in Argentina.

The House of Yosef Wachs, and his second wife after he became widowed. His son from his first wife - Motek - a learned, intelligent young boy, and daughter from his second wife - Paula.

Yosef Wachs served as the head of the Judenratt upon the entrance of the Jews to the ghetto.

For details on his behavior and personality - see the separate report.

The House of Shroolik Sheinbaum, his wife Dentza, his sons: Shmuel, Dodel, Itzak, Zevel, and Yankel, and his daughters: Rochel and Golda. Shroolik was busy in commerce. Remaining alive are Zevel and Yaakov (Yankel), they live with their families in America; and also Golda died in Israel. The brother Yitzchak (Itzak) lives nowdays in Israel.

In the same house lived like a tenant the Teacher Kalat, his wife, his son and his daughter. Mister Kalat served as the teacher in the Polish state school (see separate report on this family).

The House of Moshe Bebtchuk, his wife Beila, daughter by the name Tzippah was married to a boy from Rovno, the second daughter was married to a Jew from Tchortorisk and they had two children. The husband of Tzippah lived together with the parents of his wife and erected in the back part of the house a factory for soft drinks. They nicknamed him “the Kobeches“, based on the name of the goy from whom they purchased the plot. This Berel, at the time of his old age, had dimmed eyes, but despite this he continued in his work and as often as every day used to go slowly to the synagogue.

The House of Hershel Kola Hachavalim (the Ropemaker, the Shtikendreir) - he was a widower and had a daughter who managed the household and also a son by the name Yaakov. Yaakov was saved while he was in Russia and lives apparently there until today. Hershel was a craftsman at his work and despite the relatively primitive mechanization in his place of work, he supplied good-looking and excellent products to all of the neighboring goyem by investing the best of his of his energy and personal talents.

The House of Izik Grossman, his nickname Antek, the son of Rabbi Peseiah Harozenyahr. His wife Pasya and their two children. Izik was a cattle merchant. Izik died from hunger in the depths of Russia while he was enlisted.

The House of Motel Rocks, his wife and his sons: Hershel, Kotzik and Sander, and his daughters: Adele, Rivka and Raizel. Raizel, a well-known seamstress in the town, was the primary supporter of the family.

The House of Shlomo Rocks, the brother of Motel. His wife, son Yosef and his family, and daughter Adele. Shlomo was the owner of a grocery store.

The House of Shmuel Weisrashtrom, his wife and their son Lozar. Lozar was saved by escaping to the forests and he emigrated after the war to Argentina.

In the house of Shmuel Weisrashtrom lived a neighboring Family of Yisroel Lochselrod, his wife Teiba, his son Pesach and his daughter Mila. Yisroel worked as a forester. The daughter Mila was saved and lives with her family in Hadera.

The House of Hershel Hecht, his wife and son, who lives in a nearby city - Kolk. In Israel lives the grandchildren of Rabbi Hershel: Simon and Boris Cheitchok.

The House of Berel Aharon Hirsch, his wife and his sons: Avraham and Valka, and the daughters: Tzarna, Leah and Sosel. Rabbi Berel was a leather merchant. Sosel emigrated to Canada with her family.

The House of Rabbi Shlomo Hachazan (the Chazan), his son Yitzchak was married and the father of a daughter and son.

A relative of this family, Asher Glozman, while he was a pacifist, refused to serve in the Polish army and therefore was imprisoned and tortured hard until Asher went out of his mind and suffered from mental depression. He lived nearby his family, in a secluded room.

The House of Rabbi Avraham Feldman (Machles), the teacher, his wife Chaya-Sarah, daughter Masha and three sons. Rabbi Avraham served as a teacher and thus he gave prayer lessons to the children of the town who learned in the Tarbut school. His last son lives currently in Argentina. In Israel lives two of his sons, Aharon and Baruch and the daughter Masha with her family.

The Family of Avraham Zelberberg, his wife Sarah, his sons Leibel and Monya and daughter Sosel. Avraham was a leather merchant.

The Family of Aharon Chait, his wife Perel, two daughters - Sarah and Minkah, and his son Zalman. Aharon was the owner of a shoe store. Perel traveled to America on the eve of the war and it is not known what befell her.

In the House of Yitzchak Chazan lived an unmarried teacher by the name Paparberg, who descended from Warsaw. She worked as a teacher in the state-run elementary school.

The House of Shmuel Sorkin (Hatzyrolnik), his wife, his son Avraham and his daughters: Pasal and Ronya. The healing business was passed to Shmuel as an inheritance from his father, Rabbi Itzik, who was called “the doctor”, because he was a druggist. Additionally, while Shmuel was a druggist, he was the owner of a barbershop and he worked together with his son Avraham.

