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[Pages 72 - 93]

Associations of Mutual Support and Other Societies Founded by the Jews

[Page 117]

ACCOUNT
Of income and costs of the Jewish Community in the City of Bacau, between May 22nd, 1878 and March 15th, 1880.
No.
SOURCE OF INCOME
ROL
Coins
No.
TYPES OF COSTS
ROL
Coins

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Surplus of the income from the accounts of May 22nd 1877
From the contractor of the Salt tax for 17 months and a third after the contract
Idem production of the Salt tax on the day of its dissolution
From the contractor of the public bath, with a guarantee of 360 new ROL
Surplus from the income of the cemetery
Donation for the hospital from Mr. Iancu Klein
Idem for the school
Idem donation for the school from Mr. Strul Klancu
For the grass at the hospital in the summer of 1879
Total of income
Summing up
Sum of costs is of 54,977 - 42
Sum of income is of 54,700 - 11
There is a deficit of 277 - 31

1,582
49,486
134
3,228
123
24
60
36
24
80
66
65
20
80

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Costs of hospital repairing according to the account
Idem repairing of the public bath
Salary of the Cult servants for 17 months and a third of 735 fr. 15 coins per month
Monthly sums distributed to the poor by 2 members
Hospital maintenance for 14 months
Salary for the teachers of Romanian, German and Hebrew
Rent for the school building for 13 months, 195 ducats
Different stationery and maintenance costs for the school
For the wood given to the poor in the winter 1878-1879
Grant for every ... in the yard of the Synagogue Cathedral
Donations for the poor directly form the Committee House according to the account
Costs for Thodums and national celebrations
To complete the salary for Rabbi Lebel and Rabbi Levi
Total costs

2,244
2,277
12,742
4,938
9,338
18,331
2,297
1,211
300
200
816
57
212
20
25
55
10
72
85
14
91
40
30
54,700
11
54,977
42

[Page 117]

The Jewish Hospital

Founded 1848

In Memoriam

Paying homage to various members of the Jewish Community.

The museum “From the history of the Jewish People Living in Bacau” 1703- 1944

Balance Sheet for the Community, under the administration of the guardians elected for the year 1894. Approved by the new committee on March 11, 1895.

The Archives of Bacau County, the Jewish Community of Bacau, brief 31/1922, file 14-19.

[Page 119]

Ownership certificate, through which a lectern from one of the Synagogues in Bacau is being donated to Mr. Iancu Borcovici for reading scripture lessons in the synagogue. Dated November 26, 1896 by the guardians of the Synagogue.

The museum “From the history of the Jewish People Living in Bacau” 1703- 1944

[Page 120]

A) Corn dealers' synagogue

B) The Golden book of the Corn dealers' synagogue

C) Ownership Certificate of the Corn dealers' synagogue from Bacau, which stipulates the ownership of lectern no. 16 from the ground floor of the synagogue by Mr. Iosif Aranevici, dated October 26, 1927.

The museum “From the history of the Jewish People Living in Bacau” 1703- 1944

[Page 121]

Appeal made by the Sacred Jewish Society of Bacau to the Jewish population of Bacau, through which they are being asked to contribute financially to build a better road from the town of Bacau to the existing cemetery located in the outskirts of the city. At the time it was almost impossible to use the existing road, already destroyed by the war and full of bumps, especially in the rainy season. Dated September 1919.

Bacau State Archives, foundation “The Jewish Community of Bacau”, brief 24/1942, file 16

[Page 122]

a)
Trusteeship of the Jewish Community of Bacau Jews!

There are only a few days left to accomplish the naturalization formalities.
Thursday, June the 28th, the current year, the term for naturalization expires. As this term is granted by the Constitution, any extension of it is absolutely excluded.
Hurry then to use the few days left for submitting the naturalization declarations.
You are responsible about your situation and your children's future!
In this respect, the community is ready to give you advice and also provides all the naturalization formalities for free.

President,
Osias Hersovici

Secretary,

H. L. Herscovici
No. 20 dated June 22nd 1923

b)
The Jewish Community of Bacau Annoucement

We hereby inform the Jewish public that following the intervention made by us, we obtained the approval and visas for our statute from the Honourable Ministry of Religions. By the address no. 9353/848 dated January 25th, 1932, we are informed that our Community became a juridical person of public right.

The President of the Jewish Community of Bacau
Osias Herscovici

Bacau State Archives, foundation “The Jewish Community of Bacau”, brief 5/1932, file 12-13


C. Associations of Mutual Support and Other Societies Founded by the Jews

Jewish Community of Bacau

Bucharest, 1995

Solidarity, mutual help, unification of forces to achieve common goals, all these represent an old tradition in the Jewish communities. In time, many associations of this kind developed their activity in Bacau. The typical element for these associations was the mutual help when needed (illness, material difficulties, death, etc.). This kind of a mutual help association was “Ghemilat Hasadim” Association, which was founded in the fourth decade of the 19th century, and which we mentioned in the chapter for social assistance.

“Fraterna” Society had the same character, which was founded in 1879. According to the statutes, its goal was the mutual help of the members in case of illness, material difficulties, death of a relative or the impossibility to find a job. Additionally, the society could get involved in social actions as well: aids for the poor, support for community institutions, etc. In 1898, J. Herscovici conducted the executive committee of “Fraterna”; the minutes of the elections in that year has been kept; some of the participants signed it in Hebrew (they probably didn't know how to write in Romanian)1. The stamp that the society used has the following inscription in Romanian and in Hebrew: “The First Society to Heal the sick and Care for the dead”. As aids for community actions, we mention that, during 1888-1900, “Fraterna” was involved in supporting the hospital as well as the Jewish schools. The leadership of “Fraterna” from 1925 included Iancu Baratz, Leon Iacob, David Rozemberg and others2. During the following years, wealthy Jews were members of the society such as: Ozias Klein, Iosif Feldher, Zisu Calmanovici, Leon Grad, Avram Isvoranu, etc. Throughout the years, the society also distributed aid to the poor, helped certain students with scholarships. “Fraterna” also had a synagogue of its own. In 1941, when it was dissolved, there was a capital of more than 150,000 ROL that was invested in public programs (different categories of value notes)3.

“Aghidas Haboinim”, an association that was founded in 1885, shared the same character of mutual help of societies. According to its title, people with smaller income were involved this time: handicraftsmen from the branch of constructions (masons, stone hewers, carpenters, tinkers, plasterers), perhaps traders of construction materials as well. The summons to a gathering of this society for March 28th, 1898, signed by Simsen Volsohn, as President, and Filip Grünberg, as Secretary, has been kept. The text of the summons is in German, but in Hebrew letters. The round stamp put on this summons included a text in three languages: on the outside circle, in Romanian - “Society of Handicraftsmen to Heal the Sick and Guide (to the cemetery)”; in the middle, in German, with Hebrew letters - “Kranken und Leichen Verein Bauarbeiter”; in the inside circle, in Romanian - “Founded on August 18th, 1855”; the center is occupied by the title of the society, in Hebrew - “Agudat Haboinim” (in local pronunciation, “Aghidas Haboinim”). The Society continued its activity, with interruptions, until 1941, when the racist legislation dissolved it. In 1909, it had 60 members and a capital of 3000 ROL. In 1912, its President was M. Moscovici. In 1924, it included 189 members. Having as its main concern the help for its members, the society (which in some documents was named “Aghidas Haboinim Fraternity”) accumulated a capital of more than 85,000 ROL, partly in cash, partly in value notes4. As the archive documents show us, during the between-wars period, it settled the litigation among its members, and sustained relationships with the National Union of Handicraftsmen and Workers in Greater Romania; moreover, it was familiar with the community problems (especially with the school functioning) and had close contacts with the Zionist movement.

“Marpe Lenefes” was another society of mutual help, founded in 1893. In 1922, Lupu Itic Mandel was its President; in 1941M Sami Kaufman and Marcu Mendelovici were its representatives. When the racist legislation dissolved it, the society had a capital of 100,000 ROL (collected from subscriptions and donations).

“Tamaduirea” (” The Healing”) Society (”Bikir Hoilim”) activated since 1925, which also had as a goal the mutual help of its members. In 1941, Avram Iosefsohn led it, and it had a capital of 32,000 ROL.

Other societies of mutual help were “Providenta” (”Providence”) and “Aghidas Aham” (The Harmony) societies, both of them founded in 19235, as well as “The Union of Different Handicraftsmen”, present within the Community since the end of the 19th century; in 1895-1896, this group took the initiative of founding an alms-house for old people, for which they collected 2,000 ROL6.

