1 M. Hruszewskij, Historja Ukrainy-Rus 5:193. back
2 Akta grodzkie i ziemskie (Municipal and land records) 5:124. back
2a Akta grodzkie i ziemskie, vol. 9, 1906. Reports and documents for years 1481-86. back
3 M. Hruszewskij, Historja 6:101; "Anuale forum pro festo Corporis Christi" (Annual market fair for the festival of Corpus Christi [Boze Cialo in Polish]), Akta grodzkie i ziemskie 19, no. 1319:235. back
4 Akta grodzkie i ziemskie 6:64, no. 43. L.Ehrlich, Starostwa w Halickiem (Lwow 1914), 107. back
5 H. Chodynski, Sejmiki ziem ruskich w 15-tym wieku (District parliaments in Russian lands in the 15th century) (Lwow 1906), 119. Red Ruthenia was divided into four districts – Lwow, Przemysl, Halicz, and Sanok. back
6 Akta grodzkie i ziemskie 14:515, no. 2870, 1475, starting from 18 December. back
7 Akta grodzkie i ziemskie 17:464, no. 3809; 19:190, no. 972. back
8 Akta grodzkie i ziemskie 19:235, no. 1319. back
9 liberum forum generale pro carnibus vendendis (free general market fairs for the sale of meat). The free markets were special fairs at which only meat was sold. They were named for the sochaczki or benches on which the butchers placed the meat. The first permits for these fairs were granted to the town of Kolomyja in the year 1443 at the request of its inhabitants. The income from these fairs was earned by special leaseholders. However, no Jews took part in these fairs. The income from the fairs of Rohatyn added up to about forty florin a year. Akta grodzkie i ziemskie 5:119, no. 91. back
10 Denar – coin, discontinued in the days of King Mieczyslaw I, that was worth a third of a groschen. back
11 Teodor Wierzbowski, Matricularum regnis Poloniae (Public Record of the Kingdom of Poland (Warsaw 1912) 2:287, no. 13716, ¶ 4. back
12 bona nostra Rohatin post obitum Ottae de Chodecz iure optimo ad nos et mensam nostram devoluta essent (following the death of Otto of Chodecz, whose rule was excellent for us, our good Rohatyn deteriorated). back
13 Akta grodzkie i ziemskie 9:595, no. 3064. back
14 M. Hruszewskij, Historja 6:108. back
15 Akta grodzkie i ziemskie 5:122, no. 1840-41. back
16 Akta grodzkie i ziemskie 10:131, no. 1985. back
17 Leonard Lepszy, Zlotnictwo w Polsce (The goldsmith trade in Poland) (Krakow 1933): 270. back
18 Encyklopedia Orgelbranda 22:205-6. back
19 Balinski-Lipinski, Starozytna Polska (Ancient Poland) 2:867. back
20 M. Hruszewskij, Historja 6:261. back
20a Obligation of the towns and villages to provide horse-drawn carriages for the king, his court, and the officials who were travelling in the name of the authorities as well as for the armed forces. back
21 "Lauda wiszenskie (Proclamations of Wisznia) 1673-1732," Akta grodzkie i ziemskie, ed. Antoni Prohaska (Lwow 1914): 151-52, no. 59. back
22 Kuropatnicki, Geografia Galicji, Lwow, 1780. back
23 Stefan Sochaniewicz, Archiwum krajowe aktow grodzkich i ziemskich, Przeglad naukowy i literacki (National archive of municipal and land records, Scientific and literary review) (Lwow 1912) 40:1039. back
24 J. Schipper, Studja nad stosunkami gospodarczymi Zydow w Polsce podczas sredniowiecza (Studies of economic conditions of Jews in Poland in the Middle Ages) (Lwow 1911): 189. back
25 Akta grodzkie i ziemskie 12 (Municipal and land records) (Lwow 1887), 450, no. 4461; Akta ziemskie halickie 1435-61 (Galician land records). back
25a Archiwum Skarbu Warszawa taryfa (Archives of the treasury, Warsaw tariffs) fol 22, quoted by Feldman, Elazar in Oldest Information regarding Jews in Polish Cities in the 14th and 15th centuries. Pages in History (Warsaw 1934): 69. (in Yiddish) back
26 Akta grodzkie i ziemskie 10:14z, no. 2202. back
27 See appendices. back
27a feria quinta post festum Purificationis Beatissimae Virginis Mariae. The holiday took place on 2 February; five days afterwards would have been 7 February. back
28 Selig was intercessor for the " kehilot (Jewish communities) surrounding Lwow." Majer Balaban, Zydzi na przelomie 16-go i 17-go wieku (Jews at the turning-point of the 16th to the 17th Century) (Lwow 1906): 225, 355, 379, 445, 502. back
29 "Lauda wiszenskie," Akta grodzkie i ziemskie 22 (Ed. Prohaska), 364, no. 67. back