The House of the Shpelsher Family. The father of the family Alter Males, the son Hershel, his wife Chana, son and two daughters: Manka and Sosel. Sosel remained alive while she was in Russia and lives currently in America. Alter Shpelsher was a tailor. His father-in-law Mops had a handsome son described by the name Pesach, who was married to a woman, Rozka, from the Neiman house. Hershel Shpelsher was an active Zionist and manager of the only bank in the town.

The House of Leibel Candle - the builder. He had a wife, son and daughter. His son was killed in his service in the Polish army in the year 1939, at the time of fighting during the Nazi invasion.

The Hakozeles House - the brothers Moshe and Baruch Broder and their families. The two of them were iron merchants. Their sister Rivka had a daughter and son - Issar the lame, owners of a candy store. Issar, despite his deformity, was active and energetic. In his extra businesses, he would distribute the newspaper “Der Hint – Today”. From this family one brother remained alive by the name Yosef, who emigrated to Argentina. A daughter by the name Zlatka lives in Petach Tikvah, and son Velvel, lives in one of the kibbutzim.

6. The Second Side of the Third of May Street

The House of Mendel Tveiktz Bostos, his wife Gittel, two sons - Yitzchak and Chilke, and a daughter married to Gedaliah Shaftrik. Mendel Bostos was a successful grain merchant. The son Chilke remained alive while he was in Russia. He immigated to Israel at the end of the Second World War, raised a family in Haifa. Chilke died in a sudden manner in the year 1973.

The House of Leibel Hastelmach (the Wheelwright) Rochblatt, his wife Feigel Pales, a married daughter who lived in Kostopol, and four sons. From them Avraham remained, who lives with his family in Ramat Gan, and Yitzchak, who lives with his family in Tel Aviv. The two of them immigrated to Israel before the Second World War.

The House of Peseiah Grossman (Harozenyahr) - a widower and his seamstress daughter, who managed the household, and sons: Moshe, Yonah and Izik. Moshe was married to Raizel and they had three children: Malka and sons: Avraham and Aharon. Moshe worked as a cattle merchant. He succeeded in his work and he was a seller to all of the surrounding villages. The daughter of Moshe, Malka, and his son Aharon were saved by hiding themselves in the forests among the goyem. Malka lives with her family in New York, and Aharon lives with his family in Tel Aviv. He is married to Rachel from the Chait house, who was also born in Stepan.

The House of Issar Hanimovitzar - in his house lived his son-in-law - Hershel Salavotzki together with his wife Chayka, their daughter Feigel and their son Velfel. They were the owners of a large grocery store.

The House of Yosef Shenker. Yosef Shenker and his second wife. Yosef had a daughter from his first wife by the name Yentel who lived outside the town.

The House of Mendel Hanapach (the Blacksmith), his wife Zelda and their married daughter and son by the name Yaakov. Mendel was a craftsman by profession and besides this he was known as a cheerful and amusing Jew. He would participate in happy occasions (simchas) and weddings as a comedian. Also he tried his best at the times of the Ukrainian dances and was also very successful, which brought proud pleasure (nachas) to the community. His son Yaakov succeeding in escaping from the killing pits, but he was caught after a few days in the forest in the neighborhood of Korost and was taken out to be killed.

The House of Aharon Motel Shimshak, his wife and his two daughters who were married and moved to a town outside of Stepan. His son Dovid was married to a woman, Chana, from the house Kirshner, and they had a son and daughter.

This family had an oil press.

The House of Itzik Meir Kogot, his wife and his three sons: Arye, Gershon and an additional small son, and two daughters: Rena and Ganya. The son Arye immigrated to Israel on the eve of the war together with his wife Tziporah from the house of Geller. He currently lives in Tel Aviv with his family. Gershon served in the Red Army and fell in battle in the year 1944 in the area of Kovel, having exposed himself to danger in the war against the Germans.

The House of Peseiah Bebtchuk, his wife Leah Esther and his sons: Moshe and Avraham, and his daughters: Chayka, Tzilah, and Rozka. The daughter Rozka immigrated to Israel in the year 1936 together with her husband Tzlia Shpritz. They currently live in Tel Aviv.

The House of Motel Bakar, his wife Pasal and their two daughters - Esther and Yentel, and son - Shayka. Motel owned a manufacturing store. The son Shayka was saved by escaping to the forests; he emigrated to Argentina and lives there with his family.

The House of the Tachor Families. Meir, his wife Hennia, and his daughters: Brunia, Sonya, Panya and Batya, and their son - Monya. In their house also lived the grandmother Raizel Tachor and an additional son Michel Tachor, his wife Rivka and his two sons Avraham (Mosik) and Yitzchak. Avraham was saved at the time that he hid himself in the forests, while his father was captured and shot. Avraham currently lives in Tel Aviv with his family.

