[Note: These addresses were correct when this Yizkor book was produced, about
[Editor Note, 2001: None of the phone numbers listed in Israel are correct any longer - BSB]
In the following list of Libauers we have placed the names in alphabetical order according to the original according to the original surnames, as we knew them half a century ago. Most of the women are married and their present names are unknown to their former friends. Some men have hebraized or anglicized their names.
There were also difficulties in spelling: is it Yakobson, Jakobson or Jacobson? Is it Sacks, Sachs or Zacks? etc., etc. Kindly check the different possibilities.
Finally, not all the addresses are correct, nor is the list complete. As we plan to issue an additional list in the future we would appreciate if you would put in your corrections and additions. Also in this list we included only a small number of Libauers living in Russia. This, too, needs completion.
LIST OF NAMES AND ADDRESSES Previous Name Present Name Address Adler, Tania Milstein BAT YAM, 55 Katzenelson, Tel.03-872271 Adler, Wolf ASHKELON, 64/706 Hatayasim, Afridar 78475, Tel. 051-22535 Aronstam, Shura Finkelstein, CANADA, 606 Willowdale, Ontario, Shifra 6151 Bathurst St., Apt. 8B Asteik, Frieda Charmetz HAIFA, 39 Pevsner, Tel. 04-526596 Averbuch, Mura Schafir PETAH TIKVA, 8 Gordon, Tel.03-914648 Barkan, Avraham KIRYAT BIALIK, Sabinia, Tel.04-713847 Barkan, Reuven HAIFA, 15 Tchernichovsky, Tel.04-525344 Baron, Rosa Russinek JERUSALEM, Ramat Eshkol, Rassco 154/7, Tel. 02-886192 Baron, Shmuel TEL AVIV, 1 Korolenko, Tel.03-229976 Baskin, Zilla HAIFA, 17 Kaf-Chet, Tel.04-32677 Bassman, Abraham BNEI BRAK, 5 Yehonatan, Tel.03-784198 Bassman, Mali Petrokovsky KVUTZAT KINNERET, Tel. 067-565 Bassman, Shoshana Belkind DEGANIA A', D.N. Emek Hayarden,Tel.067-58111 Bengis, Ben-Zion HAIFA, 11 Harav Kaniel, Tel. 04-660508 Bengis, Chassia Penner, Assia USA, Syracuse, NY 13224, 915 Crawford Av. Bengis, Teresa Dogim TEL AVIV, 137 Haifa Rd., Tel.03-450570 Bengis, Zvi NETANYA, 7 Kish, Tel. 053-22721 Berg, Ruth Kirk USA, Bronx, NY 10463, 290 W. 236 St. Berkovitz, Isa TEL AVIV, Tel. 03-440876 Berkovitz, Masha Gutermann RISHON LEZION, 84 Rothschild, Tel.03-99969 Berkovitz, Miriam Guterman RISHON LEZION, 34 Rothschild, Tel.03-942435 Berkovitz, Rosa Garfinkel RISHON LEZION, 5 Hazayit, Tel.03-940177 Bermann, Jack S. USA, Belle Harbor, NY 11694, 173 Beach 128th St. Berman, Shevach RISHON LEZION, 5/5 Yalag Bermann, Tamara Friedmann HOLON, 31 Ramat Hagolan Binder, Helene Berkowitz NETANYA, 101 Kiryat Nordau, Tel.053-53210 Birk, Taube TEL AVIV, 18 Almagor, Tel. 03-493768 Blaushild, Gamliel KFAR BLUM, D.N. Hagalil Haelyon Tel. 067-44706 Blaushild, Immanuel ZAHALA, 43 Shamgar, Tel. 03-474622 Blaushild, Jemimah Ribak KIBBUTZ KFAR BLUM, D.N. Hagalil Haelyon Tel. 067-48511 Blaushild, Shulamit KIBBUTZ NAAN, Tel. 08-459971/2599 Blechman, Feivel TEL AVIV, Ganei Tikva, 35/9 Harama Blechman, Zelma Stumpf USA, 166th St, Providence, RI 02906 Blumberg, David HAIFA, Neve Sha'anan, 37 Hatichon Blumberg, Leon TEL AVIV, 14 Bergson, Tel.03-410177 Blumenthal, Adolph C. S.A., POB 5043, Johannesburg 2000 Blumenthal, Joseph Tal RAMAT GAN, 11 Hamelacha, Tel.03-728550 Blumenthal, Leo (Arie) TEL AVIV, 118/a Ben Yehuda, Tel.03-243591 Blumenthal, Isaac S.A., Brakpan 1540, Johannesburg, POB 150 17 Olga St. Blumenthal, Sophia Zinn TEL AVIV, 19 Zamenhof, Tel. 03-240034 Blumenthal, Yedidia S.A., Johannesburg, c/o "The Jewish Herald" Blumstein, Sydney ENGLAND, 5 South Lodge Grove End Rd. London NW 8 Blumstein, Sioma USA, 884 West End Av. New York, NY 10025 Bob, Sonia Vishnaretz GIV'ATAYIM, 67/5 Katzenelson, Tel.03-729295 Borok, Ruvi USA, 185 Mediterranean Dr. Apt 38, Boston, Weymouth, MA 02188 Brauer, Max (Mendke) CANADA, 4472 Kingston Av., Montreal, Quebec H4A 2GA Brauer, Sarah Abir RAMAT GAN, 39 Smadar, Tel. 03-798597 Brenner, Leah Weissbart GIV'ATAYIM, 6 Hama'or, Tel. 03-313961 Brickman, Ethel Segal RAMAT GAN, 8 Habakuk, Tel. 03-749245 Brickman, Mordecai GIV'ATAYIM, 3 Rachel, Tel. 03-322573 Brilowitz, Reuven HERZLIA, 21 Hanadiv, Tel. 052-83158 Brown, Louise USA, 3400 N. Knoxville, Apt B2, Peoria, IL 61603 Bruskin, Dr. USA, 1769 Asylum St, West Hartford, CT Bruskin, Liuba Schoffman KIBBUTZ GIV'AT CHAIM/Ichud Brutzkus, Kroza Linsitzky, Carmela BEER SHEVA, 5 Zalman Shazar Chanukaef, Daniel Hafrey USA, 7008 Amy Ln, Bethesda, MD 20817 Chandler, Riva CANADA, 5147 Montclair, Montreal, Quebec, H4V ZKQ (c/o Cilla Kaminsky) Damye, Jack USA, 1026 E. 23rd St, Brooklyn, NY 11229 Dannenberg, Jascha HOLON, 39/8 Yud Alef Hadar, Tel.03-840812 Dannenberg, Sarah Farkash HOLON, 27/3 Haportzim, Tel. 03-844723 Dattel, Aharon NETANIA, 25 Yehuda Halevi, Tel.053-37282 Dimand, Chaim Yahalom KIBBUTZ EIN GEV, D.N. Emek Hayarden Dimant, Uri Yahalom GIV'ATAYIM, 35 Golomb, Tel. 03-317889 Dimant, Rivka Tuchmann HAIFA, 7 Aliyah (Bat Galim) Tel.04-538189 Diner, Sarah RAMAT GAN, Old Age Home Diner, Zvi RAMAT GAN, 9 