These rights, which were guaranteed by the owner of the city, were the cause of many legends regarding his righteousness and his love of the Jews. According to one of these stories, he loved the Jewish Kabbala2, and studied under the Kabbalist Rabbi Eliahu, who came from Turkey and waited in a cave near the city for the coming of the Messiah.
During this period, the wholesaling industry, particularly importing, was in the hands of the Armenians who were the major businessmen of the city. The Jews engaged mainly in smaller scale commerce. By the end of the 17th century, the Jews were shoemakers, tailors, smiths, butchers, engravers, plasterers and tanners.
As a result of the wars that took place in Poland at the beginning of the 18th century, the economic situation of the city declined. The first to be affected were the Armenians, who were the large scale businessmen. In 1736 they turned to the owner of the city with a request for a reduction of the Jews' privileges, claiming that the competition of the Jews was affecting their livelihood. As a result of this the Jews' rights in the leather industry were curtailed. Nevertheless, in the year 1739, in the large warehouse of the town there were only five Armenian merchants, and nineteen Jewish merchants. The Armenians left the city, moved to villages and became property managers.
In spite of the competition between the Armenians and the Jews, there was cooperation between the Jews and the other residents of the city. This cooperation was manifested primarily with respect to the defense of the city from enemies. In accordance with a decision of the city, all citizens, Jew and non-Jew, were required to possess in their homes "a functional gun, and two liters of gun powder in good condition".
The Jewish communal institutions were established at the time of the inception of the community. By virtue of the founding privileges of 1662, as has been already noted, the Jews were permitted to build a synagogue, bathhouse, and dwelling houses for a Rabbi and physician. By 1672 there was already a synagogue in use by the community, constructed from wood.
The first cemetery was established in 1662. From 1692 there was a Jewish burial society (Chevra Kadisha), and a charitable foundation, which would give out free loans in exchange for a pledge. In 1706, when a controversy erupted in the Jewish community with respect to the Russian army, this free loan society lent out money, and used the holy objects of the synagogue as the pledge.
By the 1740s, the synagogue had become too small for the Jewish community. The synagogue stood next to the church, outside of the Jewish community (which by then had moved to a different locale), and this caused constant tension between the Jews and Christians. Therefore, the Jews turned to the owners of the city, and they were permitted to build new synagogue in their new neighborhood. It was built from stone and wood, and the building materials were donated by the owner of the city. The synagogue was dedicated in 1777. This synagogue served the Jews of the area, after numerous renovations, until the destruction of the organized community during the Second World War.
In 1759, after the dispute with the Frankists3 in Lvov, several Jews of Stanislawow, particularly from among the artisans, joined this group.
At this time, the Rabbis of Stanislawow were subordinate to the main area Rabbi who lived in Tysmienica. The names of some of the Rabbis that are known to us include Rabbi Joseph the son of Manasseh who died in 1699; Rabbi Leibish the son of Mordechai Auerbach who became the Rabbi of Stanislawow around 1740 and served in this position until his death in 1750; and Rabbi Levi the son of Shlomo Ashkenazi of Zolokow, the author of books entitled "Beit Halevi" and "Ateret Shlomo", who served as Rabbi for two years, and died in 1732. A prominent personality in the community of Stanislawow was Rabbi Dov Berish the son of Yaakov Avraham the mystic, who dwelt in Stanislawow, and served in many communal offices. In 1743 he was elected as one of the communal leaders of the area, and he was elected as the leader of the province of Risen, and participated in the Vaad Arba Artzot4. He was chosen as the Rabbi of the community in 1752. He participated in the great debate with the Frankists in Lvov. Rabbi Dov Berish died in 1764. Rabbi Abraham the son of Yitzchak "the great" (head of the Rabbinical court of Poznan) served for a time in the Rabbinate of Stanislawow. In 1764, Yehuda Zelka was chosen as the Rabbi of Stanislawow. He was the author of "Revid Zahav", a commentary on "Yoreh Deah"5. In 1784, he left his position for unknown reasons.
|Woodworkers & Bookbinders|
|Dyers & Plasterers|
|Locksmiths, Blacksmiths & Machinists|
In 1885 there were 730 businessmen (478 sellers and 252 merchants6), among them only 14 were gentiles. According to categories of trades, the specialties of the businessmen were classified as follows: horses and cattle -- 17, grain -- 33, metal -- 11, glass and earthenware -- 15, haberdashery -- 39, leather -- 44, grocers -- 34, meat -- 75, liquor -- 19, money exchange -- 48, oil and petroleum -- 52, middlemen -- 13.
In the second half of the 19th century, manufacturing began in Stanislawow. In 1875, there were several grain processing plants (including one that was powered by steam), a beer brewery, a liquor factory, lumber mills (one powered by steam), two manufacturers of fine ceramics, a cosmetic plant, and a fertilizer plant. At that time there were two large printing presses. Of the 50 factories that were in existence at that time, 34 were in owned by Jews, and there were 278 Jewish employees. Nearly all of the foremen in the Jewish factories were Jews.
Before the outbreak of the First World War (in 1914), the economic composition of the Jews in Stanislawow, by profession was as follows (excluding free tradesmen, clergy, communal officials, civic and government workers): factory owners -- 34; large and small businessmen -- 843; artisans -- 645; hoteliers -- 136; hired laborers -- 1,083, totaling 2,747.
According to the above statistics, it is possible to conjecture that the total number of breadwinners was approximately 3,000, which in 1914 would have been more than 20% of the Jewish population of Stanislawow. The economic situation of the community was quite satisfactory. This good situation influenced the social and cultural development in the community of Stanislawow.
Two well known families left their imprint at that time on the economic and communal life of Stanislawow at that time. The Horowitz family, who from the year 1784 held positions on the Rabbinate of Stanislawow, and the Halpern family, who were well-to-do, and were known for charitable deeds, communal work, and economic development.
After the death of Rabbi Yehuda Zelka, Rabbi Aryeh Leibush the son of Eliezer Halevi Horowitz was appointed as the Rabbi of the city. Previously, he had served as the head of the Rabbinical court of Zolozche. He was the grandson of Rabbi Yitzchak Hamburger, who had been the Rabbi of several communities in the lands of the Vaad. At age 26, he was appointed the Rabbi of Stanislawow, and a short time later he became the Rabbi of the area. He served for many years, until his death in 1844. Rabbi Aryeh Leibush wrote a Torah commentary known as "Pnei Aryeh", and also the book of responsa "Pnei Aryeh". Due to his great influence, the disputes with the Chassidim and Maskilim7 which affected other cities of Galicia, passed over Stanislawow completely. The Chassidim did not succeed in gaining influence due to the opposition of the Rabbi who was a Mitnaged, and also due to the opposition of the communal leaders who were also Mitnagdim. After many years, Chassidism did infiltrate into the Rabbi's family, and his descendents included Chassidim of Zidichov and Rozla.
Rabbi Meshulam Yissachar Horowitz (1804-1881), the son of Rabbi Aryeh Leib, served in the Rabbinate from 1845. In contrast with his father, he was vehemently opposed to Chassidism. In a Rabbinical conference that took place in Lvov in 1885, he spoke out sharply against the policies of the Belzer Chassidim, and cooperation with them in the internal policies of the communities8. He wrote the two volume work "Bar Livua". After his death in 1887, his son Rabbi Yitzchak Halevi inherited his position. He was one of the most significant preachers of his day. He was a sympathizer of the Zionist movement, and due to his liberal outlook he agreed to lay the cornerstone of the "Synagogue of the Illuminated ones"9and to take part in the dedication ceremony. In 1904, his son Rabbi Aryeh Leibish was chosen to succeed him. He had Chassidic leanings, and was a supporter of the Admor10 of Chortkov. He founded a Yeshiva in Stanislawow, that eventually became very well known. At its head was the educator Rabbi Yekutiel Kamilhar. He was also well known for his enthusiasm for Zionism. When he passed away in 1909, neither of his two children wanted to take over the Rabbinate. A dispute broke out between two Rabbinical candidates of the Horowitz family as to who would take over the role. A grandson of Rabbi Meshulam Yissachar Horowitz, Rabbi David Halevi was chosen, and he served in Stanislawow from 1911 until 1934.
In 1818 the first mutual benefit society "The Society of Benefactors for Loans and Hospitality" was founded. Its founder was Eliahu the son of Shlomo Burstein, with the approbation of Rabbi Arye Leib Horowitz. The organization began its actions with a founding endowment of 600 Florin, gathered from the citizens of the city. It would give out loans of 50 to 100 Florin in exchange for a pledge. In its charter, it was specified that this organization would deal with loans alone, and not with charity, dowries for poor brides, nor redeeming of captives11. Societies of similar nature were also established by the aforementioned Eliahu the son of Shlomo in other towns of Galicia. Other charitable and mutual aid societies were founded in Stanislawow between 1820 and the end of the 1800s, in particular associated with the Halpern family. The first member of the Halpern family who became well known in Stanislawow, was Lipa Halpern, who died at the end of the 18th century. His son, Joel Halpern, leased out the income from the salt monopoly of Galicia, and also expanded his ventures into Russia. In 1837, he founded the Jewish Hospital of Stanislawow. In his will he left a great deal of money for communal needs, such as for poor brides, feeding the sick and poor in the hospital, support of apprentices who could not support themselves, and gifts of meat to the poor at festival times. His son Abraham Halpern, and his sons-in-law Alexander and Lipa Horowitz carried on in his footsteps. Abraham served for many years as the head of the community, and in 1848 he was chosen as a representative of the Austrian parliament. In 1881, he won the "Franz Josef" award. He built the theater hall (general -- i.e. for the entire city) in the city, and also many other buildings required by the community. Along with his brother-in-law Alexander Horowitz, he expanded the hospital that was founded by his father, he set up an orphanage (1871), a soup kitchen for the poor, and a bathhouse. His children also worked for the communal good -- for example in the 1887 community elections, among the 18 elected were his three sons. One of his sons, Hirsch, served for many years as the head of the community. Another son, Lipa, was a member of the city council, a member of the community council, and a member of the supervisory board of the Baron Hirsch school. Lipa's son Hertz Halpern, was a Zionist activist for his entire life; he was appointed as one of the first associates of Herzl, and he founded the "Kadima" Zionist organization in Vienna. Another member of this family, George Halpern, was a representative of the Zionist activist council from 1911-1913, and served on the leadership of the Zionist committee from 1921-1927. He was appointed to the Zionist congress in 1931, and served as a member until his death in the 1950s.
The upheavals of 1848 also affected the Jews of Stanislawow. The Jews cut off their accounts with the collectors of the candle tax, who had oppressed of the Jewish community for a long period. A "National Gwardja"12 was founded with the help of Abraham Halpern. It was under the leadership of Leon Zaks. In the elections to the Vienna parliament of 1848, 25 Jews and only 17 Christians were elected from Stanislawow.
In the civic elections of 1873, 17 Jews were elected to the 36 seats. From that time and until the end of the era of Austrian rule, the Jews played a decisive role in civic affairs. From 1897 to 1919, Arthur Nemhein, an assimilationist Jew, served as mayor. In the neighboring of Knihinin (which later became part of Stanislawow), a Jew, Eliezer Kahn, served as mayor. He died in 1912.
During this period, there were no elections for communal leadership. Commissioners from among the prominent, well-to-do families (Horowitz and Halpern) led the community.
In the elections to the Austrian parliament of 1907, Dr. Marcus Braude, a Zionist delegate, gained the majority of votes. The government was unhappy with the results, and declared an additional election in the area. They forced Braude to join forces with a Polish candidate who had come in second. Dr. Braude again was victorious, but his election was not approved by the authorities, because some of the voters had spoiled their ballots.
As has been described, until the end of the 18th century, the charitable activities took place under the auspices of the well-to-do families, particularly Halpern and Horowitz. By the end of the century, many charitable and mutual aid societies had been founded, and they enjoyed widespread support from the community. Among the most important was the "Hachnasat Kalah", which was founded in 1896, and gave dowries each year to 7 brides, in the sum of 400 Crowns per bride, and an additional dowry, called "Malchut"13 in the sum of 600 Crowns. In 1902 this organization had 100 members from the middle classes of the community. "Ner Tamid -- Hachnasat Orchim" was founded at the end of the 19th century. Members of this society provided meals for 10 visitors each Shabbat. In 1902 in Knihinin "Ahavat Chesed" was founded, as well as a women's organization to assist poor mothers. In addition to its main role, it also made available wood for heat at half price for the poor. At the beginning of the 20th century, "Igud Lemaan Mitbach Amami"14 was founded, which provided free meals for the poor. Its activities increased in the years 1905-1906, and it aided refugees from Russia.
"Tomchei Nistarim" was founded in 1911 to help in a discreet manner Jews who had lost their livelihood. "Opieka", a women's organization from the secularist community, aided sick women. One of its sources of income was from hiring youths to harvest plums, the proceeds of which were given to the organization. "Ognisko", founded in 1904, was a women's organization dedicated to providing summer camp for children. 60 children a year participated in these camps.
An organization called "Bratnia Pomoc" was set up to establish a dormitory for poor students of the city, and for non-locals. "Linat Tzedek" took care of the sick. An organization of the Orthodox community called "Dorshei Tov" looked after the "Talmud Torah" and the Yeshiva. "Towarzyski Club" organized philanthropic activities for the assimilationist community. The Halpern family continued to busy themselves with charitable work. In 1905 Karol Halpern set up an orphanage. In addition to his own endowment, he was able to arrange financial support from the communities of Frankfurt am Main and Berlin. The Jews of Stanislawow assisted the Jewish refugees from Romania, and later, starting in 1905, the refugees from Russia. These refugees received local assistance and train tickets to Lvov.
At the end of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century, many loan societies were set up in Stanislawow. The oldest of them was "The Organization for Aid and Credit". Afterward, the "Bank of Credit", headed by Reuven Yonas was set up. In 1911, Stanislawow had approximately 20 private banks that were owned by Jews. In 1912, a branch of the Viennese "Wiener Bank Verein" was established.
At that time, the Jewish merchants began to set up an association. In 1911, this association participated in the Galician merchant's fair in Przemysl. The artisans unionized at the end of the 19th century into an organization called "Yad Charutzim". In addition to the central union, they also established organizations and unions according to each individual profession. The merchants and artisans also set up mutual aid organizations in addition to their associations and unions. In 1902, the tailors' union attempted to set up a tailoring school, but this idea never reached fruition.
In the second half of the 19th century, the first Maskilim blossomed in the city [see footnote 7]. The first significant Maskil in Stanislawow was Mauricy Vertzel, who received his Doctor of Laws from the University of Krakow in 1864. He, along with the other Maskilim, began to associate more with the Polish people, although they also maintained their activity within the Jewish community. At the end of the 1860s a Reform synagogue was established, but it closed in 1887. One year later a committee for the founding of the "Synagogue of the Illuminated Ones" was set up. The head of the community Hersch Halpern became involved, and in 1894 the cornerstone was laid, as has previously been noted, with the participation of the Rabbi. The building was completed in 1899, and Marcus Braude was appointed as the preacher.
The first secular school was founded by H. Hamburg in 1787. It closed in 1806, as did other similar schools in the country. The second attempt to set up a school for the Jewish people took place in 1847 by the local Maskilim. However, this school managed to function only for a few years. After some time, seemingly at the beginning of the 1860s, a four grade school, called "The Polish School for Jewish Children" was set up. In 1872, permission was received to found another school, called "The Hebrew-German-Polish School", which apparently took the place of its predecessor of the 1860s. The language of instruction of this school was Polish, and Hebrew and German were also taught. The Baron Hirsch School was founded in 1899. It existed only until 1907. In its first year, there were 734 students, and in its last year -- 361.
The Orthodox children, in particular the males, learned in Cheders15. At the end of the 19th century a "Talmud Torah" was established. The Cheders and the "Talmud Torah" did not succeed in obtaining support of the community and the Rabbi, because, according to them, these educational establishments did not meet the minimal government requirements.
