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Rozniatow

By Pinio Kanner Moshe David Lutwak
(From English Section)

Stand at a vantage point on the market square and take a view of our township: The balmy weather of a Friday afternoon, the sun receding slowly with a red glow in the skies, and the old bearded shammes synagogal caretaker just walking around with the loud call: "IN SHUL ARAIN" "TO THE SYNAGOGUE!". This signalled the approaching Sabbath, 7th Day of Creation, day of rest, prayer, celebration. The cabs and drivers, always in the square on their service to and fro the Railway Station at Krechowice, some 7 Km distant, have terminated their runs by noon. Any peasants with carts, still in the market place, are leaving, the horse's hoofs beating the dry dirt road, dividing the square in two nearly, but not quite, equal halves. Metal rollshutters are being drawn on some of the shops around the square, others are bolting and padlocking wooden, russet or brown painted, doors and gradually quiet is coming to reign over the township. A last cart of a local peasant, returning from the fields, is speedily galloping down the road, soon to disappear over the bend, leading out of the square, and the first lean figure, clad in black satin coat, "Shtraimel" (velvet cap with foxtails around) on his head, feet in white socks and slippers, emerges on the paved walk, on the way to the Friday evening prayers at the chassidic synagogue called the "Clause". It is Faivel Reissler, his thin long beard fluttering like a white flag, while he is vigorously striding with prayer book under his arm. In the opposite direction, a late customer of the communal baths crosses the square in half run, hastening home to dress and be in time again at his place of prayer the Synagogue or the Bet-Hamidrash near by. The three places of worship, situated close to another at a small square just off the main market place, are now the aim of all, and you can watch them. Here, at the entry to the market square near the shop of Meier Fraenkel, you see emerging Leisor-Itzig Loew benevolent smile on his face and neatly dressed; Wolf Hoffmann, then president of the Kehilla Jewish Community proudly coming along as befits his importance; Hersch Mendel Artmann, flour merchant and with Jeckel Spiegel, seller of kerosene, the only two whom I remember for addressing my grandfather, Chanina Weissmann, with the intimate "thou". This was explained by the fact that the three were as children pupils of the same "cheder", the religious boys-school. Except for the residents of the northern suburb, called "Altes Dorf" (old Village) who had a place of prayer in their quarter, all male Jews, old and young down to age of 3-6, assembled in the brightly lit three houses of prayer to celebrate the Sabbath, dressed for the occasion in their best clothes. It was known and accepted that, if any head of family was missing and not at his regular seat, he is either out of town, or laid up by illness, and his neighbours would exchange information on the point, upon conclusion of the prayers, on the way home.

As a youngster I often accompanied my grandfather to prayers, and remember the explanation he offered on my inquisitive wonderment of the haste of Faivel Reissler, of whom I stood in awe. Why, so it should be leaving home for the synagogue is for the purpose of attending a blessed function and only a fool would not make haste on such an occasion. Prayers are a dialogue with the Creator and submission of requests, therefore respect and good manners demand that one is in good time for this appointment, and is w ell prepared for this important meeting. Contrariwise, while walking home from prayers all took it easy, going in pairs or groups, chatting friendly among the general exchange of "GOOD SHABBES" wishes, the offering of which was to mark deference and regard in a formal manner, or neighbourly kindness and friendship among equals. With the blessing of "GOOD SHABBES" on the lips, the spouse and family are greeted upon coming home to a prepared dinner: white table-cloth, lighted candles, all dressed for the Sabbath and ready for benediction and subsequent dining. This marked the end of a busy and hardworking week, and the obligatory white bread, finer dishes and enjoyment of life were shared by the family at the table, while work, business and secularoccupations rested. So also stillness and calm came to rest over the Jewish Rozniatow.

To many it may have been the religious content of this seemingly idyllic celebration of the Sabbath, to some chassidim even their exhilarating experience of praying and blessing, at which they believed themselves in presence of God, while to the many "small folks" it simply was a day of better food and relaxation to all, however, it was the clear, undoubted and proud manifestation of Jewishness. The cohesion of the religion became by long tradition and many usages of the Sabbath the dividing line between Jew and Gentile, and the observance of this day in the small township acquired a deep national significance.

While this is the Jewish Rozniatow in it's essential general features a few words need be mentioned on the secular township in which there lived also Ukrainians and Poles under a political regime that we first remember as the Habsburg Empire of Austria. This changed for the shortlived Ukrainian Republic from fall of 1918 to the summer of 1919 and then it was part of Poland till World War II. During 1940/summer 1941 it formed a part of the Soviet-Ukraine, came in the summer 1941 under German-Nazi occupation, to meet complete extermination and Holocaust of the Jewish community. Rozniatow was again "liberated" in 1945 and it forms since a part of the Soviet-Ukraine.

Historically, these parts were Polish in the XVIII. Century, and came to Austria under the name of Galicia when Poland was divided up between her three mighty neighbours Russia, Austria and Prussia. Rozniatow might have been a fief during the Polish reign, and during the early Austrian regime it was the property of the Polish family of Skarbek, feudal earls and lords over vast properties in Galicia.

There are records of a feudal contingent of 60 men from Rozniatow, contributed by the Skarbek family in the period 1835/1845 for the building of the Theatre in Lwow/Lemberg, where there was also a street of their name. The Skarbek properties in Rozniatow were still special institutional management up to World War I. and were rented later to the Glesingers, the income devoted for the Internate (College) in Chyrow, where Polish noblemen's children were educated, including children of Baron Walisz, a resident of Rozniatow. There also lived in retirement during the last years of their life an Earl Skarbek and his French wife, who augmented their small pension by giving French lessons to some Rozniatow girls. The turreted building on the hill in which the Court was located, was once the feudal Skarbek residence, of which the best preserved vestiges was the fine avenue of old limetrees, leading to the Catholic Church, on same hill overlooking the town.

Rozniatow lie in a curve of the river Duba where it is joined by the other river, the Czeczwa, and so suffered repeatedly from floods, sustaining much damage during inundations. The necessity to provide a Land Registry when the peasants were liberated in the Austrian reforms of 1948-1849, the founding of the Court and of the Postoffice on November 15th, 1850, turned Rozniatow into a township of some importance, as it became the administrative and also economical focal point for many villages, southward to the Carpathians, with a population of well over 50,000. The village of Perehinsko alone had a population of nearly 10,000, and the oil-drilling in Dubno and Rypne and modern lumber industry with two narrow-gauged railway lines from Broszniow to the vast forests in the mountains, contributed much to commercial and economic development of this otherwise backward and infertile region.

Here then, under a benevolent regime of the Austrian Empire but dependent on mostly indolent Polish administrators, who had to implement the policies of Vienna; surrounded by a backward Ukrainian peasantry whom with they continuously traded Rozniatow grew into a township of Jews who generally could stand their own.

While born in Rozniatow of an old local family my maternal grandfather Chanina Weissmann was born there 1840, and while I can well remember town and people from around 1910, when I was 6, till I left in 1926, there still are many names of which I have no personal memory, and I find a fount of most relevant information in the Reminiscences of our old friend, Moshe David Lutwak of New York. He is indeed the Chronicler of Rozniatow, registrar of types and to him thanks are due from all. I am addressing the English speaking townspeople and their, young generation in English, relying in great measure upon Moshe Lutwak, and so his name is alongside of mine as co-author of the present lines. Much of the intrinsic value and sagacious observation in the following details are the merit of Moshe, while I make an effort to say it in English and try to do justice to the original story of Moshe Lutwak.

Rozniatow had a population of some 8000, of which well over 6000 were Ukrainians, then designated Ruthenes of Unitarian Greek-Catholic creed, possibly a hundred or so of Poles and some 2000 Jews. There were barely 20-30 brick houses, most were wooden frame constructions, many still with thatched roofs, others with roofs of wooden shingles, very few with zincplated sheets. It was the township's fateful history that when a few years passed without much damage by floods and overflowing rivers, there were conflagrations, in which the fire spread instantly over the roofs and large parts of the town were consumed. The elderly people in town used to calculate local history by the Large Fire, Large Flood and considered themselves well deserving of sympathy, pitiable in Jewish a "Nebbich" and this was the nickname of the Rozniatow Jew in his Eastern Galicia.

While small scale agriculture, poultry and cattle breeding was the main occupation of the region and of the Ukrainian peasantry, the Poles were mostly state employees with a few artisans, while the commerce in every form and manner, free professions, all lines of handicrafts and main communication services were the reserve of the Jews. There were barely three Jewish owners of arable fields, and only one of them, Isaac Turteltaub, son of Leisor, the official Registrar, tilled his soil, the others employing peasants for this work. The "industry" was represented by the water driven sawmill of Tanne (on the "Fiszarka"), two flourmills and the oil-cake press of Rechtschaffen, and by a good stretch of imagination one can add also the two soft-drink "productions", of which only the one of Mihal Weissmann flourished over a period of time.

Two modern industries the sawmills of Broszniow-Krechowice of Glesingers and the oil fields at Rypne and Dubno provided much employment for the region, including Jews, and added immeasurably to the economic development of the township. The wide activities of the Jewish owned firm of Glesinger included even the renting of the Skarbek farm in Rozniatow, earlier under administration of Weigel, a vituperate antisemitic Pole. The entire region enjoyed the free fare on two narrow-gauge railway lines operated by the Glesingers for the transportation of logs from the forests, deep in the Carpathian mountains to the sawmills, providing a link between Rozniatow and many villages.

Among the Jews of Rozniatow were a few well to do families, quite a number of businessmen, earning fairly well, a large number of smaller traders and peddlers, artisans, cab drivers, porters and manual workers, who toiled hard to cover their needs, and some simply poor, like in many other communities. There were no rich, all standards then being very modest, and possibly 80% or more owned their homes, as plots and building materials were rather low priced and labour cheap and abundant. The houses on the main thoroughfare and the market square had their front parts turned into business premises, many with sign-boards and the commercial contacts with the region's populace were brisk and widest possible. Like in most townships, there was a weekly market-day on Wednesday and large market-days several times a year, to dates known by their saints, like Mihael, John, Peter and then town enjoyed its busiest trading by own and thousands of visitors, with a considerable turnover in the cattle-trading, destined mostly for resale to larger towns and even export by rail as far as Vienna. Some agricultural produce, specific of the region, like eggs, dried mushrooms and herbs, poultry were continuously purchased by specialising merchants for export, providing substistence for many who had their special connections in the villages, or by peddling personally in the villages.

The main basis of daily food was the bread, mostly baked at home for the whole week ahead, and the potato prepared in all manners and forms and consumed with modest additions, of most varied grades from cheese, fried onions and up to a salted herring. The main preoccupation of the Jewish population during weekdays being to provide for Sabbath and the festive meals with the family, this was for many also an economically serious commitment, demanding the provision of some white bread ("Challe"), wine or liquor, meat and, if feasible, sweet dessert, and be it a cooked dried prune.

Ideologically and to some extent culturally, the Jews of Rozniatow were affected by the traditional chassidism of an orthodox way of life, demonstrated also by the wearing of the long coat, wide brimmed hat, side-locks ("Payes") and strictest observance of minutest rules, regulations and usages, applied at all times and occasions. On the other side, there appeared the first opposition of "Haskala" (Culture) of the younger generation who recognised the necessity for a more modern way of life and approach to problems. This affected not only the garb, when the coat became a shorter jacket but also the contact to progressive Jewish movements, leading up to and culminating in the political Zionism, as formulated by Herzl and widely propagated in all countries, where there existed established Jewish communities. Sometime around the turn of 1900 the first CHOVEVEI ZION "club" was formed in Rozniatow, the premises serving later also for prayers on Sabbath and holidays. This club was first housed in the house of Jeckel, where later the Lusthaus family lived, and then in the house of Sosie Heller on the first floor where Dr. Feuer lived. (See No. 75 of the Map). The attorney, Dr. Wassermann, was an active member of this Zionist nucleus, members of which were Aron Weissmann, Shalom Rechtschaffen, Moshe Barnik, Dr. Berger, HershMordehai Lutwak, brothers Salomon and Isaac Gross, Lasar Tepper, Marcus Kanner, Mendel Horowitz and several others. Many were sympathizers and supporters in one way or another, and it was toward 1906 that national Jewish political activities developed, including collections for the Jewish National Fund and the visit of a delegate of the Zionists from Lwow/Lemberg, capital of Galicia. A theatrical group performed for the first time in the history of Rozniatow the play of Jacob Gordon: "The Jewish King Lear". Actors were: Shalom Rechtschaffen, Meier Taub, Aron Weissmann, Shaul Schwalb, while Barnik and Issachar Stern dressed tip as women in order to play their female impersonations.

This was still within the traditional limitations of the Jewish morals and manners, and it is noteworthy that the presentation of Holy Scrolls (Sefer Thora, Thora Scrolls) to the Chovevei Zion, in order to establish the premises also as a place of prayer, were part of the activities, alongside with the opening of the Hebrew School, much to the dislike of some chassidim. The first teacher was Reiter, followed by Herzberg and others. Pupils were mostly boys but there were also a few girls who sat separate from the boys, Hebrew was the catalyst for national awakening in Rozniatow, whose Jews in addition to religious traditions acquired so a new cohesive sentiment and drive to better their life.

Rozniatow Jews may have been typical of the Galician township in their virtues and bad habits, in the earnest and humorous of the time, but it was said that one would have to get up very early and be very smart in order to win a point over a Rozniatower.

The communal life was directed by the official council an autonomous body under Supervision of the regional Starosta, Chief of State Administration, in Dolina, and as regards the Jews, by it's own council called the Kehilla. President of the Kehillah was Veve (Wolf) Hoffmann, well to do merchant, selling kerosene and fuel-wood. Of high stature and long beard, serious and vigorous, he served also Mayor of the town, nominated of course, as was usual under the Austrian regime. It was only later, after 1920, under Polish administration that elections were held for communal offices. Some of the Hoffmann family have happily survived, like the Weissmann in U.S.A., then sons of Leo Hoffmann and also the children of Trau and Falik in Israel.

An important position in the communal life of the township was held by Zacharia Liebermann who over many years served as president of the Kehilla, and member of the town council. He was respected by the Starosta in Dolina and very influential on behalf of Rozniatow. Speaking well Polish, Ukrainian and German, he was neatly dressed, with white beard. He lived on the road leading up to the Catholic Church, and the other part of same house was held by one of the townships patriarchs, Leisor Itzik Loew, father-in-law of Liebermann and holder of state monopoly for the sale of liquor, beer and alcoholic beverages. His charity was proverbial and he was held in highest regard for kindness, assistance and help that he never refused. His son Jacob Loew married his own niece, daughter of Liebermann, and for them a new brick house was erected on part of same plot but facing the main road see No. 27 29 and 30 of the Map. Of these widely connected families only few, unfortunately, survive and we are happy to know of the Liebermann children, Clara Diamand, Anda Sternklar and my old pal, Simon Liebermann, all living in New York.

Religious and spiritual leader of the Jewish Rozniatow was Rabbi Hemerling, very learned and pious, poor but always civil and obliging, living at a corner of the marketsquare (see No. 88 of the Map). He had a weekly salary from the Kehilla, now and again only augmented by fees for marriages, arbitrations etc. Upon his demise in the 1920ths, the Dayan Yehuda Hersh Korn became the provisional office holder but he so remained over a number of years. Not having been ordained as Rabbi, he received but a low salary, a point of some importance for the elders in the Kehilla and so hiswife and children helped out by trading, to meet the family's budget, while he devoted all his efforts to the religious needs of the community, both parties being happy at the bargain.

Payments to the Kehilla for services like kosher slaughtering, burial plots, rentals of bath-house, calls to reading of the Thora during Festivals, seats at services etc. were modest, and the total income of the Kehilla was the smaller, as the best seats during prayers and many honours were held by the well to do by inheritance, all the poor were exempted, and the collecting was in general most liberal. The Kehilla never had any free cash, and special levies had to be arranged in frequent cases of urgency.

There were three main places of worship, all situated around a small square off the market-place: the large Synagogue with nearby the "Clause" and the Bet-Hamidrash. A small place for prayers was also in the suburb "Altes Dorf" (Old Village) for those living far from the center, while the young Zionists congregated for prayers in their club. Many of the leading citizens and others prayed in the large synagogue, where to came also the professionals and white collar men during the Festivals, while the "Clause" served mostly for the chassidim, led by the Rabbi. A large number of others prayed at the Bet-Hamidrash, and some citizens came to prayer on given dates to the other places of worship like visitors very likely for some reasons of tradition or usage. The synagogue had on the windows the name of the donor, David Weissmann, grandfather of Mihal Weissmann and uncle of my own grandfather Chanina Weissmann, The Beth-Hamidrash was a new building erected after 1900, and two men Samuel Schwindler and Haim-Israel Rottenberg devoted many days of manual labour in the building of their prayer-house. The "Clause" burned down in 1920, and was rebuild in brick and much improved. It is significant that the only pavement in Rozniatow run around the marketsquare and out of it to the large synagogue, as befits the building held in highest regards by all.

If the prayer-houses were the focus of communal life of the grown-ups, the youngsters were taken care of from about the age of four in private religious schools the cheder, headed by the teacher melamed. David Rottenbach, Aba Tanne, Yosel Abraham were so called "dardeke melamdim" the designation being part Aramaeic, part Hebrew for children teachers, who started the boys also on writing, of course, of the Hebrew alphabet. Boys of 7 or 8 then entered the "higher" schools, of which Haim-Simon Lutwak, Judale Kaufmann, Itzik Barnik were the principals. Lutwak, the father of our friends Moshe David and Shaiko Lutwak, was the modern educator who laid more stress on the study of biblical texts (Prophets etc.) and general Jewish subjects including letter-writing. Haim Simon Lutwak was a man of profound general education and progressive views, reading also modern Hebrew periodicals and among the first to give his sons a college education. He is remembered by many as their guide and mentor. Judale Kaufmann was a very strict disciplinarian, who concentrated on the Talmud and was the least popular of the teachers, while his son Meir Kaufmann was a respected owner of a clothing store, of modern outlook and Zionist. Itzik Barnik was a man of great talmudic learning, highly respected by all, and his son, Moshe Barnik was a teacher of Hebrew and educator who later lived in Palestine and accompanied the poet Nachman Bialik on his tour of Poland. A grandson, Barkai, is an active liberal politician in Israel.

Main places for talks, discussion of news and debates were the Bet-Hamidrash after prayers, when Yoel Tanne, just returned from his frequent visits to Vienna, reported on world politics and other topics of interest. Joel Tanne held the State Lottery, was a man of culture and dressed with a measure of elegance. Late were the hours when the lively debates ended, if he reported on news at the imperial court and political events. Sometime during World War I. Tanne left with family for Vienna.

The second place of a free debating "convention" was the front room in the house of Josef Kassner, who held the monopoly sale of tobacco and cigarettes, also of postage and revenue stamps, in a corner house on the main road (No. 47 of the Map). Kassner is remembered for his innate kindness, doing favours to many and whoever asked for a loan, was never disappointed. All had free entry to his front room but on balmy summer days, the debates would be held just in front of his house, all standing around until tired. Survivors of his family are Etty Wolter and Deborah Artmann.

A person of importance and enjoying great respect was Chanina Weissmann, owner of hotel and restaurant on the market square (see No. 81 of Map), pious, learned and outspoken. He was the honorary circumcissor (Mohel), performing the requirement as a commandment of the Thora and training several pupils, to take his place after his demise. Despite his personal orthodoxy he daily read a German newspaper and realized the necessity of a liberal secular education. The only survivor of his family is a grandson, Pinio Kanner, in Israel. A most learned chassid was Faivel Reissler, leather merchant, always the first in observing of commandments and performance of religious duty, taking daily ablutions in cold water (Mikve). His equal in piety and popular for his winning personality was Mordehai MeierBeer Kriegel, who devoted long nights to study and during the baking of Matzot before Pessach was the general supervisor of this important work. Much respected were also the ritual slaughterers, Moshele Shochet and two others by name of David one with a black, the other, David Glas, with a ginger beard. The sons of David Glas live in Israel.

Well to do and a citizen of importance was Hersh Rechtschaffen, who often led the service in the Bet-Hamidrash, assisted by his own sons in the chanting of prayers, and while strictly observant, his son Shalom was already leaning to Zionism. Three sons of the Rechtschaffen family happily survive in Israel and Australia. Among the respected and popular elders was a patriarchal flour merchant, Hersh-Mendel Artmann, whose son Isaac Artmann lived in Broszniow and was partner of Jacob Rosenthal of Perehinsko in the sawmill of Sliwek. Another son, Josef Artmann, lived in Vienna and surviving grandsons are Leo and Bucio Tepper and Bucio Widmann in America. Another elder of the town was Mayer-Aharon Londner, of great piety, two of whose sons Israel Hersh Londner and Berl Londner funded their own families and were respected merchants. Grandsons of MayerAharon are Shiyo Londner in Belgium and Yehoshua Spiegel in Israel.

Living barely 1 1/2 miles from Rozniatow was the family of Weinfeld, owners of a large farm in Swaryczow, who were coming to town in their own carriage. Of this very popular family a grandson survives in Israel.

Like many other townships, Rozniatow was also blessed by a strikingly pathetic type of individual, named Israel-Leisor Bentscher. Tall, without a trace of hair on his face, except for two small sidelocks, always open-shirted and wearing an old sack around his shoulders, day-in, day-out in same worn clothes, he now and again peddled a prayer book or religious treatise, or earned a little by portering. Without wife or relatives, he just had a corner in the living room of Haim, a worker in the flourmill, near the Bet-Hamidrash. Many believed that this strange, ascetic man mourns the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem and gladly gave him on Fridays some Challe (white bread) that he collected for the poor. He was always quiet, unobtrusive, just slipping in during prayers, aloof in a corner and personified "Nebbich" of Rozniatow.

In sharp contrast to the lean and slow Israel-Leisor was another pathetic figure and part of the townships daily activities, always busy carrying sacks of flour stout, bulky, with thick beard and uncouth Iczike the porter. Ridiculed by all for his two passions: desire for meat (hence the nickname "Fleisch") and playing the State Lottery. Highly irritable and shrieking at every provocation, he was touted by many and victim of repeated pranks. Iczike will forever be part and parcel of the bustling market-square.

A group of houses inside the square, at the main road, comprised the "Alte Mauer", a large brick building, one part of which was the bar and restaurant of Israel Rosenmann and parents of Sender Friedler, who will be again mentioned. Adjoining was the ironmongery of Benzion Jaeckel and flour business of Samuel Horowitz, father of our unforgotten pal, Leo Horowitz, lawyer and always active in Jewish communal affairs. Completing this group was the bar of Melach Gross, very observant and pious. His son Icio was a Zionist, avid reader of Jewish literature, whose many books formed later the nucleus of the Jewish library. Another son, Mordehai Gross, erected later a two-store brick house, as hotel, bar and restaurant. Two grandsons of Melach, Simcha and Moshe Gross, live in Israel. (See Nos. 83/84 of Map).

Conspicuous in a part of the market-square near the hotel of Weissmann were the cabs and carriages, who provided the passenger service to and from the railway station at Krechowice, some 7 Km distant, and whenever required performed also mixed passenger & goods transportation to other towns, like Dolina, Kalusz or Perehinsko. The cab drivers were hardworking, decent men, taking care of their horses and remembered are Mihal Waechter, who always had a white, clean and well fed horse, Mailech Landsmann, Aharon Zimmermann, and several others. They all lost out in time to the car and autobus.

Leader of the academic professions in Rozniatow was the lawyer Dr. Salomon Wassermann whose house across the road of the Greek-Catholic Church had a nice front garden with flowers (see No. 121 of Map). He was the leading Zionist and served during the Ukrainian regime 1918/1919 as chairman of the Zionist Organisation and of the Jewish National Council, organizing the first social services for the poor. His son Carol (Lolek) lives in America and the daughter Halka in Israel.

The second lawyer to settle in town was Dr. Isidor Feuer who rented the upper floor of Sosie Heller's house in the market-square (see No. 75 of Map). Being the legal representative of the Glesinger enterprise, he was very busy and only later, under the Polish regime, he served for a time as President of Kehilla, as Mayor of Rozniatow and was active in communal affairs. Two nephews of Dr. Feuer, Poldek and Rudek Loebl, very often guests in Rozniatow, have also become lawyers and are reported living in Poland. Dr. Simon Safier, earlier employed by Dr. Wassermann, has opened own offices in the house of Josef Berger in the market-square (see No. 91 of Map). He was very popular and served for some time as President of the Kehilla. His son, Dr. Vet. Lolek Safier and daughter Jadzia live in Poland. Employed by Dr. Wassermann as main clerk was also Aharon Meier Lutsthaus who died early. His very gifted son, Don Lusthaus, while on the staff of Glesingers, graduated and won his Ph.Dr., becoming later Professor of Lwow University, He and brother, Dr. Nuniek Lusthaus, met a tragic end by the Nazis. Their youngest brother lives in Australia.

It is a measure of some economic progress of the town that in the period between World War I. and II. several more lawyers settled and open offices in Rozniatow, like Dr. Menkes, Dr. Kahane, Dr. Redisch (a Dolina man) and two local graduates continued in the legal profession: Leon Horowitz, grandson of Leisor Itzik Loew and cousin of Simon Liebermann and Leon Meisels, whose father HaimSalomon had an ironmongery (see No. 58 of Map). Jews were also clerks at the court, like Koerner, Josef Kaczky, later transferred to Stryj and David Blaustein. Meier Taub was a clerk in Dr. Safier's office, while Mordehai Brotfeld and Chaim Karczman were professional scribes who wrote petitions, summonses etc. The office of court usher was held by Prinz, a veteran of 12 years army service, whose daughter Mathilde participated in our amateur theatricals. Rozniatow also had a Jew as judge, Jacob Hopfen, who however held aloof of all Jewish life. There was only one Ukrainian lawyer, Dr. Korbas, a rabid antisemite, while the Notary Public was a Pole, Lukaczewski, a most decent man.

The first physicians, Dr. Berwid and Dr. Sokanina, were Poles but then Rozniatow had several Jewish doctors, like, Dr. Barth, Dr. Sabbath, Dr. Diamand son-in-law of Liebermann and also a local graduate, Dr. Jaeckel, son of Leibcie Jaeckel, whose house adjoined the Hotel Weissmann (see No. 82 of the Map). Jaeckel senior had a stationery ship and operated also a bank.

The first apothecary was Skalka, who was bought out by another Pole, Macierzynski, a smart business-man, who considerably enlarged the dispensary, operated an autobus, and as a side-line was even a money-lender.

The medical profession would be incomplete without the heal health-practitioners who cured sick by the application of leeches, recommending and dispensing herbs, extracting teeth. Prime occupation of some was barbering, like Mattis Berie, who wife was most popular and respected, being the township's midwife and greatly charitable. Philipp Ferszt had a nice barbershop, extracted teeth, was an ardend lover of our local theatricals and did their make-up as his contribution to the good cause. Another heal health-practitioner was Hersh Frost who also travelled around the villages. His children and grandchildren live in America.

Generally respected for his learning was Chaim Schwarz who jointly with Pinchas Rechtschaffen held a bank in form of a Loan-Society. His daughter Schanzi was among the first pupils of the Hebrew school, and we are happy to have with us his eldest son, Bendet Schwarz in Israel, while other children live in America.

After the great fire of 1903 the two brothers Josef and Pinchas Berger erected a large brick house at the marketsquare (see No. 91 of Map). Josef Berger was of the leading cattle exporters, and his eldest son, happily surviving in Israel Dr. Alter Berger was with Hersh-Mordehai Lutwak the first local boys to be educated in college (Gymnasium) which necessitated a stay in Stryj. A daughter of Josef Berger, Tynka, lives in Israel while her brother Arcio passed away. A large shop of fine provisions and foodstuff in the house of Berger was bravely carried on by Rivka Horowitz, whose daughters were among our closest friends and of those Lea and her family happily survive in Israel. A little further up from the Bergers was another two-store brick house of Sosie Heller who traded in household and kitchenware, and the other shop in the same building was of Mathis Willner, in-law of Leisor Itzik Loew. Mathis was liked by all for his good manners and kindness. In the same row was also the flour shop of Shlomo Stern, observant and decent, survived by a son Mordehai in Israel. Several other well to do merchants by name of Stern lived on the market square and remembered is Issachar Stern, son-in-law of Chaim Schwarz and also the very observant Josef Shimon Stern, who bought the house of Liebermann and "got" as son-in-law Zajde, son of the shochet Weiser the most eligible young hassid of the town. Zajde himself was later a shochet but his wife Bracha implemented the income by trading provisions. Next to Stern lived his father-in-law Shmuel Wirt, an orthodox of the old school (see No. 70 of Map). At the corner of the market-square (see No. 63 of Map). Friedler had a large textile shop, and his sons bought later the Hotel Weissmann. Next was the other leading shop of provisions and foodstuffs of Meier Fraenkel, observant but liberal and modern, a very respected citizen. Leaning on the house of Fraenkel was the stand of Pincio Schwalb, who also held the position of Shammes of the Kehilla.

Across the road in the market-square were the shops of Benjamin Keller and of Mordehai Friedler, whose son Ucio survived Auschwitz and the younger son Chanina lives happily in Israel. In the same row was also the shop of Jeckel Spiegel the first to emigrate from Rozniatow to Palestine soon after World War I. in 1920. All the family settled in Israel, where generations thrive happily. At the next corner of the market-square was the house of Rabbi Hemerling, then of the shochet Moshe Weiser (see No. 97 of Map), then of Abraham Groll and there at the corner was the Hebrew School.

In the same row lived also Hersh Landsmann whose daughter Ida married an Ukrainian, Jagiellowicz. At gravest risks to themselves, Mishka Jagiellowicz and wife have assisted Jews during the Nazi occupation, saving their lives, and many survivors remember them gratefully. The adjoining side of the market-square had several larger houses in which dwelled traders and peddlers but then was also the butcher shop of Israel Friedler and of the watchmaker Hersh Axelrad, proud of his nice beard, probably the finest in town. Next to Axelrad was the house of Karczman (see No. 93 of Map) and there it joined to Mihael Weissmann, a part of whose house was held by his sister and niece, Hinka and Malcia Weissmann, glaziers. Many families lived in smaller houses in the lanes at back of the market-square but there was also the fine house and large orchard of Yehuda Weissberg, see No. 79 of Map.

At the main road leading out of the market-square were several shops, among them the barbershop of Philipp Ferszt and then the Greek Catholic Church (Nos. 124 & 126 of Map). At the house No. 128 of Map lived Simon Strassmann, the town's forwarding agent, taking care of goods arriving by train at the railway station Krechowice and arranging transportation to the shops in town. Not far away was the nice house of Baron Walisz (No. 132 of Map), formerly owned by Dr. Berwid, while on the other side of the road, opposite the Church, was the house of Dr. Wassermann (No. 121 of Map), nearby lived Riva Horowitz and daughters, then the Lusthaus family at No. 130 of Map. Before the Pharmacy of Skalka (No. 131 of Map) we had the Newspaper and Stationery shop of Shalom Laufer. One of his daughters was married to Chaim Seinfeld of Perehinsko, while the other had much success in leading roles of our amateur theatricals. Next to the Pharmacy was the house of Shmuel Nussbaum, whose son survives in Israel.

This part of Rozniatow was known as "Unter der Stadt" suburb on the road to Krechowice, and there lived many families in roomy houses with gardens and fruit trees. Remembered among them is the house of Leib Falik, well to do son-in-law of Wolf Hoffmann (see No. 134 of Map), and the Falik children happily survive in Belgium and Israel. There lived Meier Kaufmann, Lipa Tanne, Berl Tanne, while across the road lived Dr. Sabath, Berl Londner and Leisor Turteltaub, the official Registrar. Nearby the town ended at the bridge over the Czeczwa, and on the other side there stood the flour-mill (see No. 144 of Map), owned by the Weinfelds of Swaryczow.

On the opposite end of the market-square, the main road was lined by shops on both sides, leading to the tobacconist Josef Kassner (see No. 47 of Map), turning right to pass the houses of Wolf Hoffmann(No. 46 of Map) where across the road was the house of Eisik Rosenbaum, whose son survives in Israel. Next came the house of Rechtschaffen (No 55 of Map) and then the house of Nissan Schindler (No. 53 of Map) where Chaim Schwarz lived. Here the road split at a right angle, one branch leading past the house of Leisor Itzik Loew (No. 29 of Map) and Adlersberg (No. 35 of Map, opposite), up the hill to the Catholic Church (No. 37 of Map) and the Sokol-House nearby (No. 38). At a lower level of the Church was the large house and garden of the Ukrainian family Woloszynowicz (No. 39 of Map) who 1924 served also as mayor.

At the left of Kassner (No. 47 of Map) was a smaller square, remembered for the house of Itzik Barnik, the excellent melamed and opposite lived Abraham Sauerberg, erudite and liberal, whose daughter survives in Israel. Nearby was the large flour-shop of Israel Trau, who like Eli Yona Koral was a son-in-law of Wolf Hoffmann. He was a liberal and most popular man, survived by son and daughter in Israel.

The main branch of the road, passing the corner house of Shlomo Widman (No. 44 of Map) led to the small lake below the hill, a landmark of Rozniatow. This was an artificial lake, at the lower level of which was the flour mill, a Skarbek property held by Efraim Rechtschaffen (see No. 24 of Map). A short canal under a bridge on the road fed the waterfall turning the millstones by way of paddle wheels, and here we had the extensive Skarbek farm under management of Weigel, later on leased by the Glesinger lumber concern. The hill over the lake commanded a fine view of the town, and here stood the Court (No. 20 of Map, former Skarbek residence), Post Office (No. 21), Police Station (No. 23) and the large School (No. 22 of Map).

The main road below led into the suburb "Das Alte Dorf" the Old Village very likely the original nucleus of Rozniatow, where many Ukrainians lived. Here stood the houses of the bookbinder Nahman Scheiner (No. 17 of Map) and Mordehai Mark (No. 16), and there was also the house of Jagiellowicz (No. 15 of Map) who married a Jewish girl. Not far away stood the fine house of Alter Bermann amidst a large garden (No. 12 of Map) on a hill. They only son of Alter Bermann, Izio, lives in Israel, retired from government service. At the bend of the road stood a small Chapel (No. 11 of Map). Across the road were several houses of Jewish residents, of whom are remembered Sara Esther Horowitz, who had the leading grocery in town. Her daughter Zlate was among the first girls to learn Hebrew, and she happily survives in Israel. Next lived Leibisch Friedler, whose sons Zaharia Sender and Israel share in Israel our memories of Rozniatow. Adjoining was the Prayer House of the Alte Dorf No 10 of Map). The last houses on the road leading out of town to the village of Rowno were of Shlomo Jungermann (No. 4) and the restaurant-bars of Nahum & Israel Leib Artmann and of Chaye Adler across the road (Nos. 2 & 3 or Man), while the house of Eliahu Horowitz (No. I of Man) marked the end of the Old Village, just before a small bridge and biforcation of the road to Pereshinsko and Rowno, leading to the Station of the Glesinger Railway.

Unforgettable remain our years at the Elementary School which we entered at the age of six. Classes were held first in a small house, later to become the Municipality (see No 25 of Map) and in several other places until the fine brick building was erected on the hill over the lake (see No. 2 of Map). The teachers were only seldom fit for their profession, using the cane at practically every occasion, and so their efforts at teaching were defeated by the hate of the pupils. Wladvslaw Heinrich, one of the Polish teachers, was also leader of the SOKOL, a Polish patriotic sport organization, but a habitual drunkard like most of the resident Polish officials. Of the Jewish teachers are remembered Mondschein and Stark and foremost of all, our teacher of Jewish religion Adlersberg. Completely blind in his later years, he bravely continued his educatory work and literally all of Rozniatow were his pupils. Remembered are also the Catholic priest Malinowski and the Greek Catholic, Jackowski, both highly respectable men.

At the age of ten those of us who were to enter high school, called Gymnasium, sat for entry examinations, and so were at school in Stryi or other larger towns, being absent from Rozniatow over many months of the year. However, being at home on vacations, often travelling jointly in one or other direction, bonds of friendship were formed between us, and so groups of youth came into being. Except for the very first pupils of high schools, like Dr. Berger, Dr. Jackel, Lutwak sen. who were several years ahead of us, we would like to record as pals and friends: Dr. Bendet Berger, Izio Bermann, Dr. Wilek Adlersberg, Pinio Kanner, Szymek Liebermann, Rudek and Poldek Loebl, Dolek and Nuniek Lusthaus, Moshe and Shaiko Lutwak, Leon Horowitz, Munio Muenz, Milek Turteltaub, Lolek Wassermann, David Weissmann, and there were a number of girls. Joint activities during vacations comprised some dances, but the main energies were devoted to amateur theatricals, collections for the Jewish National Fund, Jewish Library and later, during the elections of 1922, some political work.

Others alongside and/or intermingled with the above groups who felt the need of a change, contributed one way or another to open up the town to the XX. Century. Remembered are men like Meier Kaufmann, who early joined the Chowewei Zion, Aron Weissmann, Abraham Hoffmann, Benzion Horowitz, Shimon Diamand, Lonek Erber, the brothers Tepper, Jacob Yampel, who joined in general activities.

The Emperor continued his "gracious" reign, the Polish officials regularly coming to the bar of Israel Rosenmann for their long bouts, leaving drunk, and like the thunder during the summer storm, came upon Rozniatow the sudden awakening in the World War I.

Immediately upon outbreak of the War in September 1914, the calling up of men to active military service deeply affected many households. While all Jews professed to be patriots of Austria, and their allegiance was sincere, actual participation in war was a more serious matter, and so a delegation led by Dr. Feuer left urgently on a Saturday for Dolina, coming back with clear instructions as to who was to join the army. A general moratorium was declared on repayment of mortgages and long term debts, and while all local strategists expected otherwise, the Russian army continued the offensive into Galicia. Order in town was still maintained by the gendarmes under their commander Furmankiewicz but the first families took refuge in other towns, considered safer: Dr. Wassermann, Dr. Feuer, Dr. Safir, Dr. Barth, Mishel Artmann, Shaye Frisch have so left. Stories were told of Russian Kosaks raping women, of massacres and pogroms and very soon the first Kosak patrols appeared. Austrian government offices closed down, postal and railway serviced stopped and the Russian town commander sat up his office in the house of Baron Walisz. There and then Peter Woloszynowicz became Mayor of the town, replacing Wolf Hoffmann, who jointly with Haim Schwarz luckily were bought out by ransom from being taken to Russia as hostages.

Sales of alcohol were strictly forbidden, to prevent drinking by Russian soldiers, as Rozniatow lay on the road to the Carpathian range, on the border of Hungary, where the Austrian Army held strong positions. Austrian officials received no salaries, and the severest hardship was so caused to the aging old bachelor Yona Funt, postal official with a silken white beard, who became a "man about town", forlorn and forsaken, like a prediction of the debacle of Austria. During the winter 1915 the Austrians attacked near Rozniatow, and the town came for 7 days under artillery fire but the attack was repulsed. Some of the younger men were taken to dig graves for the fallen soldiers. Gradually conditions became easier, most of the inhabitants still had some food and even Russian tobacco was obtainable.

Rozniatow was liberated by the Austrians in the summer 1915 but just a year later in the summer 1916, a new Russian offensive under Brussilov reached Stanislawow and Rozniatow was again in the frontal zone of fire. While the first refugees of 1914 returned home, in 1916 several other families, like Leisor Itzik Loew, Chanina Weissmann took refuge in towns of Western Galicia, fearing a new Russian occupation. They returned when the Russian front disintegrated in 1917 upon the fall of the Tsar but conditions deteriorated also in all the Austrian Empire. Already all men between 18 and 42 were called up, food was rationed and clothing was becoming a problem. Many dodged military service by hiding or self inflicted wounds, disruption of postal and rail communications caused serious shortages, and there was a general use of substitutes, known as "Ersatz". In the fall of 1918 the defeat of Germany and Austria caused also the falling apart of the Austrian Empire of the nationalities, and one day a group of young Ukrainians, led by Stephen Lapinecki, took over Rozniatow on behalf of the new Ukrainian Republic. A strong, uncouth lad who just a few years before felled and killed a cabman, Nachman Rosenmann, only because be tres-passed over his parents' garden, Lapinecki and his like were hardly the men to organize communal life and build a state. The Ukrainian peasants, mostly illiterate, used the new "freedom" to vent their hate of the Jews, to rob travellers on the roads but the loud acceptance of new slogans, like self-determination of peoples, facilitated some forms of orderly conduct. Rozniatow was spared of open pogroms, a very respectable farmer, Fedorenko, was appointed Mayor. The Jews could for the first time elect a "National Council" as a legal basis for some communal activities. Chairman of the Jewish Council was Dr. Wassermann, and thanks to him social assistance of the poor was set up. A Poalei Zion club was formed in which Shalom Rechtschaffen was very active. The drama of Gordon "Chasie the Orphan" was performed in Yiddish, the amateur actors being Tinka Berger, Shalom Rechtschaffen, Milek Turteltaub, Jacob Erber, Chajka Diamand and prompter was Moshe Lutwak.

Such events were but of small solace for Rozniatow which could hardly maintain communications with other towns, and commerce shrunk to a minimum. Travelling by rail was a major hazard and the Ukrainians were neither able to set up a proper administration, nor deal with any economic problems. Their only measure was the issue of new money, called the Karbowaniec, to replace the Austrian Krone, and this was a calamity for the Jewish merchant. The shopkeepers could not refuse to accept this legal currency but the wholesalers would rather not part with their stocks for a clearly valueless scrap of paper. As an event of courage and determination in Rozniatow, the renewal of Hebrew classes by Zvi Fassberg deserves to be recorded, and we are happy that Zvi is with us in Israel also today.

Pogroms of Jews in the Ukraine under Heiman Semjon Petlura were the outburst of a hooligan, hopeless regime, and in May 1919 the Polish army "liberated" Galicia, claimed as a part of Poland in the XVIII. Cent. Army units under General Haller appeared in heroic posture with antisemitic songs on their lips, cutting beards of Jews trapped on trains and boding little good. Leniency was the slogan as regards the Ukrainians, and in Rozniatow only the younger Lapinecki was shot when resisting arrest, while the older Stefan was left to go free. On the other side, the new Polish Police Commandant Brojanowski demanded, and got, Jewish girls to scrub the floors and do the housework at the Police Station an ominous sign of the new regime's intentions.

Gradually orderly administration was re-established but the Finance Office was moved to the county town, Dolina, and the Post Office then got the building on the hill. Zacharia David Liebermann was nominated President of the Kehilla, a hardly enviable task when the official call was: "JEWS TO PALESTINE". Indeed, the Jaeckel family emigrated 1920 to Palestine in toto, while Poland was led by ministers like the Grabski brothers one as minister of Finance, the other of Education both proudly antisemitic "National Democrats".

Rozniatow was first hit by an imposed levy, called Danina, as a special payment to the state, while at universities and colleges the Numerus Clausus was introduced to keep the Jews out from medical, agricultural and engineering studies. Under these conditions the first parlamentary elections were held in 1922, and the Rozniatow Jews recorded over 600 votes for the Zionist list to the Sejm in Varsaw. Bendet Berger and Munio Muenz represented then the Jewish list during the voting at the Municipality.

Meantime the Poles introduced their own currency, the Mark, while the Austrian Krone and Ukrainian Karbowaniec became obsolete. However, the continuing devaluation of the Mark, opening up of contacts with foreign countries and influx of American Dollars from mailings of relatives created a new trade the illegal dealing in foreign currency, which only added fuel to the ever burning antisemitic fire. While 1919 the Ukrainians made in towns razzias on Jews, to rob them of remade military uniforms and boots, the Poles have in 1922/23 organized even larger razzias, to go over pockets and confiscate Dollars.

The reform of 1924 by the issue of the Polish Zloty caught the Rozniatow Jews unaware, and they again paid a heavy price for the unasked, unexpected blessing. The rapid change caused a sharp economic crisis, unemployment and recession that endured as a long stagnation. As the Zloty was based on gold, the moratorium of 1914 was cancelled, and the mortgages had to be repaid in Zloty as most of the debitors did not care to settle the old debts in Mark. The freezing of rents brought housebuilding to a standstill, prompted the houseowners to keep flats unrented, and for new rents key money had to be paid "on the side".

While the Rozniatow shopkeeper and trader had more than enough on his shoulders, and constantly lacking cash and seeking credits, the reconstruction in Europe opened up export markets, especially for Polish coal and lumber, and the forests around Rozniatow as well as the oil fields assured a measure of prosperity for the region. This development offered some openings for new lawyers to settle in Rozniatow, where also several dentists have set up offices. Berko Littauer, Shaye Lutwak, Wilek Turteltaub are so remembered Telephone services were introduced and an exchange was set up at the Post Office but the most visible sign of the new times was the autobus service that replaced the old cabs, vehicles and carriages. One of the first to operate a bus service was the Apothecary Macierzynski, on the side also moneylender and usurer, but then also former cabdrivers, Aron Zimmermann and Mejlech Landsmann became partners of Philipp Ferszt in operating a public bus service to Perehinsko. The third was Abraham Hoffmann, whose autobus was providently destroyed by fire, and he could recover the insurance, as the bad roads, lack of technical skill and costs of repairs caused heavy losses, and all these enterprises ended in financial disaster. At the end only owners who could themselves drive and service their buses could make ends meet in the field of public transportation. However, it was a step forward.

So as to remind Rozniatow of their old problems and woes in being between two rivers, the Duba and Czeczwa, the town was practically submerged in the floods of 1928, and the Rozniatower again justified his pitiable name of "Nebbich".

The clearly anti-Jewish system, controlled by the military, left only law and teaching careers open for the Jews leaving colleges, and many had to study abroad. While many of the graduates had to serve in the army with practically no chance to pass officer examinations, government jobs were invariably closed to the Jew. High school teachers found employment only in private Jewish colleges where also Hebrew was taught (some were based on Hebrew), and Rozniatow never had a Jewish medical man who graduated in Poland. This went alongside a taxing system, based on trading patents, or licences, with graded fees of 3 categories, that every shopkeeper and peddler had to obtain. This assured a foolproof registry for the income tax, based on imposition and demand. Enacted like the repeated levys Danina the official demand of income tax was arbitrary, and appeals against demands had to be supported by documentary evidence, proper account books etc. This was beyond the shopkeeper of Rozniatow who learnt to avoid even the postal parcel service, the registers of which were utilised by the Finance Office to gain intelligence on goods received. The tax collectors, attached to the Finance Office in the county town Dolina employed local court executors to enforce payment of taxes by impounding goods, furniture etc. while a charge of 15% was collected for overdue taxes plus costs for the forced collection. In many a case this meant the ruin of the shopkeeper who also faced much higher housing rates of his municipality, as a result of pressure from government on their local budgets.

Politically, the regime made use of the always potent antisemitism of the population, Polish and Ukrainian, and open boycott and the picketing of Jewish shops enjoyed protection by police, because the slogan "ONE TO HIS OWN" (SWOJ DO SWEGO) nationalist in content was applied to daily economics, to force the Jew out of his livelihood.

It was openly admitted by the Poles that their fiscal policies and measures aimed at the undermining of Jewish predominance in commerce, and indeed the boycotts and resulting in some cases riots strangled the weakest link the small man in small town.

Notwithstanding and despite such obstacles, cultural activities continued in Rozniatow and they deserve to be, recorded.

A committee under Dr. Diamand managed to maintain the Hebrew School by local financing, as Jewish minority schools were denied government subsidies. There was a Jewwish Sports Club, devoted mainly to football, and although no matches were ever arranged with Polish clubs, now and again such matches were held with other Jewish clubs of other townships. There was a workers' club named "YAD CHARUZIM" with Philipp Ferszt as chairman but most of the cultural activities centered in the Civic Club under Dr. Safier and Moshe David Lutwak as secretary. This club operrated the Jewish Public Library, in which Leon Horowitz, Benzion Horowitz, Abraham Hoffmann did good work to maintain a high literary level and efficient administration. It is significant for Rozniatow that this club occupied two rooms in the house of Sosie Heller at the market square rent free. A number of Jewish youngsters joined the Chaluzim, preparing in Hachscharot groups for emigration to Palestine.

Alongside and all over the years Rozniatow had a most active group of amateur actors, who put on many theatricals, all except two in Yiddish. The only two plays enacted in Hebrew and Polish respectively were failures and never repeated. Among the actors stood out Sender Friedler borntheatrical talent and excellent comedian, an superb Falstaff. He is remembered also as having been among the founders of the Rozniatow Landsmannschaft Society in New York and one of its presidents. In one of the early plays we had as actors Dora Liebermann, Dr. Diamand, Zvi Fassberg, Dr. Berger but over the years the following appeared on the Rozniatow stage: Wilek Adlersberg, Juda Hammermann-Axelrad, Leon Horowitz, Pinio Kanner, Simon Lieberman, Dolek & Nuniek Lusthaus, Shaye Lutwak, Godel Schwalb and Weinfelds of Swaryczow. The remembered girl-actors were: Hania & Lea Horwitz, Andzia Kanner, Dwosia Kassner, Adela Kupferberg, Tonia Laufer, Nemlich sisters, Matylda Prinz, Lotka Rosenmann, Escia Trau, Escia Widmann, Benzion Horowitz was often directing and prompter was Simon Diamand.

Being away from Rozniatow as from the thirties, we must leave it to others to tell of the events of World War II, when Eastern Galicia, including Rozniatow, became a part of the Sowjet Ukraina, this regime lasting from November 1939 to June 1941. The subsequent occupation by the Germans, the physical extermination of the Jews by the Nazis, assisted in many cases by their Ukrainian stooges, the Jewish suffering in the ghetti, camps and Holocaust are known. There were Rozniatow Jews who fought against the Nazis in units of the Red Army and possibly lived to see the township after liberation in 1945. Even today there may be some Jews living among the inhabitants of our township, but the Rozniatow as it was, as we knew it is no more.

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