Let us also mention the fact that, on the tombstones of the deceased who had been members of these associations, this fact was also mentioned; in the cemetery from Bacau, there are many such tombstones.

Beside all these organizations, which (although they were involved in certain social actions) had as their main concern the help for their own members, many circles and associations, having as sole concern the philanthropic, the charitable goal, also developed their activity in Bacau. In this field, we mention the actions conducted to help the confined women, in 1887, and to distribute wood to the needy, in 18927. In 1891, “Malbis Arunim” (”Dressing the Naked”) Society was founded. Two years later, it had 13 supporting members. It gave clothes to 36 poor students from Talmud Tora, with the intention to open a vocational school for these children8 The “Caress” Society for Young Ladies supported the “Culture” Girls' School.

In 1912, out of Rabbi Betalel Safran's initiative, a social assistance society was founded.

Every year, different circles initiated winter actions to collect clothes and shoes for the poor children. “Caritas” Society of Educated Women developed such an action in 1915; 90 children took benefit from this action9. “Humanitas”, the local section of Bnai Brith lodge, which had been founded in 1926, under the presidency of the well-known manufacturer Dr. H. Perlbergher, had similar initiatives. There are actions dated from the same period, meant to help the victims of a big fire, which had destroyed 500 households, most of them Jewish houses10.

In 1929, out of the initiative of A. Isvoranu, the manufacturer, an alms-house for old people was founded. The Community offered a building in Calea Oituz Street, the Association for old people's alms-house was created, which collected funds from donations and subscriptions (among other sources, from the Community and from the City Hall) and administrated (with rather important material difficulties) this institution where several dozens of old people lived the last days of their lives. The place continued its activity until 1949, with interruptions during the war, when its office was taken over.

We must underline the extremely efficient activity of “Materna” Society, the Jewish women's association to help the poor confined women and look after the infants. As we have shown, in 1934, this society created a maternity in a place that had been donated by the Community (on Alexander the Good Street), and maintained this very important place for many years with no interruptions11.


Other community organizations developed their activity in Bacau, but in other fields than the ones indicated so far. It is known that, during the inter-war period, the Jewish University students had many difficulties (registration in faculties, means of maintenance, procuring and sending to Iasi the corpses that the medical students needed for dissection, etc.). In order to solve some of these problems, the Jewish Students Circle was founded in 1922, which - by means of cultural actions developed in time - tried to collect funds for the poor students. The Community helped them by grants and by giving them the bodies of deceased men, whom no one claimed12.

“Nitvat Am” (”The Ways of the People”), founded in 1869, was a society with cultural goals. On the same shore, “Culture” Society, founded in 1918, developed its activity, founding a very active library (”Raza” library), which had about 10,000 volumes, and organizing many conferences and cultural affairs, until 1941; within this frame, Felix Aderca, the writer gave lectures about the “Silbermann” novel, by Jacques de Lacretelle. “Avoda” (”the Work”) Society took actions on the cultural side since 1926. The Cultural Association of the Jewish Women (A.C.F.E.), as well.

Thanks to the cultural initiatives of the Jews in Bacau, the “Mizmor” (”Song”) Society was created in 1909, for musical education, and (after the Second Worls War) the dramatic circle in Yiddish, conducted by actor Lazar Cornaciu.

In the sports field, the “Macabi” association was active, as a result of the unification of several sports associations13.

[Page 129]

This page is a handwritten Yiddish doument with an offical-like stamp dated 1862.

The Central Archives for the History of the Jewish People, Jeruslem, R.M./792

[Page 130]

Dear Members,

Saturday, March 19th 1866, at 7 PM, as appointed by the honorary committee on February 23rd, you are invited in the office of the Jewish Society for electing a new committee. Signed by the president of the society, on March 17, 1886.

Bacau State Archives, foundation “The Jewish Community of Bacau”

[Page 131]

The Statues of the first Charitable Society of the various Jewish Tradesmen “Aghidas Haboinim” for curing the sick and leading the ones not among us any longer. Founded on April 12, 1891 in Bacau.

The Library Center for the Historical Study of the Jewish in Romania. No. 1090, the second cover page of the book.

[Page 132]

Invitation by “The Charitable Society of the various Jewish Tradesmen “Aghidas Haboinim” for curing the sick and leading the ones not among us any longer” to a general meeting on March 28th 1893.

The State Archives of Bacau, Aghidas Haboinim, brief 2/1920, file 9

[Page 133]

“Providence” Society (For Support and Help) Bacau

Dear Member,

The statutes of our society are already prepared, examined and studied by the administrative committee which approved them without any modifications.

After many hours of hard work, the issuing committee has been able to steer the organization in a clear direction, corresponding exactly with the purpose on the basis of which the society was established.

It is not enough for the statute to be just well done; there is a certain need for each of us to understand the role we play in the society and to respectfully obey every article of the statute, avoiding to be trapped in the sins of the other similar societies, where such statues are regarded as a real fiction.

It is not enough for those leading us to be good leaders, but rather that all members who compose this society to follow the leaders with love and devotion, and not only because they are scared by penalties.

Therefore, everybody should know very well the provisions of the statutes such that no one can be tempted to disobey them, except in rare circumstances.

As such, we invite you to attend the Extraordinary General Meeting

On Sunday, November 11th , at 2:00 p.m, in the building located on Vasile Alecsandri str. (Girls Cultural School) in order to vote the statute where you will have the opportunity to learn about the rights and duties you have as a member of the society.

Nobody is allowed to miss this meeting which is meant to solve matters that comprise the existence and organization of the society itself. In case you are absent, you will receive the afferent penalty.

President,
LITMAN SCHWARTZ

Secretary, Lawyer Goldsmith

Bacau State Archives, foundation “The Jewish Community of Bacau”, brief 4/1923, file 93

[Page 134]

“Agihidas Ahum” Society
(The Harmony)

Mr. President,

Honorably, we inform you that on November the 30-th 1923, we constituted a society for mutual help in case of illness and/or death.
The name of the society is Agihidas Ahum (The Harmony).
The society will have its residence on Negoi Voda str. No. 4.
Presently, the society has 60 members, Mr. Haim Avram being elected as president.
Please accept my best regards and full consideration.

President,
Haim Avram

Secretary,
L. Gurberg

To his honour. Mr. President.....................

The museum “From the history of the Jewish People Living in Bacau” 1703- 1944

[Page 135]

“Providenta” Society Bacau

Funeral stone for Leibu Aizig, deceased on July 3rd 1826. age 70.

The museum “From the history of the Jewish People Living in Bacau” 1703- 1944

[Page 136]

The founding letter proposing the name for The Jewish Student Association of Bacau.
The Healing (Tamaduirea) Society of Bacau - recognized as a business since November 1st 1881
Letter assigning power of attorney to two Jewish men to set up the Society as requested by the Jewish community of Bacau on August 25, 1932.
The museum “From the history of the Jewish People Living in Bacau” 1703- 1944.


[Page 84]

D. The Zionist Movement
Jewish Community of Bacau

Bucharest, 1995

The ideas spread by Tvi Hers Kaliser ever since 1873, and promoted by “Hoveve Zion” related to the emigration and colonization in Eretz Israel, began to take root in Bacau around the year 1880. In the first Zionist conference, in Focsani, Avram Balter and Israel Groper from Bacau took part (together with David Bucsester and Mendel Grimberg from Moinesti). In 1881, the section of the movement entitled “Colonization of Eretz Israel” was founded in Bacau. Here is how the appeal in Yiddish of the “Committee of the circle for the colonization of Eretz Israel by agricultural work”, spread during the summer of 1881, began:

“To our brothers in faith, sons of Israel from Bacau.

You all know the necessity to support the holy purpose of colonization in Eretz Israel. We make an appeal to every one, depending on their wealth, to make a contribution for the holy purpose, the Eretz colonization, and we will publish in newspapers all these donations with the donor's name. Thanks to such actions we will set off singing for Zion” [...]14.

The appeal had huge echo. By donations or by monthly contributions, the Jews from Bacau were among the top communities who supported the movement. In 1882, a number of families from Bacau, beside the ones from Moinesti (conducted by David Schub), decided to leave for Eretz. An eye witness, Iosef Brüll from Bacau, evoked, in “The Protector” newspaper from August 18th, 1882, the touching moments he had witnessed: the crowd of Jews and Romanian who had accompanied those who were leaving at the station, the encouraging words said by Talmudist E. A. Teller, by the medicine student I. Rosenweig and by Y. M. Hass, the rounds of applause which broke at the moment they set off15. Together with those from Moinesti, three men from Bacau founded the “Ros Pina” colony, and other eight men were among the founders of the “Zichron Iaacov” colony (Kibbutzes, probably). In order to collect the necessary funds for those who were leaving, the Jewish community increased the meat tax.

These first groups' departure increased the wish of the others as well. A group conducted by A. Balter and A. Groper was created, aiming to found a colony under the name of “Neuschatz”. This attempt failed, and those who had arrived in Eretz Israel joined the one from “Ros Pina” and from “Zichron Iaacov”. The Aaronsohn family must be especially mentioned as a member of this group, as this family gave many remarkable personalities to the Jewish people.

In 1892, there was a section entitled “Hoveve Zion” (”Those Who Love Zion”) in Bacau, which included about 100 members. Here is the text that can be read on one of its stamp, in Romanian and in Hebrew: “Jewish Society for Advantages in Palestine, Bacau, July, 1892”. In the center of the stamp there are two shaking hands, in sign of unification. Seven families left for Eretz from Bacau that year, and eight families the next year16. Among the pioneers of the “Hovene Zion” movement there was Bercu Vigderescu, one of the people who founded “The first society of the Jewish farmers in Palestine” in 1899. He had been the leader of a Jewish reading club, having M. Focsaner as President, and teachers L. Casvan and M. Braunstein-Mibasan among its members17.

Another man from Bacau who got to the Holy Country in that age was Brill, who founded a large farm at Ioknan, near Haifa.

A feminine section, named “Bnot Zion”, was founded within “Hoveve Zion”; the two sections together included 400 members. They founded a Zionist library, they organized public conferences, literary soirées, and they financially helped the colonies in Eretz18. The youth founded a “Reading Club of the Jewish Youth”19. Ever since that time, at the beginning of the 20th century, animated by the Hovevean-Zionist ideas, Iosif Iticovici began his activity, and, during the decades to come, he would have special merits for his efforts to make many generations of children acquire elements of Hebrew.

At the beginning of the new century, there were certain trends among the Zionists in Bacau, which also existed in the Zionist movement around the world. The trends of the political Zionism also appeared. In 1902, there was a section “Max Nordau”, which organized one of Horia Carp's conferences, and a “Calman Schulman” section, which founded a reading club and collected money for the Jewish National Fund (F.N.E.). Since 1907, the “Tikvat Zion” section (”The Hope of Zion”) began its activity, and, for many years, it performed hard work of Zionist education and propaganda in conferences, reading clubs, by activating the Zionist library and by organizing Hebrew classes20. Money for F.N.E. was also collected.

In 1912, the Zionist leader Nahum Socolov was invited to Bacau, as he published the Hebrew newspaper “Hatefira” (”The Aurora”) in Warsaw. He found an organized Zionist center in Bacau: men within the “Tikvat Zion” circle (led by Volf Iser, I. Glasman and Isac Avram), women within the “Iulia Dr. Herzl” circle (led by Frida Rothenberg, by sisters Davidovici and by Vatarescu). Dr. I. Niemirower, from Iasi (who would become Chief-Rabbi of Romania), was one of the lecturers who were invited to Bacau.

After the war between 1916-1918, and then during the inter-war period, the Zionist movement had a strong activity in Bacau. We find it reflected in the texts with numerous informative data that were published by Abrahami Lica Gutman Mayer Eibschitz and by Dr. I. R. Rotenberg.

The great meeting where the Balfour Declaration was welcome, and where the speech of the experienced Zionist militant, Frida Rothenberg, made a special impression, represented an important moment in the development of the movement.

The ideological diversity of the Zionists increased during the inter-war period. A lively debate took place in Bacau on January 19th 1920, “between the Zionists and the Zionist crowds”, as was reported by a press correspondent21. The general increase of the movement is reflected by the fact that the 16th Congress of the Zionists in Romania was held in Bacau in 1927: materials related to this Congress are kept in the A.C.M.E.O.R. Archives (618/50).

On the practical side, we mention the remarkable activity of the members of the Centrist Zionist Organization, made of traders and manufacturers involved in the Community leadership; usually, they were members of U.E.R. and even of the Romanian political parties, but, at the same time, they gave their children a Hebrew education, and they took active part in collecting money for the Jewish national funds. Isac Avram must be mentioned among the centrists, as he conducted the local organization till after the war, being helped by Davidovici, Iosif Iticovici and Eli Rapaport. The Organization also published the “Bulletin of the Jewish National Fund”.

M. Eibschitz, V. Iser, Balter and Weissbuch led the Mizrahists. They militated within the Community against the assimilating tendencies and for the teaching of Jewish subjects in schools. After the Second World War, the Mizrahists' youth organization, “Bnei Akiba”, was founded.

Teachers Mrdler and Rabin, Eng. Zinger and Lawyer Ionas militated within “Renasterea” (”The Rebirth”) literary circle, which supported the Jewish Party.

An important part of the young people, especially those with an intellectual training, adopted the “Hasomer Hatair” movement, as they were attracted by its socialist ideas. The organization from Bacau was founded around 1923, having the secondary school pupil Itic Braunstein as madrih (instructor). (The sponsors of this book are Itic Braunstein's children). Many Halutims left for Israel from “Hasomer Hatair”, and we mention Alfred Avram, Bernanrd Rabinovici, Leon Haran, Haim Svart, etc. As it is known, several members of “Hasomer” were arrested during the war, and some of these people were from Bacau (Moise Ghitler, Buium Carol and Izu Suler). Sara Avram-Rotenberg developed a vivid activity within this organization, a person who - because of this - had a lot to suffer during both Antonescu's regime and the Communist one. Doctors S. Sabat, A. Klein, I. R. Rotenberg, and brothers Iser and Blanc must be mentioned among the mature people with a leftist Zionist orientation. In 1924, “Hanoar Hationi” (The Circle of the Zionist Youth) was founded by the young centrist Zionists, led by Mayer and Hana Zeilicovici. The group from Bacau laid the basis of other sections in the rest of the country and even abroad, by halutz Slomo Rotenberg, native from Bacau. In 1932, the center for the entire country moved to Bucharest (being led by Har-Zaav, Ciubotaru, Frenkel), while the local group continued its activity, being led by F. Goldenberg, Lica Gutman, then by Polsi Reisel, Margulius, etc. The organization developed an activity of education and propaganda, therefore they invited Hebrew writers Bistritki and Slonski for lectures, and they published the “Moledet” (”The Country”) magazine. Among the mature militants in this direction, we mention Zighi Drimer, and, among the Halitzims, N. Enghelberg, I. Steinbock, Hari Iacobsohn, Haim Reizel, etc.

“Gordonia” activated during the last years of the war and after the war, when they founded their own working youth organization “Dror Habonim”. Militants: RicaTecuceanu, Gloter, Sasa Smelter, Dudu Gutman and others.

Some Zionists, dissatisfied with the working methods of the Zionist Executive, grouped themselves in a revisionist organization in Bacau, led by Dr. Martin Resu, Sami Iekerkaner, etc. They invited the revisionist leader Jabotinski to lecture at Bacau. The youth organization “Betar” was another source of halutzims, especially within the Illegal Alliance.

In 1924, a local section of the Cultural Association of the Jewish Women (A.C.F.E. - WIZO) was founded, which developed a sustained Zionist and cultural activity. With their helped, several young women left for the agricultural school “Aianot”, in Israel, then becoming kibutznics (for instance, Marica Marcus, Clara Haran, a.s.o.). A.C.F.E. collected money for the Zionist funds, they supported a kindergarten22, as well as the cultural center that founded the “Raza” library. We should mention here that the Zionist activity among the youth also considered their practical training for the pioneer life. A conclusion may be drawn from one of Dr. S. Sabat's reports, which is kept in the A.C.M.E.O.R. archives, that, throughout the years, 6 “snifs” of “ahsara” (training by work) functioned in Bacau before the war: 3 of “Hasomer Hatair”, 1 of “Bnei Avoda”, 1 - “Gordocia” and 1 - “Hanoar Hationi”. After the war, 4 snifs of ahsara functioned. From all these halitzims left, especially for kibutz Dalia, Barcai and Manghen. Another material from the same archives shows that “Betar” organized a mosava (camp for agricultural training) at Doftana.

[Page 144]

Efraim Fisei AARONSON with his family, native from Bacau. AARON AARONSON, a famous botanist, SARA, his sister, ZWI, his brother and FISEL, his father, founders of the spying organization “NILI”. They facilitated the Brittish army to conquer Palestine in the 1917 war.

October - December 1975 Bulletin, No. 13/III

The A.C.M.E.O.R. Archives, Israel, foundation Bacau.

[Page 145]

Letter addressed to the president of the Jewish Agihidas Ahum Association by the Zionist Organization, in which they are asking him to ensure orderliness and full cooperation of the association's members to the meeting on July 6th as well as to close all Jewish stores and coffee shops by 6 pm on that day.

Signed by the president of the Zionist organization on June 28th 1920 in Bacau.

The Archives of Bacau County, Agihidas Ahum foundation, brief 2/1920, p. 69.

[Page 146]

The Jewish Community of Bacau

Jewish Brothers!

We live the most beautiful moment of our life as a nation.
The Nations League ratified the mandate of Palestine.
In order to celebrate this marvelous historical moment come to the magnificent

N A T I O N A L

D E M O N S T R A T I O N

organized by the Zionist movement, taking place on Sunday, July 30th 1922, at 4 p.m.
at the “ F. Klein “ Boys' Jewish-Romanian School
Come in a large number to this demonstration!

President of the Community,
Osias Herscovici

The museum “From the history of the Jewish People Living in Bacau” 1703- 1944

[Page 147]

The Romanian Zionists Federation
“TIKWAS-ZION” Section, Bacau
Issue 15

Dear Coreligionists,

Today, February 15th of the current year, at 8 PM sharp, the well known and talented lecturer Dr. Niemerower from Iasi, will present in the office of our section (The Arabin house) The Report regarding the IXth Congress from Hamburg. Considering the above mentioned, we invite all our coreligionists, without any sex discrimination, to come to the conference in a large number, as this report has an important value.

With Zionist greetings,
The Committee

The cover fee: 5o bani

The A.C.M.E.O.R. Archives, Israel,
foundation Bacau.

[Page 148]

Cover page of the monthly Moledet magazine, 1st year of publication, Issue No. 6, published by the “Guttenberg” Publishing house. The yearly subscription fee is 250 lei nationally and 500 lei abroad.

File belonging to the Library of the Romanian Academy

[Page 149]

Excerpt from the newspaper “The National Jewish Foundation Bulletin”

The XIXth Congress

On August 29th 1897, for the first time the Zionist movement met in Bacau. The paper discusses various Jewish artists and writers, mentioning that a few days before the Jewish artist Saraga Logan had died.

File belonging to the Library of the Romanian Academy


Footnotes

  1. Idem, Jewish Community, file 6/1938, p. 80. Return

  2. Idem, Jewish Community, file 22/1925, p. 1, 2, 3. Return

  3. Idem, Jewish Community, file 22/1940. Return

  4. Idem, Jewish Community, file 22/1940. Return

  5. Idem, Jewish Community, file 4/1923. Return

  6. “Egalitatea”, January 26th, 1896. Return

  7. Idem, February 7th 1892. Return

  8. Idem, February 5th, 1893. Return

  9. Idem, December 25th 1915. Return

  10. “The Jewish Courier”, May 23rd, 1926. Return

  11. State Archives of Bacau, Jewish Community, file 7/1934. Return

  12. Idem, Jewish Community, file 9/1925, 14/1926, 4/1928. Return

  13. “Our Rebirth”, February 6th 1926. Return

  14. I. Voledi-Vardi, op. cit., p. 24. Return

  15. Idem, p. 23-26. Return

  16. “The Jewish Courier”, March 21st 1926. Return

  17. “Egalitatea”, January 21st, 1894. Return

  18. quot;The Voice of the Zion”, June 5th, 1899, and January 22nd, 1900. Return

  19. “The Sunrise”, October 15th, 1899, p. 8. Return

  20. “Egalitatea”, March 2nd and August 17th 1912. Return

  21. “Mantuirea” (”The Salvation”), January 29th 1920. Return

  22. “News from the Jewish World”, October 2nd, 1930. Return

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