Jews were accepted to the local public schools without restriction, and therefore large numbers of Jewish children learned in them. Since Hebrew and Jewish subjects were not taught at all in these schools, the community divided into two opinions: one that supported Hebrew to be taught in the religious curriculum of the public schools, and the second that a separate Hebrew school should be established.
In 1903, a school "Safah Berura" was established. In its first year, it had 80 male students and 150 female students, and in 1911 it had 200 students. A kindergarten, and evening adult education programs, particularly for women, were established by this school.
Jews began to study in the local gymnasium16, which was one of the oldest in Poland, at the end of the 1830s and the beginning of the 1840s. As time went on, the number of Jewish students grew. In 1903, 218 Ukrainian students, 290 Polish students, and 350 Jewish students were registered. In 1902, about 16 of the 55 graduates were Jews, and in 1912 -- 34 Jews. It is worthwhile to note that from 1905, the pedagogue and aforementioned Zionist leader M. Braude was on the faculty of the gymnasium of Stanislawow. In 1902, Weinberg, a Jewish teacher from Sambor, founded a business school with two grades. The intention was that this business school would not only serve Jews, but as it turned out, the vast majority, if not all of the students were Jews. This school also set up courses for girls and evening classes for adults.
In 1906, the "Or Chaim" Yeshiva was founded. Its student body included about 100 young men from all of Galicia and even from Bukovina, in addition to the local students. The dean of the Yeshiva was the previously mentioned Rabbi Kamilhar. The fact that there were great numbers of students from the outlying villages, and also great numbers of needy local students compelled the community to establish dormitories. The first dormitory was established in 1898, and thereafter others were established, some requiring full tuition, and others waiving tuition completely.
The first Jewish party was apparently "Shomer Yisrael", which was founded in Stanislawow in 1871. Members of the local intelligentsia and people from the well-off families joined its ranks. By the end of the 19th century there were those who joined the Polish parties -- the Liberal party or the Polish Socialist Party (P.P.S.). At the same time a Jewish Socialist party was established (Z.P.S.). It was made up primarily of Jewish workers who had not joined the P.P.S., due to their lack of knowledge of the Polish language. By the beginning of the 20th century, a Polish newspaper "Rozlo" with anti-semitic leanings began to appear, but its influence was minimal. In the Russian uprisings of 1905-1906, many of the local Ukrainians began to display anti-semitism, having being influenced by their compatriots across the border.
The Jewish national movement began in Stanislawow in 1887. The "Eretz Yisrael" group was set up by Dr. Philip Fier. After the death of its founder (seemingly in 1891), the group ceased its activities, but it renewed its activities in 1893. With the inception of the Zionist movement of Herzl, this organization joined ranks with the Zionist movement. One of its leaders, Reuven Younis (later a member of the Polish Sejm17), was a delegate to the first Zionist Congress. In 1898, this group had 300 members, with Reuven Younis and Dr. Shur at the helm.
In 1898, the first branch of the "Rachel" women's Zionist organization of Galicia was established in Stanislawow. In its first year, this organization had 130 members. In 1899, an academic Zionist group was founded, called "Bar Kochba". Among this group's first activists were Julius Vertzel, Shimon Valish, and L. Shtand. In 1898, the Zionist council of Galicia was established in Stanislawow.
In 1899, after the unionization of Jewish foremen and workers, the "Briderlichkeit"18 organization was founded in Stanislawow with 150 members. This organization served as a base for the local "Poale Zion", but it only joined the movement officially in 1907. In 1906, a youth group called "Yougend" was founded along side. In 1904, this group organized a strike of the Jewish workers, in an attempt to have the work day shortened to 12 hours.
In 1912 under the auspices of the "Eretz Yisrael" organization, a group of well-to-do Jews banded together with the intention of obtaining land in Israel for communal settlement.
In 1912, after the visit of Rabbi M. Berlin19 to the area, the local Mizrachi organization was founded. In 1913 a Jewish Zionist youth group was established which later became "Hashomer Hatzair". In 1914 the "Agudat Yisrael"20 organization established itself in Lvov, with the participation of the Rabbinic Judge Rabbi Alter Nebenzahl of Stanislawow.
One of the most influential personalities involved in the founding of the Zionist organizations of the city at that time was the aforementioned Dr. Marcus Braude. Dr. Braude served for some time as the head of the Zionists in Galicia, and in 1912, he moved to Lodz, where he was very active in education and Zionism in Poland. At the turn of the century, many cultural and Haskala were active, mostly under the auspices of the Zionist organizations. In 1904 the "Toinbe Haele" club was founded by Dr. M. Braude and Dr. Shur. This club was started in England, and it was brought to Galicia via Vienna by Dr. Leon Reich. In Galicia it started in Drohobycz and from there it spread to all the main cities of Galicia. This club arranged weekly lectures (some on interesting topics, and other on timely topics), and served as a meeting place for the city's nationalist intelligentsia. The building beside the Baron Hirsch school also served as a cultural center. The chief lecturer of this center was Dr. M. Braude. A library and reading room were located near this center. The "Cherut" group, associated with "Briderlichkeit", and "Giscala" (Gush Halav)21 -- a group of academics, were founded in 1904. These groups also organized adult lectures.
The lovers of entertainment in the city founded "The Goldfaden Cultural Institution" around the time of the outbreak of the First World War. This institution had a theatrical group, as well as a choir and band.
At the same time, the Hebrew publishing company "Hatechia" was set up by Abraham Robinson. Among its other publications was a Hebrew-Polish-German dictionary.
In 1905, the "Hakoach" sport organization was founded, and in 1905 a basketball league was established.
At this time, several Jewish periodicals appeared in Stanislawow: "Hashamash" (1887) -- a bi-weekly published by Hirsh Leib Gotlieb; the publication of "Haneorim" (The illuminated ones), of which only a few issues appeared; "Stanislawower Nachrichten", a weekly which appeared in 1903 for 9 months. This weekly, published by B. Hoizman, was published in German with Hebrew letters. From May 1903 the Zionist weekly "Yidishes Wochenblat" was published by Dr. Moshe Dogilowski.
A weekly without any clear political leanings, "Stanislawower Glake" was published in Stanislawow from 1909 until the outbreak of the First World War. "Yidisher Veker" was a bi-weekly that was published from 1905 until the end of 1906. Afterwards "Bovochench" was published. A Polish monthly called "Chinuch Vehaskalah"22, an organ of the Jews with assimilationist tendencies, was published from the end of 1905 until February 1906 by Naftali Shifer. "Hayarden", a Zionist monthly, was published from 1906 to 1909 by Y. Franhof. One of its columnists was Sh. Y. Agnon23. The Polish bi-weekly "Wolny Glos", a mouthpiece of the Z.P.S. appeared for several months in 1907, published by M. Zeidenfeld. "Nasze Haslo", a Polish bi-weekly which was the mouthpiece of "Poale Zion" was published from September 1909 to July 1910 by Dr. M. Rosenfeld. "Stanislawower Gazette", a Polish weekly, was published by the assimilationists from March 1912 until January 1914. "Der Yid", a Zionist weekly was published from May 1911 until December 1912. The total number of the issues of all these periodicals was about 1000.
In addition to all the aforementioned personalities, there were other well known personalities who were active in Stanislawow at that time. Some were natives of Stanislawow, and some settled there later. The poet Abraham Leib Bibering (1818-1882) was the secretary of the community for many years, and influenced the youth with Haskala ideas. Shlomo Frankel (1816-1894), a native of Tysmenitza, and a man of vast erudition, spoke out strongly against superstitious beliefs. Yechiel Meller (1822-1893) published novels and reviews. He fought against Chassidism even though he was personally Torah observant. He published a collection of writings called "Neta Netamonim". His son, Jonathan Meller, was a noted poet and German/Hebrew translator. Of Stanislawow natives who became known outside their home town, we should note Shimon Baranfeld who was famous for his studies of Jewish wisdom; Hillel Kahana, who authored "Gelilot Haaretz"; Moshe Halevi Horowitz55 and Dr. Karfel Lipa who was among the first Jewish medical students in the University of Lvov. Dr. Karfel Lipa moved to Romania, and became one of the Zionist leaders in that country.
After the conquest of the city by the Russian army in 1914, there was no wild frenzy among the soldiers, as there was in other places. The new rulers behaved benignly with the population. The Jewish mayor, Dr. Arthur Nemhein, continued in his role through the entire time of the Russian rule, and was only fired in 1919 by the new Polish rulers. The Russian rulers took over all the public institutions of the city to serve as hostels for their soldiers. This included the Jewish institutions, such as the hospital, the orphanage, the dormitories, and the school buildings. The Jewish organizations stopped functioning, and they only resumed their functions in 1915, when the Austrians recaptured the city. In August 1917, a committee to aid the Jews was set up with Dr. Karol Halpern as the head. Its first activity was to re-establish the function of all the Jewish aid organizations, such as the soup kitchen and the orphanage. It was also decided to set up additional orphanages. Until the hospital was re-established (its contents had been confiscated by the Russian army), the Jews received free medical care from Dr.. Wittels. On Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur of 5679 (1918) the Jewish aid organization provided hospitality for 200 Jewish soldiers of the Austrian army, and also for all of the Jewish captives of the Russian army who were in Stanislawow.
2 Jewish mystical writings. Back
3 Followers of Jacob Frank, a false Messiah of that time. Back
4 Literally 'the council of 4 lands', a Jewish communal administrative organization at that time which included Poland, Lithuania, and parts of Russian and Ukraine. Back
5 Yoreh Deah is one of the four sections of the Shulchan Aruch, the Code of Jewish Law written by Rabbi Joseph Karo. Revid Zahav is a commentary on this section. Back
6 The two words used here are 'socharim' and 'tagarim'. They both translate as merchants in English, but have different nuances. 'Tagar' refers to a more international type of trader. Back
7 I believe this refers to two different conflicts in the Jewish world at that time, on the one hand the dispute between the Chassidim (followers of Baal Shem Tov and the Chassidic dynasties that followed him), and the Mitnagdim (those that opposed Chassidism), and on the other hand the dispute between the observant Jewish community and the Maskilim (free thinkers who were beginning to leave Jewish orthodoxy). Maskilim literally means 'enlightened ones'. The movement of the Maskilim was called Haskala, which means 'enlightenment'. Back
8 This is strange in that it gives a year one year after the Rabbi's death. However, two sentences later, the death year is listed as 1887. Perhaps the 1881 is a typographical error in the article. Back
9 Beit Knesset Laneurim in Hebrew. Probably a synagogue of more liberal minded Jews, but still committed marginally to Orthodoxy. Probably founded by those with Zionist tendencies. Back
10 Admor is a term denoting a Chassidic master. Back
11 Probably it limited its mandate, so that it could serve its designated function better, and leave other charitable activities to other specialized organizations. Back
12 Gwardja is "Guard" in Polish. Back
13 Literally "Kingship". Back
14 Organization of communal kitchen. Back
15 Traditional Orthodox schools of that era. Cheder literally means "room" in Hebrew. Back
16 Russian/Polish word for high school. Back
17 Sejm is the Polish parliament. Back
18 Yiddish for "Brotherhood". Back
19 Rabbi Meir Berlin, later known as Bar Ilan, was the founder of the Mizrachi religious Zionist organization. Bar Ilan university was named after him. Back
20 Agudat Yisrael is an Orthodox umbrella organization, which is noted by its non-Zionist attitude, in opposition to Mizrachi. It is one of the main forces in the Orthodox world today. Back
21 This name refers to Yochanan Giscala (Gush Halav) who was one of the Jewish leaders in the Roman war against the Jews that ended the second Jewish commonwealth. Back
22 Hebrew for "Education and Enlightenment". Back
23A well known Jewish and later Israeli author who won the Nobel prize for literature in the 1950s. Back
55 According to David W. Harris, Moshe Halevi Horowitz was born in Stanislawow February 27, 1844 and after leaving Galicia in 1862, went to Iasa and Bucharest, were he was 1) a Yiddish/Roumanian newpaper publisher; 2) a Hebrew school teacher of Geography among other subjects, and finally 3) a noted Yiddish Playwright who eventually settled in New York and died there March 4, 1910. Back
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