Le'an, Tel. 03-729791 Dorbian, Cyrla Elefant BRAZIL, Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, Rua Domingos Ferreira 34/902 Dorbian, Harry USA, 31-14 Marlot Av, Fair Lawn, NJ 07410 Dorbian, Riva Erlich USA, 5-17 Eugene St, Fair Lawn, NJ 07410 Droushtam, Jetty USA, 483 Ocean Pkwy, 6J, Brooklyn, NY 11218 Duchin, Bluma Shemer TEL AVIV, 19 Soutine, Tel. 03-241175 Duft, Hermann W. GERMANY, 1 Berlin, Schlangenbaserstr., 12E/99 Edelstein, Riva & Moshe NEVE SHARETT, 22 Almagor, Tel.03-491894 Edelstein, Cilla Kaminsky CANADA, 5147 Montclair, Montreal, Quebec H4V ZKQ Edelstone, Chaim CANADA, 5147 Montclair, Montreal, Quebec H4V ZKQ (c/o Cilla Kaminsky) Eiduth, Ada Kiel KFAR SABA, 7/9 Tapuz, Tel.052-29077 Eilan, Arieh USA, 429 Ocean Dr. West, Stenford, CT 06902 Eisenstadt, Milka Wolf TEL AVIV, 14 Yellin, Tel. 03-450235 Ellinson, Mali Kohn AUSTRALIA, Caulfield, 497 Hathorn Rd. Ellinson, Sima Greenfield AUSTRALIA, Toorak, Victoria 3142, Melbourne, 5/16 Wooringoleen Rd. Elishevitz, Yitzhak Elyashiv NAHARIA, 10/2a Hamaginim, Tel. 04-925518 Ellinson, Milia Hercenberg USA, 8604 Farrel Ct, Chevy Chase, MD 20015 Elkis, Barbara USA, 202 Mason Terr, Brooklyn, MA 02146 Ende, Frieda & Harry USA, Jackson Heights, NY 11370 (c/o Jenny Lipkin - 31-01 82nd St.). Epstein, Chaim HAIFA, 1 Masada, Tel. 04-661658 Epstein, Mendel JERUSALEM, 7 Ramot, Tel. 02-861211 Erlich, David USA, 5-17 Eugene St, Fairlawn, NY 07410 Faktor, Riva Kuzka FRANCE, Villejuif 94800, 27 rue Lamartine 21/1 Feigenson, Sioma RISHON LEZION, 3/20 Jabotinsky, Tel.03-992274 Feitelberg, Allan USA, 1504 Descio Way, Belmount, CA 94002 Feldhun, Gitta Ritberg GIV'ATAYIM, 20 Bet Hasho'eva, Tel.03-735488 Feldhuhn, Leon USA, 817 10th St, Santa Monica, CA 90403 Feldhuhn, Shlomo GIV'ATAYIM, 26 Sireni, Tel. 03-320576 Feldhuhn, Raphael Field SOUTH AFRICA, Port Elizabeth, 1-7 Summerstrand Ave. Figerson, Solomon RISHON LEZION, 3/20 Jabotinsky Finkelstein, Alexander TEL AVIV, 18 Visotzky, Tel. 03-457214 Finkelstein, Judith Kabalkin HAIFA, 59 Ha'um Blvd, Tel. 04-52796 Fischer-Kahn, Leah Levinson KIBBUTZ NEGBA, Tel. 051-21747 Fischer, Yehiel Schafir HOLON, 16 Havered, Tel. 03-880333 Flaks, Ben ZIMBABWE, Bulawayo, POB 491 Fleischman, Paula Langfer TEL AVIV, 150/50 Hhagana Rd, Tel.03-392106 Foss, Karl USA, 90 Stare Dr, Narragansett, RI 02882 Friedland, Arvid Rudi,Avrinam MOSHAV BEN AMI, D.N. Hagalil Hama'aravi Friedland, Shmuel RISHPON, Tel. 052-70752 "Fritz" Friedman, Esther Gil'adi HOLON, 4 Hatabor, Tel. 03-847827 Friedman, Fruma BAT YAM, 11 Rambam, Tel. 03-680132 Friedman, Rosa Galitzky RAMAT GAN, 35 St. Hakongress, Tel.03-741185 Fundiler, Yehuda Padan NEVE OFEKA, 14 Leah, Tel. 03-482043 Funkelstein, Danny Rey USA, 8 Granville Av, Los Angeles, CA 90025 Gadlon, Zilla Weinstein TEL AVIV, 1 Yehudit Blvd, Tel. 03-267493 Gafanovitz, Anna Hackel EF'AL, 9/15 Kiryat Segal Garfinkel, Pauline Reichel KFAR GIL'ADI, D.N. Hagalil Ha'elyon Gdalin, Esther Weinstein HERZLIA, 8 Hahistadrut, Tel. 052-550762 Geller, Genia & Lev KFAR SABA, Shikun Tekuma 16 Gimmel Genton, Chava Gilead GIV'ATAYIM, 21 Borochov, Tel. 03-729261 Genton, Joseph GIV'ATAYIM, 14 Keren Kayemeth, Tel.03-311877 Gersony, George USA, 20 W. 77th St, New York, NY 10024 Glaser, Liova Shamir KIRYAT TIV'ON, 19 Hazipornim, Tel.04-931534 Glaser, Shmuel JERUSALEM, 6 Dorot Rishonim, Tel.02-223738 Glazer, David USA, Gretna, 1909 Faith Pl. Apt. B, Los Angeles, CA 90053 Glazer, Dr. TEL AVIV, 15 Frishman Glickman, Leah Keinan ZAHALA, 25 Shamgar, Tel. 03-476556 Goldberg, George USA, 11801 Rockville Pike, Apt. 812, Rockville, MD 20852 Goldberg, Hermann TEL AVIV, 27 Almagor, Tel. 03-472248 Goldberg, Leopold WEST GERMANY, Krefeld, Windmuehlenstr. 124 (c/o Michael Gilad) Goldblatt, Lialia Hesselton AUSTRALIA, 8 Balclava Rd, East St. Kilda, Melbourne 3183 Goldfein, Anna Eiges JERUSALEM, 4 Zeruyah, Tel. 02-719116 Goldfein, Marcus JERUSALEM, 52/a Uruguay, Tel.02-415822 Goldfein, Max JERUSALEM, Soldiers' Welfare Office Gottschalk, Dr. A. FRANCE, 92200 Neuilly s/Seine, 50 rue Jacques Dulud Greenfield, Sophy SHEDEMA, D.N. Emek Sorek, Tel. 055-91183 Gorfinkel, Sarah & Kelly USA, 850 E. 17th St, Brooklyn, NY 11230 Gottschalk, Assi Arnsdorf USA, 3625 First Av, No. 37 Mirador, San Diego, CA 92103 Grinfeld, Yitzhak TEL AVIV, 7 Grizim, Tel. 03-462429 Gruenfeld, George BRAZIL, Sao Paulo, Rua Sao Vicente de Paulo, 707-71, Cep. 01229 Gruenfeld, Mary Rotenberg RAMAT GAN, 146 Haro'eh, Tel. 03-748747 Gruenfeld, Nelly Paraezo BRAZIL, Sao Paulo, Rua Cancieneiro de Ervora, 174-66, Cep. 04708 Gurewitz, Minna KIRYAT YAM, 14/15 Tabor, Tel. 04-756705 Gurvics, Israel Hurwitz 103 "Costa Brava", 299 Beach Road, Sea Point, (Chaim-Yisroel) Cape Town, South Africa 8001. Age: 87 (1997);Emigrated to S.Africa in 1928 Tel. No: +27 21 5104826 or +27 21 4392942 (This name not in original book; added by Harry Hurwitz, email@example.com) Gutchinsky, Ruth HOLON, 16/10 Baratz, Tel. 03-846725 Gutman, Eva & Rudy USA, 105 N. Fredericksburg Av, Ventor, NJ 08406 Gurwitz, Fanny Segal NES ZIONA, 1 Chana Senesj, Tel.03-316690 Gutmann, Hedda Plaster RAMAT HASHARON, 24 Lamerchav, Tel.03-472264 Gutmann, Rivka Shnipper ASHDOD YAAKOV/Ihud, Tel 067-56448 Gutman, Ruth Edelstein USA, 1375 E. 101 St, Brooklyn, NY 11236 Gutman, Sarah Edelstein AKKO, 42 Mordecai Anilewitz Gutman, Selva Rosenstein REGBA, D.N. Ashrat Hackel, Shleime SOUTH AFRICA, Highland North, Johannesburg, 477 Louis Botha Av. Hackel, Shmuel (Mule) EF'AL, 9/15 Kiryat Segal Hackel, Ella & Yitzhak RISHON LEZION, 5/4 Neeman, Tel.03-999969 Havelson, Aisik REHOVOT, 32/9 Hahagana, Tel. 03-492193 Heiman, Leah Albert RISHON LEZION, 2 Emile Zola, Tel.03-993476 Heimann, Isser TEL AVIV, 79 Ha'universita, Tel.02-418648 Heller, Joseph RAMAT GAN, 6 Mevo Arieh, Tel. 03-721077 Hellman, Rosa USA, 312 S. Rexford Dr, Beverly Hills, CA 90212 Hellman, Lasha Zohar Laser RAANANA, 195 Kiryat Sharett, Tel.052-445314 Herzenberg, Bernard USA, 8604 Farrel Ct, Chevy Chase, MD 20815 (Zusske) Herzfeld, Ella Hackel RISHON LEZION, 5/4 Naaman, Tel.03-999969 Hershitz, Selma & Boris USA, 122 Langham St, Brooklyn, NY 11235 Hirman, Rachel USA, 165 W. 91st St, Apt 7C, New York, NY 10024 Hirschfeld, Frieda Ende USA, 2229 93rd St, Jackson Hts, NY 11369 Hirschfeld, Lucia Lipton AUSTRALIA, 4/29a Hampden Rd, Armadale, Melbourne 3143 Hirschhorn, Girsh BAT YAM, 15/40 Mivtsa Sinai Hirschhorn, Hella & Louis USA, 19006 69th Ave., #D New York, NY 11365 Hirschhorn, Shimon Sharon KIBBUTZ ASHDOD YAAKOV/Ichud Hoffman, Batya Levy, Betty AUSTRALIA, 51/4 Sydney Av, Armadale Victoria 3143 Hurwitz, Harry JERUSALEM, 10/3 Saadia Ga'on, Tel.02-669544 Ilion, Immanuel TEL AVIV, 111 Rothschild Blvd. Immerman, Aharon KIRYAT CHAIM, 5/7 Warburg Isaakson, Eugene Gottschalk W GERMANY, 4770 Soest, Freilirath Wall 12B Isackson, Jenny Weiss USA, 42-11 Union St, Fairlawn, NJ 07410 Issachari, Dr. Myron ZAHALA, 3 Shoshanim, Tel. 03-471797 Itzikson, Sonia Navon GIV'ATAYIM, 36 Zahal, Tel. 03-319007 Jacobson, Fanny Koffler KIBBUTZ GIV'AT CHAIM Jacobson, Feivush KFAR GILEADI, D.N. Hagalil Ha'elyon Jacobson, Lilly Shapiro RAANANA, 8 Migdal, Tel. 052-225513 Jacobson, Raya Segal TEL AVIV, Neve Sharett, 18a Rama Tel. 03-484998 Jacobson, Shmuel Ben Yakov TEL AVIV, 21 Cremieux, Tel. 03-244864 Jakobson, Alexander FRANCE, 47 rue de Solitaires, 75017 Paris Jakobson, Bobka Ben Yaakov KFAR YEHOSHUA Jakobson, David TEL MOND, Hadekel Jakobson, Jochi Torbin USA, 64-61 Saunders St, Rego Park, NY 11374 Jakobson, Judith Himmelfarb TEL AVIV, 2 Glickson, Tel. 03-284905 Jakobson, Wulf SOUTH AFRICA, 7420 Paarden Island, Capetown, P.O.B. 414 Jakobson, Iska Ben Yaakov, Ishai TEL MOND, Tel. 052-61331 Jakobson, Fanny NES ZIONA, 9/5 Etzel, Tel. 08-471869 Jakobson, Israel Segela REHOVOT, 8 Eisenberg, Tel. 08-461235 Jakobson, Lea YAFFO, 142/6 Yefet Jakobson, Yehuda Yaakobi TEL AVIV, 11 Feivel, Tel. 03-252798 Joffe, Benno ITALY, Genova, Villa Delverme 33/10 (Quinto 10/66) Joffe, Debora Danziger FRANCE, Cannes, 109 Croisette Joffe, Ella JERUSALEM, Ben Yehuda 27, Tel. 02-221645 Joffe, Ezra TEL AVIV, 9 Antokolsky, Tel. 03-244510 Joffe, Mary JERUSALEM, 27 Ben Yehuda, Tel. 02-221645 Joffe, Wolf (Zeev) TEL AVIV, 46 Yehoshua Bin Nun, Tel.03-446342 Johansen, Knud DENMARK, Copenhagen 2100, Hofgartsgaden 7/2nd fl. Judelowitz, Bezalel Ben Yehuda HAIFA, 46/64 Leon Blum, Tel.04-80386 Judelowitz, Fanny Leibowitz USA, 6221 Brynwood Ct, San Diego, CA 92120 Judelowitz, Isaak Ben Yehuda TEL AVIV, P.O.B. 4474, Tel.03-803060 Judelowitz, Mrs. J. Sommer USA, 42-11 Union St, Fairlawn, NJ 07410 Judelowitz, Shim'on (Shimlek) NETANYA, 9 Dizengoff, Tel. 053-92285 Kabalkin, Berta Baron REHOVOT, (c/o Rosenthal), 14 Mildan Chaim, Tel. 08-493173 Kabatchnik, Sima Mansfeld NIR ZVI, (Kefar Argentina) Kagan, Joseph TEL AVIV, 8 Arlozorov, Tel. 03-246367 Kagan, Tuvia Kinan JERUSALEM, 29A Ben Eliezer, Tel.02-769347 Kaganson, Sam SOUTH AFRICA, Salt River 7925, P.O.B. 54 Kahn, Emanuel USA, 26 Falmouth St., Brooklyn, NY 11235 Kahn, Trude Ben Yaakov TEL MOND, Tel. 052-61331 Kastrell, Yetta Heller RAMAT GAN, 5 Ankorim, Tel. 03-795678 Kastrel, Sasha TEL AVIV, 72 Shlomo Hamelech, Tel.03-223034 Katz, Maurice SOUTH AFRICA, Cyrildane 2026, P.O.B. 67 Katzen, David TEL AVIV, 17 Rembrandt, Tel. 03-244715 Katzev, Glika Tosch PETAH TIKVA, 54/11 Zahal, Tel.03-9224215 Katzev, Riva Zippori HOLON, Neot Rachel, 6/22 Kedoshei Kahir, Tel. 03-849224 Katzev, Rachel Schneider HAIFA, Neve Shaanan, 9a Maimon, Tel.04-22392 Kaufman, Chaim HAIFA, Kiryat Eliezer, 50/11 Truman, Tel. 04-712179 Kellim, Tania ENGLAND, London NW 10, 3 Dewsbury Rd., Dollis Hill Kiel, Boka Zohar RAANANA, 195 Kiryat Sharett, Tel.052-445314 Kirk, Jack USA, 290 W. 236 St, Bronx, NY 10463 Kirschner, Molly Markman USA, 203 W. 86th, Apt 608, New York, NY 10024 Klaf, Henia Ziv, Chana GIV'ATAYIM, 120 Katznelson, Tel.03-310005 Klatzko, Dr. Shmuel NETANIA, 19 Herzl, Tel. 053-22522 Klavansky, Munna Karasin TEL AVIV, Neve Shalem, 20/12 Mahanaim, Tel. 03-394132 Klempner, Rachel TEL