30 Majer Balaban, Z zagadnien ustrojowych zydostwa polskiego (Selection of issues concerning the organizational structure of Polish Jewry) (Lwow 1932): 6-7. back
31 In the decision, the community of Lwow, the opponents of Rabbi Falk, were rebuked for their behavior "in depriving him of his money and property in the amount of 30,000 Polish gulden." back
32 The decision was published in the article of Dr. Simchowicz, "Zur Biographie des Rabbi Jakob Josua," (The biography of Rabbi Jakob Josua), Monatsschrift zur Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums (Monthly journal of Judaic history and studies) (1910); 616-18. Other signatories: Gershon Natan of Zolkiew, Shimshon Natan of Zolkiew, Yaakov Babad of Brody, Yaakov Aharon of Lesko, Moshe of Bohorodczany, Yehuda Leib of Jazlowiec, Moshe Avraham of Zloczow, Mordechai Segal and Klonimos Kalman of Tysmienica, and Arye Leib of Buczacz. back
33 "because the whole population perished in Buczacz, Tarnopol, and Podhajce, and throughout the whole voivodeship entire towns perished, there were not enough people to pay the levied sum." Akta grodzkie i ziemskie 24:398, no. 205. back
34 "Great prejudice is directed against the Jewish people living under the protection of the Polish Republic, such that the innocent may be captured on the roads and tied up until they pay for the debtor; therefore, the deputies must try to prevent this. "Lauda wiszenskie," Akta grodzkie i ziemskie 23:49, no. 21, 24, 25. back
34a Horn, Elzbieta, "Zydzi w ziemi halickiej na przelomie XVI i XVII wieku" (Jews on the soil of Halicz at the turning-point of the 16th to the 17th century), Bulletin of the Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw 1962) 40:34. back
35 Akta grodzkie i ziemskie 24:44 (23.6.1632). back
36 Akta grodzkie i ziemskie 22:547, no. 212, § 33. back
37 M. Horn, "Rzemieslnicy zydowscy na Rusi Czerwonej" (Jewish craftsmen in Red Ruthenia), Bulletin of the Jewish Historical Institute 34 (Warsaw 1960): 65-67. back
38 Balinski-Lipinski, Starozytna Polska (Ancient Poland) 2:867-68. back
38a "And these Jews, not having the right to purchase leather, buy it ahead of the shoemakers, and afterwards, they extract from the poor shoemaker whatever they want. Thus we declare in this matter that Jews shall not dare do this, and if they buy it up ahead of the shoemakers, then the shoemakers' guild will have the right to… seize it." (in Polish) Elzbieta Horn, "Zydzi," 27. back
38b Akta grodzkie i ziemskie 25: 211, no. 139, §§ 5 (12.IX.1714). back
39 "Lauda sejmikowe halickie (Proclamations of the Halicz parliament) 1696-1772", Akta grodzkie i ziemskie 25 (Wojciech Hejnosz: Lwow 1935), 133, no. 101. back
40 "Lauda," Akta grodzkie 25: 6, no. 2. back
41 Directive to deputies to the Sejm of 20 January 1710, "Lauda," Akta grodzkie 25:114, no. 88. back
41a "Lauda," Akta grodzkie 25:275, no. 168, §§ 33 (13.VIII.1718). back
41b "Lauda," Akta grodzkie 25:276, no. 160, §§ 48. back
41c "Lauda," Akta grodzkie 25 (12.IX.1720): 287, no. 174, §§ 34. back
41d "Lauda," Akta grodzkie 25 (14.VIII.1752): 498, no. 269. back
42 "and so Jews on the estates of His Lordship Andrzej Krakowski, i.e., in Rohatyn, Bursztyn, and Tluste, are to be free of this levy." "Lauda," Akta grodzkie 25:137, no. 102. back
42a "Lauda," Akta grodzkie 25:328, no. 189, ¶ 5. back
43 Ossolineum 279 II 94, Manuscript. back
44 Akta grodzkie 22:653, no. 261, ¶ 20. back
45 "Lauda," Akta grodzkie 25:384, no. 215, Halicz (15.IV.1734), §§4. back
45a Bernardine Archive, Lwow, Castrum Leopoliense: 574:544, 591. Besides Rohatyn, in that same year, complaints were also brought by Drohobycz, Dolina, Zolkiew, Pomorzany, Kulikow, and Grodek. back
46 "Lauda," Akta grodzkie 25: 579, no. 307, § 40 (31.I.1764); 615, no. 319 § 42 (20.X.1764). back
47 "Lauda," Akta grodzkie 22 (Lwow 1914), no. 100 § 91, no. 120 (151), no. 176 (§ 18). back
48 See Chaim Warszawski, "The Sabbatian Cabalist, Moshe David of Podhajce," in Zion 2 (1942): 73. back
49 Rabbi in Lublin, son-in-law of Shaul Wahl, died 1634. back
50 Zbior Slow Panskich w Brnie mowionych (Collection of the word of G'd spoken in the city of Brno/Brunn), Manuscript in the National Library ( Biblioteka Narodowa), Ph 190/1-S, 1: 28 § 14. Ed5 [probably Zbrzyz, possibly Zbaraz. Ed.] back
51 Majer Balaban, History of the Frankist Movement (Tel Aviv 1934): 122 (in Hebrew). back
51a Yaakov Emden, Sefer Shimush, (Amsterdam 1748): chap. 7: 1. back
52 Majer Balaban, History: 139. back
53 Manuscript Photo 190, 1:62, ¶ 129. back
54 Words of Rabbi Ze'ev Wolf Salat, presiding rabbi of the rabbinical court in Lwow, in his recommendation of the work of Rabbi David Moshe Avraham (Adam) – Mirkevet Hamishne – a broad commentary on the Mechilta. The manuscript of the work, which was printed only in 1895, was in his hands. He handed it to his teacher, the rabbi of Lwow, Rabbi Yosef Shaul Nathanson. Nathanson had heard a great deal about the activity of Adam from his uncle, Rabbi Avraham Shlomo, who served as rabbi of Rohatyn after Adam. back
55 Preface to Mirkevet Hamishne. back
56 Manuscript Photograph 290, 323. back
57 Yavetz (Rabbi Yaakov Emden), Sefer Shimush, 80. back
57a "Lauda ziemskie, wiszenskie, lwowskie, przemyskie i sanockie," ed. Anton Prohaska, Akta grodzkie 23 (Lwow 1928): 415, no. 162 § 12. Full version in appendices. back
58 Kraushaar, Al., Frank i Frankisci (Frank and the Frankists) 2: 11, 20, 33, 53, 91. back
59 He was the only one of the Frankists who was not ashamed of his Jewish ancestry and was even proud of it. Once, when a professor ridiculed his Jewish roots, he answered that he was proud to have been part of a Jewish family that had in it learned rabbis such as the author of Tevuos Shor, and he emphasized that all his talents stemmed solely from his Jewish origin. He viewed his opponent with scorn as one whose ancestors were most likely murderous lowly knights. (Ignaz Bernstein, "Brief an Adolf Jelinek," printed in Jüdisches Literaturblatt 27 [1882]: 107). Bernstein also notes that in Poland the Frankists were called "Mechesy," which he thought was the abbreviation of Mikat Senor Santo, from the Cult of Senor Santo. Frank was known to his followers as Senor Santo (Ha'adon hakadosh – Holy Lord). back
60 Count Borkowski, Spis Szlachty Krolestwa Polskiego (Register of Nobility in the Kingdom of Poland): 279. back
61 He opposed granting equal rights to Jews when it was introduced in the Sejm in 1830, stating that it was more important for the Polish people to gain independence and then concern themselves with improving conditions of the different segments of the population. Rostworowski, Dyarjusz sejmu (Parliamentary Chronicle) 1830-31. He personally contributed a large sum of money and equipment toward the revolt. His wife, Tekla, came from the Schorr family (Wolowski). He was active in the political circles of the émigrés. He wrote a pamphlet against Czar Nicholas, L'Empereur Nicolas et la Constitution polonaise de 1815 (Paris 1832). He was a friend of Adam Mickiewicz and among the opponents of the democrats headed by Lelevel. back
62 Itemized listing in Teodor Jeske-Choinski, Neofici Polscy (Polish neophites) (Warsaw 1904): 100-103. Mateusz Mieses, Polacy Chrzescijanie pochodzenia zydowskiego (Polish Christians of Jewish Descent) (Warsaw 1938), 2: 257-85. back
62a Annals of the Ginzburg Family (St. Petersburg 1890): 224; M. Biber, Recalling the Great Men of Ostrog, Berdichev (1907), 89. (in Hebrew) back
63 About him: The Introductions to his work, Mirkevet Hamishne (Lwow, 5655/1895) and the article by Rabbi Reuven Margulies on the identification of Rabbi Adam in Mishor, (5711/1951): 64:13-15. Listed in: Rahmers, Jüdisches Literaturblatt (1885), no. 38. back
64 Leopold Loewenstein, Index approbationum (Index of endorsement) (Frankfurt a/M 1923): 46, no. 802. back
65 (Translation of frontispiece appearing below on page 74) "Mirkevet Hamishne" A wide-ranging commentary on the Mekhilta of Rabbi Yishmael as presented by Rabbi Hai Gaon, The Holy Light, Holy One of God, Crown of Torah, Our Teacher and Rabbi, Rabbi David Moshe Avraham of blessed memory, Descendent of Troyes, Germany, Chief Rabbi of the Holy Community of Rohatyn. Published in Lemberg by the Esteemed Rabbi Yechezkel Goldshlag (may his light shine) on the Press of the Esteemed Mrs. Pessil Balaban (long may she live), 5655 (1895). back
66 Rabbi Salat writes about the author who signed his name, "The Little" [an accepted form of modesty] David Moshe Avraham, the son of my father and teacher, our teacher and rabbi, Rabbi Tzadok, of blessed memory, a descendant of Troyes, Germany: "This great scholar and G-dly man, our holy teacher and rabbi, of blessed memory, the chief rabbi of Rohatyn, was a man who warred with a mighty arm against the band of evil doers and raised his sword, the sword of the Lord, and beat them to the ground, these evil unholy ones who held to the ways of that evil Sabbatai Zvi, may his name be erased. And at their head stood the evil and unclean Elisha (Schorr), may his name be erased, who then nested in the town of Rohatyn. He was known as Elisha of Rohatyn, as is known to anyone who reads that zealous book by Rabbi Yavetz in Lwow (Rabbi Yaakov Emden, of blessed memory, 29 Marheshvan, 5651 (1891)." Rabbi Salat also had a letter from Rabbi Yehoshua of Belz in which he heaped praise upon the rabbi of Rohatyn. The Belzer rebbe said that he had seen two more works by the Gaon and author, of blessed memory, in manuscript form, and it would be a mitzvah for whoever finds them to bring them to press. However, the manuscripts were not found and were not printed. back
67 The descendants of the author relate in their preface to his book that following his battle with the Frankists, the Besht (Baal Shem Tov), came to see him: "Our forefathers related that our teacher, the holy Besht, may he be remembered for eternal life, came in person and notified him that he was delegated by the heavens to inform him that they were holding to his credit the goodness and the beauty of his zeal in fighting the battle of the L-d of Hosts, similar to the zeal shown by Pinchas, the son of Elazar, the son of Aharon the Cohen, where the Torah says, 'Behold I give him my Pact of Peace.'" Also in the preface, the publisher of the book (a member of the Nagelberg family) states in his introduction, "I heard from our grandparents who had been informed by their parents that the Besht came to visit Rabbi Adam prior to the time that 'the Ark of the L-d,' the author, was taken to the heavens. He came to visit him to serve him the 'service of scholars', and the Besht told the Rabbi, the author, 'My teacher, bless me,' and Rabbi Adam placed his two hands on him and blessed him, and while on his way back, the Besht, of blessed memory, said, "It appears that the rabbi has passed away, for I saw there a heavenly company going out to meet him. And I heard that the great men of his day called him Rabbi Adam." If this meeting of the Besht with Rav Adam does not belong to the realm of legend, we can derive from this that Rabbi Adam passed away between the years 1759 and 1760, since the Besht, as we know, passed away in 1760. back
68 Rabbi Uri Salat states in his introduction, "Rabbi Nathanson has told us that his uncle, the great Avraham Shlomo, of blessed memory, was rabbi of the holy community of Rohatyn after the rabbi, the author, may he be remembered for eternal life, and that he spoke of awesome matters that the rabbi saw through divine inspiration." back
68a Leopold Loewenstein, Index, 82, no. 1473. back
69 Podkamien numbered 117 adults and children and 13 infants, together 130 people. Stratyn had 83 adults and children and 12 infants, together 95 people. back
70 Avraham Yaacov Braver, "Joseph II and the Jews of Galicia," Hasholeach 23, no. 2: 147-48. back
70a Protokolle Galicien (Offical records of Galicia), Archives of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Vienna, IV T 2, Carton 2601. back
71 Protokolle Galicien, Archives of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Vienna. back
72 Michael Stoeger, Darstellung der gesetzlichen Verfassung der galizischen Judenschaft 1 (Description of the legal code of Galician Jewry 1) (Lemberg/Lwow 1833), 85. back
73 "This certainly seems very harsh, but the circumstances make it necessary; otherwise we must abandon the idea of improving the cities." (in German) back
74 Report of the head of the district of Zloczow (14 August 1806), Teki Schneidra (Schneider files), National Archives of the History of Israel, Microfilm H. M. 7905. back
75 Teki Schneidra Personal (Schneider personal files), Microfilm H. M. 7905, Stand no. 26, National Archives of the History of Israel. back
76 Israel Halprin, Notebook of the Council of Four Lands (Jerusalem 1945): 77-83 (in Hebrew). back
77 Hofdekret vom 26.VI.1785 (Court decree from 26.VI.1785). back
78 "Passiva der Jüdischen Gemeinden" (Real estate of the Jewish communities), Teki Schneidra (Schneider files) Microfilm H.M. 7096, Polish State Archive in Cracow, National Archives of the History of Israel. back
79 Teki Schneidra, Microfilm H.M. 7096. back
80 Teki Schneidra, Microfilm H.M. 7096. back
81 Staatsratsakten, Wiener Staatarchiv (Privy Council documents, Vienna State Archive), 1789, no. 1835. back
82 "This is a reminder that the expulsion of the Jews is being deferred by the new ordinance concerning Jews who are in arrears in respect to the three-quarter yearly tax, so that the Brzezany district authorities can be notified not to insist on the removal of the considerable number of 1,050 families that find themselves in this situation, and under the present circumstances, in any event, the remaining ones should be drafted into the military and, if need be, assigned to service with the military transport corps." (in German) Protokolle Galizien, 3 March 1789. back
83 W. Tokarz, Galicja w poczatkach ery Jozefinskiej w swietle ankiety urzedowej z r. 1783 (Galicia at the beginning of the [Kaizer Franz] Joseph era based on government files from 1783) (Cracow 1909): 500. back
84 Galizien Judenwesen, Leibmaut, Pachtungen (Galicia Jewish affairs, personal customs, leaseholds)
IV T 11 (1785-87): carton no. 2657, Interior Ministry Archive in Vienna. back
85 Galizien Judenwesen… IV T 11 (1793-1800): carton 2659, no. 1295 ad no. 85 ex Maio 1794. "The Jews should not under any pretext be allowed to convene a general assembly of a number of community councils ( kahals) without the prior knowledge of the local authorities in question and of the gubernia (province) and without the approval and permission of the local authorities and the presence of a Royal Commissioner. Minutes of the deliberations should be taken, and the summary together with the conclusion submitted for royal confirmation." back
86 Galizien Judenwesen… IV T 11 (1786-92): carton 2658. back
87 Teki Schneidra, H. M. 7099. back
88 "All the Jewish children who do not yet observe the ceremony of binding phylacteries." back
89 Galizien Judenwesen… IV T 11 (1788): carton 2658. back
90 By the year 1815 there were no longer any Jewish farmers there. back
91 "Summarischer Ausweis über den Fortgang der Jüdischen Anssiedlung in den Königreichen Galizien und Lodomerien bis letzten Octobris 1804" (Summary documentation of the progress of Jewish settlement in the royal lands of Galicia and Lodomeria until the end of October 1804), Galizien Judenwesen… IV T 11, (v. 4.11.1804): 201 e.a. 1805. back
92 "Akta: Lichterzündpachtung" (Termination of lease for candle tax collection), Protokolle Galizien 1798 (February 1798): 11. back
93 Beginning 1 November 1824 the tax was collected according to the general principles applying to Christians, separately, however, from the taxes of the Christians. back
94 Abolished in 1829. back
94a Galizien Judenwesen… IV T 1, 1811–28, carton 2582. back
95 "Conscription," Galizien Judenwesen… IV T 8, carton 2632, no. 4357.  back
96 Galizien Judenwesen… IV T 11, 13 ex February 1810, carton 2657. back
97 Galizien Judenwesen… IV T 11, ad 8 April 1819, carton 2662. back
98 Galizien Judenwesen… IV T 11, carton 2583. back
99 Galizien Judenwesen… IV T 10 (1822): carton 2646, 3915/158. back
100 Galizien Judenwesen… IV T. 10 (October 1826): carton 2646. back
101 "Stimmen aus Galizien (Voices from Galicia)," Busch, Österreichisches Zentralorgan für Glaubensfreiheit, Culturgeschichte und Literatur der Juden (Austrian Central Organ for Freedom of Religion, Cultural History and Literature of Jews) (Vienna 1848): 235. back
102 Goldschlag, IV T, Besitz (Property) (1866): no. 3751/5054, