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Translation of Krylow chapter from
Pinkas Hakehillot Polin
Published by Yad Vashem
Published in Jerusalem
Morris Gradel z"l
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This is a translation from:
Jewish Communities, Poland,
Volume VII, pages 512-513, published by Yad Vashem, Jerusalem
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(District: Hrubieszow; Province: Lublin)
Krylow (Kr) is first mentioned in the second half of the16th century as a fortified urban settlement in the possession of the noble family Ostrorog. Its situation on the main road contributed to its economic development. There were weekly market days and six fairs a year. Many of its inhabitants were engaged in shoemaking and weaving cloth and linen. In 1795, after the Third Partition of Poland, Kr came under Austrian rule; in1807 it was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Warsaw; and from 1815 until the First World War was part of the Kingdom of Congress Poland. During this latter period it was the possession of the nobleman Alexander Chesznowski.
In 1915 Kr was occupied by the Germans, who remained there until their withdrawal in 1918.
Jewish inhabitants of Kr are first mentioned in 1550. Their means of livelihood were small trading and crafts. From 1823 to 1862 the Russian authorities forbad Jews to live in Kr because of its proximity to the Austrian border. Only at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th did the community begin to grow, and before the First World War already possessed some welfare and charitable institutions, such as a Provident Fund and Bikur Cholim (see note).
Noteworthy among the Rabbis of the town were R. Tsvi Landman (1880-90), who moved to Drohobycz; R. Yerachmiel Mordechai Weinberg (from 1898 to the First World War); and R.Aryeh Yehuda Sznicer, who officiated in the inter-war years.
During the First World War many Jews left Kr because of its closeness to the battlefront, and moved to larger towns in the district.
In the inter-war years too the Jews continued in their tradional employment of trading and crafts. Their way of life was religious, though the Zionist movement also exerted considerable influence.
At the end of September 1939 Kr was occupied by the Germans. Many Jews fled to eastern Poland, which was held by the Soviet Union. The remainder were herded into a ghetto.
The community was wiped out in the summer of 1942. All the Jews were sent to the extermination camp at Belzec. The only survivors were those who managed to escape to the woods.
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