AVIV, 10 Frishman Kogan, Joseph BAT YAM, 19/13 Maimon Kopenhagen, Berta HAIFA Kramer, Chana Hirsch YOKNEAM, Tel. 04-993048 Kreuzberg, Miriam Weiner HAIFA, 17 Yosseph, Tel. 04-665429 Krom, Hilda Ussishkin, Helene ENGLAND, London NW8 9UL, 82 Hamilton Terr. Krom, Jacob (Jasha) ENGLAND, London N10, 60 Wilton Rd. Krom, Dr. Len Crome ENGLAND, London SE27 0LA, 17 Bewlys Rd. Kuritzky, Fruma Sheftel TEL AVIV, 17 Zlotopolsky, Tel.03-246987 Kuritzky, Chaim AUSTRALIA, 48-50 Hotham St, Apt 19, Balaclava 3183, Melbourne Kuritzky, Jakob Kurly AUSTRALIA, 27 Kingsway, St. Elwood, Victoria 3184 Kuritzky, Jenia Jakobovitz TIV'ON, 10 Hashoshanim, Tel. 04-931491 Kurtz, Ariana Johansen DENMARK, Copenhagen 2100, Hofgardsgaden, 7/2nd Landa, Zina Shperling USA, 951 44th St, Brooklyn, NY 11219 Landmann, Genia Gorodeysky, Channa REHOVOT, 34 Weizman St, Tel.08-473646 Landmann, Gershon Yuval RAMAT HASHARON, 6 Hat'ena, Tel. 03-474065 (Grisha) Landman, Sheva Zeiden TEL AVIV, 37 Reines, Tel. 03-244385 Laps, Yehezkel KIRYAT TIV'ON, 23 Amnon Vetamar, Tel. 04-931448 Laser, Miriam TEL AVIV, 3/7 Modigliani, Tel. 03-222027 Leibovitz, David TEL AVIV, 32 Sholem Aleichem, Tel. 03-283528 Levi, Polia & Abraham HAIFA, 7/a Ahuza Yaarot, Tel.04-243402 Levin, Musha Abraham KIRYAT ATA, 8/20 Jabotinsky Levin, Anne Linder ENGLAND, Manchester 8, 40 Belhaven Rd, Crumpsall Levinson, Hermann JERUSALEM, 112/27 Talpiot Mizrach, Tel. 02-718786 Levitan, Chaim TEL AVIV, 18 Arba Aratzot, Tel.03-231434 Levitan, Shulamit Rubinstein BINYAMINA, Nahlat Jabotinsky Libauer, Hillel 78 Milton Manor, Milton Road, Sea Point, Cape Town, South Africa 8001. Age: 95 (1997); Emigrated to S.Africa in 1924. Tel. No: +27 21 4349085 (This name not in original book; added by Harry Hurwitz, firstname.lastname@example.org) Lichter, Vera Shomroni KIBBUTZ AFIKIM, D.N. Emek Hayarden Lichtman, Raya Edelstein USA, 57 St. East, Brooklyn, NY Lifshitz, Musha Levin KIRYAT ATA, 8/20 Jabotinsky Lipkin, Jenny USA, 31-01 82nd St, Jackson Hts, NY 11370 Litovsky, Fanny USA, 8300 Scott Level Rd, Baltimore, MD 21208 Loewenson, Jeffry USA, 22544-3 Jeffrey Mark Ct, Chatworth, CA 91311 Loewius, Ella Goldberg TEL AVIV, Kiryat Shalom, 11/4 Kochavey Yitzhak Tel. 03-372810 Ludzin, Sam USA, 9 Tancin Ln, Clifton, NJ 07013 Lukanzaver, Fania Herz PARDESS HANNA, Neve Asher, Tel. 063-77126 JERUSALEM, 10/3 Saadia Ga'on, Tel.02-669544 Lurie, Esther Shapira TEL AVIV, 135 Arlosorof, Tel. 03-255288 Lurie, Frieda Gewirtzman TEL AVIV, 7 Pinkas Lurie, Hassia Ram CANADA, 535 Sheppard Av, 802 Downsview, Ontario Lurie, Israel KIRYAT ARBA, House 303, Tel. 02-961380 Lurie, Raya Kochav KFAR YONA, 17 Olei Hagardom, Tel.053-85586 Lurie, Shifra Katz, TEL AVIV, 6 Sd. Melech David, Tel.03-266869 Lutrin, Bella Neufeld HAIFA, 30 Shoshanat Hacarmel, Tel.04-87313 Magidson, Hirsh SOUTH AFRICA, I. Robertson St, Observatory Ex. 2, Johannesburg, 422 Cold View Hts. Magidson, Jules BELGIUM, 1180 Bruxelles, Rue H. Van Zuylen 78, Bte. 26 Magnus, Pessel CANADA, 129 Oak Park Av, Toronto, Ontario M4C 4M7 Malach, Raya Hirsch HAIFA, 81 Alef Hatishbi Mansfeld, Miriam Ingber JERUSALEM, 7 Giv'at Bet Hakerem, Block 3, Tel. 02-531690 Mansfeld, Paula CANADA, Ottawa Manuchovitz, Rosa Ish Shalom TEL AVIV, 52 Pinkas, Tel. 03-456548 Markuze, Oscar USA, 92 Pitt St, Portland, Maine Matusevitz, Naomi Fooks AUSTRALIA, 32 Howtit Rd, Caulfield 3161, Melbourne Meisel, Judith Kaufman, Ita TEL AVIV, 19 Ahad Haam, Tel. 03-200245 Meisel, Mali Scheinbaum KIBBUTZ SHEFAYIM Meisel, Riva Ellman NETANIA, 71/9 Nordau Mendelson, Mary Magaram BAT YAM, 39 Maimon, Tel. 03-5514269 Mendelstamm, Judith Wolff W. GERMANY, Bayerische Str. 4, 1000 Berlin 15 Merya, Yaakov RAANANA, 9 Borochov, Tel. 052-34407 Meturan, Yaakov KIRYAT YAM B', 77/5 Sharett, Tel.04-704528 Michelson, Abrasha Michaelson USA, 6958 Woodman Av, Van Nuys, CA 91405 Michelson, Anni Winograd SOUTH AFRICA, Hillbrow, Pretoria St., 804 Dungaree Ct. Mindlin, George (Gersy) BELGIUM, Brussels, 37 Av. Bel-Air Wezenbec Mindlin, Musia Wulfson USA, 355 Eastabruk St, N 307, San Leandro, CA 94511 Minsker, Tania Sorkin TEL AVIV, 22 Shlomzion, Tel. 03-450965 Mirkin, Arie JERUSALEM, 10 Chopin, Tel. 02-631483 Moed, Rita Mansfeld TEL AVIV, 3 Wilson, Tel. 03-611593 Nechimovsky, Batia Nachmani BEER SHEVA, 77/9 Derech Massada Neuberger, Effi CANADA, Willowdale, Ontario, M2H 2B5, Nicole Ave. 114 ME Neufeld, Shlomo HAIFA, 16 Avigail, Tel. 04-246732 Neufeld, Yitzhak (Kuklia) HAIFA, 30a Shoshanat Hacarmel, Tel.04-87313 Nieburg, Aviva Braver BAT YAM, 15 Tabenkin, Tel. 03-593851 Nisselowitz, Gabi Mordel HOLON, Kiryat Sharett, 39/5 Ramat Hagolan, Tel. 03-809360 Nitzan, Shlomo TEL AVIV, Yad Eliyahu, 13 Hapalmach Nizetzik, Anni Rosen TEL AVIV, 7 Hashoftim, Tel.285850 Novitzky, Etta Maltinsky RAMAT GAN, 10 Hamarganim, Tel. 03-794937 Novitzky, Miriam Armon GIV'ATAYIM, 7 Aravei Hanahal, Tel.03-775787 Novitzky, Riva Buchman HAIFA, Kiryat Eliezer, 15 Hazayit, Tel.04-537704 Novitzky, Sarah Garfinkel TEL AVIV, 77 Ben Yehuda, Tel.03-242203 Oppenheimer, Inge Blutstein TEL AVIV, 46 Shimon Hatarsi, Tel.03-456663 Paperna, Dr. Aharon (Arnold) TEL AVIV, 36 Shenkin, Tel. 03-282946 Pausner, Rivka PETACH TIKVA, 4 Feierberg, Tel.03-903736 Pecker, Boris SAFED, 609/10 Hanassi, Tel.067-74516 Peer, Nahum (Uma) GIV'ATAYIM, 14 Sde Boker, Tel.03-319862 Perlmann, Liuba BAT YAM, Tel. 03-5510495 Perzin, Wasa? Kaminsky TEL AVIV, Yad Eliyahu, 3 Yiftach, Tel.03-398828 Pessel K. Magnus, Mrs. CANADA, 129 Oak Park Av, Toronto, Ontario, M4C 4M7 Rabinowitz, Aharon (Harry) Yariv RAMAT HASHARON, 20 Harimon, Tel.03-276877 Rabinovitz, Sorel Tankel TEL AVIV, 24 Hanitzachon Rd, Tel.03-219795 Rabinson, Gitta Dafner Rakovitzky, Rita Matelsky RAMAT HASHARON, 28 Zayin Besheshvan, Tel. 03-483502 Rapoport, Lena Charpak, Ilana TEL AVIV, 11 Antokolsky, Tel.03-244512 Ravit, Lisa Ravid TEL AVIV, 29 Bar Kochba, Tel.03-283464 Reikin, Gershon REHOVOT, 11/5 Sderot Chen (c/o Milstein), Tel. 08-450091 Revi, Liuscha & Eliyahu Ravid MA'ALE ADUMIM, 31 Hanevel, Tel. 02-252026 Rocefpinelli, Greta FRANCE, 9 rue Saulinier Rogalin, Olga Brodetzky GIV'ATAYIM, 16/13 Rachel, Tel. 03-316690 Rolof, Yaakov HAIFA, 126 Nof Yam, Tel.04-89148 Rosenberg, Rita Edelmann NETANIA, 71/9 Nordau Rosengarten, James ENGLAND, Hampstead, London, Bishop Gate 6 Rozay, Lilly USA, 12630 Califa St, N. Hollywood, CA 91607 Rothstein, Lea TEL AVIV, 34 Reines, Tel. 03-223533 Russinek, Ezra JERUSALEM, Ramat Eshkol, Rassco 154/7, Tel. 08-886192 Russinek, Miriam Eytan JERUSALEM, 6 Shlein St, Tel. 02-535396 Sackman, Meir Gil'adi HOLON, 4 Hatabor, Tel. 03-847827 Sachs, Rosa & Emanuel Kahn USA, 26 Falmouth Beach, Brooklyn, NY 11235 Sacks, Hilda Fisher ENGLAND, London, 1ND, 61 Essex Park, Finchley N. 3 Shalamin, Minna Gurfinkel CANADA, 1704-155 Marlee Av, Toronto, Ontario M6B 4B5 Samuelson, Gindor Chaif NAZARETH ILIT, 6 Yodfat, Tel.065-71172 Samuelson, Hassia KIRYAT YAM, 18/12 Tabor Samuelson, Hesi KIRYAT YAM, 18/12 Tabor, Tel.04-736198 Samuelson, Israel BEER SHEVA, 11 Baalei Tosafot Samuelson, Mali Feldmann BEER SHEVA, 14/26 Sinai, Tel. 057-424619 Samuelson, Moshe (Mausi) BEER SHEVA, Daled Zafon, 11 Baalei Tfutzot, Tel. 057-425394 Sand, Raya Raffer USA, 1935 Lakewood Rd, Toms River, NJ 08753 Sapir, Sarah Orlansky PETAH TIKVA, 5 Pinsker, Tel.02-913742 Schapiro, Jenny & Ephraim REHOVOT, 20 Levin-Epstein, Tel.08-457446 Schapiro, Ida Bocian CANADA, 535 Sheppards Av, Apt 202, Downsview, W. Ontario Shapiro, Jenny LOD, 9 Melech David Blvd. Schapiro, Mura Johansen SWEDEN, 12237 Enskewe, Sockenvaegen 373-I Schatz, Ida Streimer RAANANA, 120 Ahuza Schechter, Bertha Gottlieb TEL AVIV, 22 Emanuel Blvd, Tel.03-242946 Schefkind, Nathan CANADA, 5704 Queen Mary Md., Montreal, Quebec H4X 1X6 Scheftel, Immanual TEL AVIV, 17 Zlotopolsky, Tel. 03-246987 Scheftel, Bella Kess TEL AVIV, 10/24 Racanati, Tel. 03-424673 Shelkan, Grisha USA, 31 Hobart Rd, Newton Center, MA 02159 Scherman, Esther McDonald USA, 517 W. 39th St, Wilmington, DE 19802 Schimshe?ewitz, Jenia Goldberg TEL LITVINSKY, Goldberg House, Tel.03-750953 Schles, Chaim HAIFA, 32 Hamitzpe, Tel.04-225405 Shlesinger, Betty & Max TEL AVIV, 16 Hakalir, Tel.03-230966 Schmulovitz, Mr. & Mrs. USA, 65-39 10th St, Apt B8, Forest Hills, NY 11375 Schmulovitz, Yitzhak & Susi HAIFA, 1 Lotos, Tel. 04-85612 Schneider HAIFA, Neve Sha'anan, 9 Alef Maimon Tel. 04-22392 Scheiderovitz, Yehoshua Shani BEER SHEVA, Omer, Eshel Schuster, Rosa Sarid KIBBUTZ MATZUVA, D.N. Galil Ma'aravi Schwab, Prof. George USA, 140 Riverside Dr. New York, NY 10024 Schwarz, Zwi (Grisha) RAMAT YOHANAN, Kfar Hamaccabi P.O. Segal, Etta Cohen SOUTH AFRICA, Emarentia, Johannesburg, 24 Illovo Rd. Seligman, Jenny KIBBUTZ EIN GEV, D.N. Emek Hayarden Seligmann, Masha Sigelmann TEL AVIV, 3 Bnei Moshe, Tel. 03-246628 Semach, Ida NETANIA, Kiryat Zans, Old Age Home, Tel. 053-32886 Singer, Leah JERUSALEM, 30 Barilan, Tel. 02-630412 Sirton, Avraham TIV'ON, 21 Dizengoff Siwzon, Jenny Sperber FRANCE, 75 Paris 6e, 83 Rue N.D. des Champs Siwzon, Jetty Tresco FRANCE, 92130 Issy-Les-Moulinaux, Paris, 6 rue Voisembert Skutelsky, Hilda & Michel TEL AVIV, 4/24 Gen. Koenig, Tel.03-581989 Skutelsky, Karmel BAT YAM, 16 Haneviim, Tel.03-876708 Skutelsky, Reuven TEL AVIV, 151 Dizengoff Sobotka, Mia SWEDEN, Brandhagen 12438, Stockholm, Vrenawegen 2 Soloweitchik, Dora Mozes ZICHRON YAAKOV Soloweitchik, Emanuel FRANCE, Paris 8e, 34 rue de Bassano Solway, Max AUSTRALIA, Garden Vale 3185, Melbourne, 70 Garden Vale Rd., 19 Norwood Rd., Unit 2, North Caulfield 3162 Sommer, Linda Etkin HAIFA, Aba Hillel Silver 35/3, Tel.04-220033 Sorkin, Avraham TEL AVIV, 22 Shlomzion, Tel.03-450965 Spector, Johanna USA, 400 W. 119th St, New York, NY 10027 (nee Lichtenberg) Spector, Lea & Elias USA, 33-05 90th St, Jackson Hts, NY 11372 Stein, Dvora Chassid NETANIA, 82 Herzl, Tel. 053-91718 Tagrin, Chaim TEL AVIV, 6 Bracha Fuld, Tel.03-221979 Tankelovitz, Lexy HERZLIA, Nof Yam, 1 Hat'ena, Tel.052-72418 Tcharnay, Ania & Samuel USA, 388 Avenue X, Apt 37, Brooklyn, NY 11223 Tcharney, Morris NEVE SHARETT, 19/2 Almagor, Tel.03-482063 Teitz, Yaffa Weiselberg TEL AVIV, 22 Ashtori Haparchi, Tel.03-448264 Tevelov, Shoshana Dannenberg HOLON, 21 Hechalutz Tevelov, Zusia HOLON, 118 Hahistadrut, Tel.03-802349 Thon, Sarah HAIFA, 59 D'Israeli, Tel. 04-241564 Timor, Avraham NEHALIM, nr. Petah-Tikva Urdang, Liuba Zipstein TEL AVIV, 6 Pinkas, Tel. 03-455715 Urdang, Bob Ur-Dan, Zeev TEL AVIV, 3 Rachel St, Tel. 03-228404 Vestermanis, Mause (Michelle) FRANCE, Paris 75016, 17 Blvd. de Mont Moreney Vogelman, Abrascha (Arnold) Engel USA, POB 18109, Somerton Station, Philadelphia, PA 19116 Wachtel, Max USA, 628 N. Oakhurst Dr, Beverly Hills, CA 90210 Wasserman, Lipa HAIFA, Kiryat Shmuel, 22 Torah V'Avoda Wachsler, Jakob RAMAT GAN, 6 Ovadia, Tel. 03-749978 Weinberg, Leah Bleiberg TEL AVIV, Yad Eliyahu, 7 Emek Ayalon, Tel. 03-398257 Weinberg, Rosa Nieburg BAT YAM, 21B/18 Nitzana, Tel. 03-580435 Weinberg, Zilla Blumenfeld HERZLIA, Glil Yam Weinbrand, Chava HAIFA, 13 Zion St. Weinreich, Gert & Miroza REHOVOT, 36/14 Kiryat Moshe Weinstein, Mania Adler USA, 2060 Princeton Rd, Salt Lake City, UT 84109 Weissfeld, Mary Boyar BAT YAM, Ramat Hanassi, 8/45 Harav Levi, Tel. 03-5510493 Weiss, Chaim & Mali AUSTRALIA, 2 Munro Av, Carnegie 3163, Melbourne Weiss, Jenia Flatow TEL AVIV, 15 Modigliani, Tel. 03-266803 Westermann, Aharon NETANIA, 38/5 Zalman Shneur, Tel.053-53141 Westermann, Anni Feigin NEVE SHARETT, 14/16 Almagor, Tel.03-475285 Westermann, Gitta Yakoby TEL AVIV, 61/27 Mahanaim, Tel.03-392874 Westermann, Ida Teitelbaum NETANIA, 10/32 Hayesod, Tel. 053-51682 Westerman, M. Reicher USA, 6450 Greenbush, Van Nuys, CA 91401 Westermann, Raya Mazin KIRYAT HERZOG, 21 Neufeld, Tel. 03-704041 Westerman, Sonia Gavarton KIRYAT ONO, 32/22 Rechavat Hashaked, Tel. 03-359724 Yankelewitz, Berta TEL AVIV, 4 Ben Zion Blvd., Tel.03-299177 Yankelewitz, Ruth Alon AFULA, Kfar Hano'ar, Nir Ha'emek, Tel.18445 Zack, Dudi Matzdorf SOUTH AFRICA, Clairmont 7700, Capetown, 10 Feldhausen Rd. Zack, Hanna Herman SOUTH AFRICA, Greenside 2193, Johannesburg, 18 Farrel Rd. Zackmann, Oskar KIBBUTZ SHEFAYIM Zahl, Paula Wassermann NETANIA, 19 Hakablanim Zarchi, Itzhak KIBBUTZ SHEFAYIM Zausmer, Betty Gasman KIBBUTZ AFIKIM, Tel.067-51451 Zausmer, Ida Katrieli HOD HASHARON, Anilewitz, Tel.052-440842 Zausmer, Rivka PETACH TIKVA, 4 Feierberg, Tel.03-903736 Zausmer, Rosa Avni RAMAT GAN, 76 Yerushalayim, Tel.03-745987 Zausmer, Shim'on Zmiri KFAR GILEADI, D.N. Hagalil Haelion, Tel.067-44706 Zick, David SOUTH AFRICA, Linksfield, Johannesburg 2192, 46 Club St. Zick, Julius SOUTH AFRICA, Highland North, Johannesburg 2191, 82 5th Ave. Zick, Paula Blumberg TEL AVIV, 80 Dizengoff, Tel. 03-292657 Zinn, Isser SOUTH AFRICA, Sea Point, Capetown 8001, 206 Bordeaux Beach Rd. Zinn, Rochelle Katz SOUTH AFRICA, Sea Point, Capetown, 211 Wave Crest, Solomon Rd. Zirinsky, Sore Schiff TEL AVIV, 30 Ruppin, Tel.03-226072 Ziv, Elka GIV'AT CHAIM/Ihud Znaimer, Sigrid Quick ENGLAND, Morden, Surrey SM4 4TB, 28 Wolsey Crescent LIST OF LIBAUERS IN THE SOVIET UNION Baskin, Moshe USSR, Riga Baskin, Sarah Hatkevitz USSR, Charkov Bassel, Lida Silber USSR, Riga Bassel, Sonia Schmushkevitz USSR, Riga Davidson, Liova USSR, Libau Deutsch, Meir USSR, Riga Epstein, Mascha Blumenthal USSR, Riga Friedlander, Henny Siwzon USSR, Libau Friedlander, Rosa Kiel USSR, Krasnoyarsk Glasner, Lina Hermer USSR, Libau Hirschberg, Bunja Ausmann USSR, Sverdlovsk Hirschberg, Selig USSR, Libau Hirschhorn, Hessy USSR, Libau Israelson, Jascha USSR, Libau Israelson, Paula USSR, Libau Itrov, Moritz USSR, Riga Itrov, Susse USSR, Riga Kagan, Rosa Linger USSR, Riga Kagan, Schura USSR, Riga Kahn, Illa USSR, Riga Katz, Rosa USSR, Libau Kiel, Dagania Kurlandsky USSR, Krasnoyarsk Kiel, David USSR, Krasnoyarsk Landau, Freddy USSR, Prokopyevsk Linkemer, Johanna Genson USSR, Libau Linkemer, Kalman USSR, Riga Lipmann, Ada Kramer USSR, Riga Lipmann, Ruth Kahn USSR, Riga Loewenstein, Mady Chnoch USSR, Riga Mendelstamm, Pessach USSR, Libau Mendelstamm, Rachel USSR, Libau Paperna, Fira USSR, Riga Paperna, Rosa USSR, Riga Rosenberg, Liowa USSR, Libau Schoenberger, Sima USSR, Riga Schoenberger, Ziva USSR, Prokopyevsk Spektor, Elchanan USSR, Moscow Sicj, Max USSR, Libau Skutelsky, Scheike USSR, Libau Tscharney, Mendel USSR, Riga Weinreich, Erna USSR, Libau Zahl, Minna Hellmann USSR, Riga Zahl, Mischa USSR, Riga Zahl, Taube USSR, Riga Seligmann, Leo USSR, Riga Selkin, Oscar USSR, Minsk
I was born and grew up in the city of Libau. One day in 1934, I sauntered into the Revisionist clubhouse on Kaufstrasse, and found there an especially tense atmosphere resulting from having received news of the "Ari resolution", confirmed at the last Zionist Congress, according to which it had been decided not to grant certificates to Beitar members; and that all the Beitar members present there, who were slated to receive certificates from Beitar's quota could just forget such a possibility.
I was saddened to see the many dissappointed faces of those who had been waiting so many years to receive the certificates, especially when they broke out with shouting and weeping. I, with the chutzpa of youth with which I'm endowed, found it difficult to see their helplessness, and reacting spontan- eously, announced on the spot that I was ready to lead anyone who was willing to join me to the Land of Israel.
In their great despair, almost all those present signed up, and it was agreed to meet the next evening, so that in the meantime I would be able to clarify details of the trip and its cost.
The expense of travelling by train and then by ship to Lebanon, that is, to the city of Beirut, came to approximately six pounds sterling, and the time estimated for the trip was about 14 days. The cost of the trip, including hotels and food, would total about ten pounds sterling for each traveller.
Therefore, I announced to all those interested who had registered at the club that I would be able to bring to the Land anyone who would make available to me 10 pounds sterling. Only 12 remained who announced that they could get the sum required, but it was not possible for the rest to provide this amount. Finally, when they had to bring the money, there were only six people who could finance such a large expenditure.
With the help of Yasha Disenchik, who was the secretary of Rabbi Mordecai Nurok, a member of parliament, we received visas for Lebanon, and this was through recommendations of all kinds of companies for whom we were, so to speak, their business representatives. The travel route was: by train to Riga, from Riga to Warsaw, from Warsaw to Bucharest, from Bucharest to Constanza, and from there by ship to Constantinople, and from there by train to Beirut.
The trip was carried out as planned, and in this way we reached Beirut. We arranged to stay at a hotel in the city, and I went to the synagogue to meet with Jews. From them I learned who handled "border jumping". I was asked to pay half a pound for each person, and all the luggage had to be left in the hands of the "smuggler".
The next evening we reported, with the suitcases, to the designated place. We deposited all our suitcases (which were never returned to us) and were seated in a car which was supposed to bring us into our country. After riding for several hours, we reached a place from which we had to proceed on foot. The guide led us into the darkness on an untravelled difficult route, fraught with dangers, until we reached a place that he declared was Eretz Yisrael, and indeed, as we later learned, it was the moshava Metulla.
Not until I saw the mezuzah on the door of the "Snows of Lebanon" Hotel was I convinced that this was indeed, Eretz Yisrael.
As had been agreed, I gave our Arab guide the second half of the pack of "Mattosian" cigarettes as proof that he had received the payment due him for having guided us.
It was close to midnight when I knocked on the door of the hotel. The door was opened, and when I explained that we were illegal immigrants, we were graciously received. We were given tea and sandwiches and instructed how to reach Kfar Giladi. We were told that British policemen, who usually were on patrol, were not in the habit of shooting illegal immigrants, and if we met up with any of them, we could definitely run and escape. We walked in a single file until we reached the gates of Kfar Giladi. When I knocked on the gate it was opened by the guard, who happened to be Yankele Yankelovitz, a fellow from "Hashomer Hatzair", from Libau, who also was well acquainted with me. He received us and put us in the attic of the meeting (dining) hall, and explained to us that we must lie here quietly until we would hear from him what was to be done with us.
At night, the kibbutz members held a meeting to discuss what to do with the Revisionists who had arrived there the day before. I heard the debate through the hole meant for the gas lamp; there were three proposals: the first, to turn us over to the British police, as they didn't want Revisionists in the country (and indeed, this was after the murder of Arlosorov). The second was that in spite of this, we should be helped to reach inland, as here they would fight for us - after all we were Jews. The third proposal, which was adopted, was that they should not take any action: that we would cope alone as best we could.
Yankele came to us in the morning, bringing food and postcards so that we could write to our families or friends, if we had any such in the country, asking them to come for us. And so we wrote to our relatives, and two days later they came to take us. Also, representatives of the Beitar platoon led us, of course at night, past Rosh-Pinah (which was the British policemen's custom post), bypassing the main road, on payment of 25 grush for each person.
Beyond Rosh-Pinah a truck was waiting to take us to Haifa, where we finally separated, because some of the people had relatives in Haifa, and others went on to Tel-Aviv by train.
Thus we reached Palestine - the Land of Israel.
In this way, the first vicissitudes of our settling in Eretz Yisrael came to an end.
At the beginning of the 1920's most of the Jews of Libau were organized in "Macabee" and the youth joined the ranks of the boy and girl scouts, who, organizationally, were affiliated with "Macabee" and made use of its clubhouse and stadium.
In 1925 the scouts split up, and "Beitar" came into being under the leadership of the late Hanoch (Harry) Levy, and "Hashomer Hatzair" under the leadership of Rachel Walpovsky. As far as can be recalled, Beitar and Hashomer shared a common clubhouse on Kungu iela St. and the young people went from room to room to dance the hora.
Beitar grew strong and flourished between 1930 and 1933. Against the back- ground of assimilating Judaism with its attraction to German culture, and the indifference in certain circles to the Zionist idea, Beitar played a not insignificant role in preparing the Jewish youth for immigration to the Land of Israel and the establishment of an independent Jewish state; more than a few Beitar members underwent training at the agricultural farm and in communal groups near Libau, and in 1935-36 there was even an urban group.
Unfortunately, from 1934 on, no certificates for immigration to the land of Israel were received, and this being the situation, a group was formed in Libau that migrated illegally by way of Lebanon in the guise of tourists. The initiator of the group was Jack Yakobson, who subsequently instructed other Beitar members how to slip into the country.
The Beitar of Libau participated every year in summer camps, either as part of the Kurland camp or that of the all-Latvian camps.
In 1933 the camp was at Liegi. In 1934 a large camp took place at the Beldona farm. In 1936 it was held at the seaside in Riga, with a record number of 700 taking part. In 1937 a camp was organized near Koldiga, led by a counselor from the land of Israel, Arye Ben-Eliezer, who subsequently became one of the "Etzel" leaders and deputy chairman of the Knesset. In 1938 a large camp was held on the Vangazi agricultural farm.
The change in the Latvian regime which took place on May 15, 1934 to some extent brought to a halt the external activities of Beitar (as well as that of other organizations) but this did not keep the Beitar members from boycotting the summer concerts of the Philharmonic orchestra when the conductor was a guest from Germany. At the entrance to Kus, Latvians as well as Jews were called upon not to attend the concert; as a result those responsible were summoned to the Latvian secret police, who began keeping an eye on Beitar's activities.
Several years later, when the British hanged Shlomo Ben-Yosef in Acre prison, the Jewish nation in the Land and in the Diaspora were enraged. In Libau, stones were thrown at the window of the British consulate, and the windows of the Libausche Zeitung press, which had labelled Shlomo Ben-Yosef "a bandit", were broken. This time, too, the secret police knew who to bring in for investigation.
Despite the ban on demonstrations and parades, all the members of Beitar, wearing white shirts, marched from the Beitar clubhouse to the Great Synagogue for the eulogy given by Rabbi Dr. Nurok, and finished the assembly with the singing of Hatikvah.
In June 1940, when the Red Army entered Libau, we hastened to burn all written material that could incriminate anyone.
It was a pity to vacate the Kaufstrasse clubhouse, having to leave behind the oversized oil painting of "Matityahu and his Sons", that had been hanging on the wall since the 1920's, when the clubhouse still belonged to "Macabee".
To the credit of all Beitar members, it should be noted that none of the Command activists was arrested, and the KGB had to be content with revealing those people who officially were in charge of Beitar activity.
The educational work that went on in Beitar, as in all the other Zionist organizations, was not in vain, and those who survived the Holocaust - and they were few - turned their eyes towards Zion.
I was born in 1907 to my parents, Abraham and Asna, in Libau, Latvia. I studied at the Waldstein school. In the afternoons I went to cheder (Hebrew School). We were six children at home. The girls were Rosa and Jenny. The boys were Rudolph, Jacob, Oscar and myself, Israel.
When I was seven, the First World War broke out. My father went to Russia to work in the army. He was a tailor and his speciality was uniforms for generals and other officers. There was a severe shortage of food, as most of the food available was taken by the German army. When I was nine, I remember there was no bread. I was able to obtain work at a bakery and used to prepare and load the bread. I did not receive a wage - but received a loaf of bread instead. This was worth a great deal. Before I worked at the bakery some one had to stand in the bread line about a kilometer long all day, and sometimes when one reached the head of the queue all the bread was gone. My mother used to go to a farm to buy beans. When she came home we had a wonderful meal. This happened once a week, - a meal of beans! When sirens sounded we used to go down into the shelters and the city was bombed. The main target was the vicinity of the harbour, so our house was not damaged. After the all clear siren sounded and we could leave the shelter, we used to search for bomb shrapnel. This we used to sell for quite a lot of money. There were so many disturbances because of the war that we spent most of the time in the shelters and did not study.
From the age of 14 to 17 I was also in the scouts. When I was 15, I left school, and went to work in the largest sewing machine shop in Latvia. I repaired sewing machines, knitting machines, typewriters and bicycles, etc.
When I was 16 I used to play ice hockey. I was naturally athletic and also played soccer for the Maccabi team. I was in the Maccabi organization for four years. I also used to go sailing.
By the time I was 19, I had earned a great deal of money, and the war had passed. So I bought a motorcycle. At weekends I used to ride everywhere; to Memel in Lithuania, near the Latvian border, and sometimes to Koenigsberg (Kaliningrad) in Germany.
At age 21, I entered the Latvian army and served for 15 months.
When my uncle came for a visit from South Africa, he suggested that I return with him, which I did in 1936. I found work in the largest clothing factory in South Africa. After a year I was forced to leave South Africa (the South African Jewish immigration quota had been filled). My uncle would not permit me to return to Latvia, because of the outbreaks of anti-semitism there. This was before the start of the Second World War. I remembered the street battles we had to fight with a very large gang of young anti-semites.
So I went to Rhodesia, where I worked for four years in a clothing factory (in Bulawayo). When I was in the hotel there, I met your grandmother and we were married in 1942. We have two daughters, Judy, born in 1943, who lives in Ashkelon and Leonie, born in 1946, who lives in Kochav Yair. My wife and I live in Ashkelon.
I then decided to open a factory with a partner. We did so, - a textile factory. I eventually had a shoe factory and a clothing factory.
We lived in Bulawayo for 42 years until 1978, when we made aliya to Israel. At first we lived in the Absorption Centre in Kiryat Yam, Haifa. Afterwards, when we had adjusted to our new country, we moved to Achuza, Haifa, and now we are in Ashkelon.
The Fate of My Family in Latvia:
After the start of the war, I used to correspond with the family. My mother used to write that I should return to Latvia. In 1940 the letters stopped. When I inquired, the Red Cross advised me not to write any more as it was not possible to find the family. After the war a woman survivor of the concentration camps told of the fate of the Jews of Libau thus: "One day they took all the Jews of Libau to a forest behind the Jewish cemetery and told them to dig their own graves. They then shot them all." This was the end of my father's family. It has been said that the whole city was blown up and flattened; also that today Libau is a military harbour, and when one passes by in the train, one has to close the blinds, as it is a closed security area.
Zaida was born in the Ponevesz district (Lithuania) in 1901. He lived there until the age of five, when he was taken to live in Libau, Latvia, where his father was employed as a tailor. He stayed there (about) 15 years. He left Libau in 1921 and arrived in Cape Town, South Africa, on 12th December, 1921.
Zaida's Reasons for Leaving Latvia: His parents did not want him to be in the Latvian Army. They feared for him because the army was anti-semitic, and Jews were badly treated during their three years' service. The whole family stood on the quay to bid farewell to their eldest son/brother. Zaida decided on South Africa because his three uncles had settled there previously. He paid for the ship passage, but his Uncle (Alec Broide) deposited #35 sterling (a great deal of money in those days) as guarantee that he would not be a burden to the state. Zaida's intention was to bring out the rest of the family, and, in fact, after a few years he brought out his two sisters and three brothers. (He brought out Renee in 1924 and the rest in 1928, after the death of their mother). His father died in Libau in 1931. The family members who remained in Libau were murdered in the Holocaust. (His cousin, Israel (Issy) Hurwitz, left Libau in 1936 for South Africa, and later Southern Rhodesia. Another cousin, Rudolph, moved to Petrograd - now St. Petersburg - in the 1920's).
Zaida's Father (Hirshe-Meyer Hurwitz): Zaida's father was a tailor - his brother taught him the trade. His brother had learned the trade in Petrograd and used to obtain the latest styles from there. He made suits, and coats with fur collars and sometimes fur-lined, which took up to a week and more to make.
Zaida's Trade: Zaida was a barber and had his own business, with a staff of two, at the age of 15. He did cutting, shaving and shampooing. He gave whatever he earned to his parents, but kept a little pocket money for himself.
Where Zaida Lived: Zaida lived in old Libau, in Broeder Strasse. Jews, Gentiles and Germans lived together. The family lived in a ground floor apartment in a three story building. There was no running water but there was a pump nearby, and the water was heated on a coal stove (also used for cooking). There was another stove which was lit towards evening, when the family came from work. The front of the stove was left open and the tiles would warm up. The family would then stand against the tiles to warm up. Toilets were outside the apartment and the municipality used horse-drawn wagons, into which the waste was pumped.
Zaida's Memories of Libau: Libau was divided into the Old City and the New City.
The Old City: There was the Shul and the market place. The market was known for it's berries, especially cherries; oranges were imported from the Caucasus; "blood" oranges were also available. Timber was brought to the market from the forests - this was a peasant trade. Wood choppers were hired at the market to cut logs for burning in the household ovens. There was also fruit, fish fresh from the sea and dairy products. There was also a meat market.
The New City: Here was the railway station, from which one could travel to all parts of Russia.
Trades of the Jews: Jews were shoe makers, barbers, horse-drawn cab drivers, shop keepers (e.g. drapers, haberdashers), hotel keepers. Jews were also to be found in professions such as doctors, dentists and teachers. Some practised without a degree.
Recreation: There were:
Jewish men dressed the same as the Latvians: Gallife: pants tucked into boots, or sometimes material 15 cm wide was wrapped around the pants-bottoms in place of boots. Men wore soft-peaked caps. Bathing Costumes: these were at first long-sleeved and long-legged, but a new fashion caught on - short sleeves! At first there was separate bathing even amongst the Latvians.
Education: There were government schools, but many Jews attended "Cheders" where they learned German and Russian in the morning and Hebrew in the afternoon. Gymnasia was the senior school.
Languages: German, Russian and Latvian were spoken. Jews generally spoke only Yiddish at home.
Religion: The Jews led a traditional life and worked out of necessity on Shabbat. Most went to Shul on the high holy days. They observed pesach - matzot were baked locally and the holidays were celebrated in the Shul.
Jewish Community Services: This was an organized community. Amongst the services were:
Social Services, which helped Jews in distress
A 50-minute film, "The Girls from Libau," (Hebrew title: Ha'Banot mi'Libau) was produced in Israel by Yarkon Productions, Ltd, Video Center, Givat Chaviva. It was produced for Holocaust Day, 1994 and has been televised every year since then on Israeli TV.
It is a most moving portrait of the lives of Libau Jews before and during the war, through six woman survivors who meet in Tel Aviv. There are scenes of old Libau, songs, reminiscences and experiences (harrowing and otherwise); and one gets to know these women and Libau through their shared experiences. It is well produced and my family found it fascinating. The version shown here was in English, Hebrew and Yiddish.
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Updated 23 Feb 2002 by LA