The House of Altar Bas, his wife Esther, his son Shabatai and his daughter Freidel. Altar was active in the Zionist committee of the Jews of Stepan. This family was killed at the time of the German bombing, on the eve of their entrance into the town, together with another family - relatives of Altar Bas - Motel Kaufman, a sandalmaker by profession, his daughter Asal and sons: Shmuel and Yaakov. Yaakov was saved from the annihilating bombing together with the surviving Jews of the town.

In the house lived a relative of the family, mute but very intelligent, well-liked by his neighbors.

The son Shmuel fell as a German prisoner in the Polish-German War and his consequences were not known.

The House of Yerachmial Gesais, his wife Gittel, his son-in-law Shlomo Neiman, his wife Tzivya and their son Yeshayahu Neiman, a teacher in the Tarbut school and head of Betar in the city. The boy was head and shoulders above the others and served as a shining example for the children of the town. He died from disease at a young age. Shlomo Neiman also had three daughters: Rosa, who was married to Pesach Mopas, Ganya and Reva who was married to Kolodny and apparently lives nowdays in Russia.

In this house also lived a second son-in-law of Yerachmial - Moshe Kaufman. He had a wife named Adele and son Monya. Moshe Kaufman was the veteran teacher in the Tarbut school since it had been established. He educated a number of generations in Judaism and Zionism. He was very active in the Zionist movement and in the Jewish National Fund.

The House of Moshe Vosrostrom, his wife and their daughter Tanah. He was a devout Jew and feared G-d.

In this house lived as neighbors the Family Rovin - the widowed wife (the Beznke) and her daughters - Raizel and Devora. They were owners of a small grocery store. Devora escaped to Russia, immigrated to Israel after the war and lives in Haifa with her family. Her sister Raizel emigrated to Argentina on the eve of the Second World War and lives there with her family.

The House of Kopel Hakovaon (the Hatmaker). In this house lived his daughter Mishka, her husband Aharon Kessler and their five children: Gittel, Miriam, Batya, Leibel and Michel. Michel was saved while he was in Russia and lives today in Israel, in Holon.

The House of the Brothers Nechamia and Motel Goz. In this house lived Nechamia, his wife and his three children. Likewise, Motel, his second wife Gansal, the stepmother to three daughters and a son - orphans who aroused the pity of the neighbors. The brothers managed a leather and shoe store.

The House of the Shpritz Family. Two brothers from the Shpritz family immigrated to Israel in the year 1936. They were friends of the Betar organization in the town. They were grandchildren of the grandmother Freida Shpritz.

In the house lived Meir Dekelboim, his wife Zlatka and their son. Meir was the owner of a grocery store.

The House of Rivka and Shmuel Leibes (Krakover) - the son of Rivka - Yosef. The wife of Yosef died at the time of the great fire in 1925. They had three children: Berta, who died in Israel, Gershon who lives in Kibbutz Nagvah (see the separate section), and Roza, who lives with her family in Holon. Yosef was married a second time to a woman named Zelda and they had a son named Alykim and a daughter Yentel.

The House of Yitzchak Vastchenah, his wife Mirka, their son Shmuel-Minikal, his wife Chaya and their three children: Yosele, Mirka and Ziskind. The brother of Minikal, Sholom, his wife Kalra and their daughter, an additional brother Yisroel and sister Sosel, who also died in the year 1925. Rabbi Itzik, father of the family, who was known for his pleasant voice at prayer time. His wife died before the outbreak of the war. The only survivor of this family was Minikal, who was expelled to Siberia during the Soviet reign. Now he lives in America with his second wife and their son and married daughter.

The House of Yitzchak Zilberman - a widower and his daughter Chava from his second wife, whereas from his first wife the sons: Berel, Moshe who died in Israel, Hershel who immigrated to Israel and lives in Hertzlia, and Shlomo who was saved while he was in Russia and remains living there; also daughter Gittel, who lives with her family in Brazil.

The House of Shlomo Filkov, his wife and their three daughters. The name of one was Hennia, and also son Yosef, who lives in Israel after he was saved in Russia. Shlomo was gabbai in the upper synagogue. He was owner of a leather store.

The House of the Brothers Yosef and Betzalel Bebtchuk (Hatzalyokim) - they were merchants. The brother Yosef, his wife Pasal and their three daughters: Raizel, Rivka and Perel, and son Hershel.

Betzalel, his wife and his daughter named Sheva and three sons: Shmiryahu, Yosef and Yitzchak. Shmiryahu was saved by hiding in the forests and he lives today in America.

The House of Fishel Solbotzky, his wife and their daughter - Manya, and son - Chaim who died in Russia during his service in the Red Army.

On the second side of this house lived Moshe Chait (the son of Altar Koters), his wife Raisel and their two sons: Motel and Monya, and daughter Sonya. Moshe was a successful tailor.

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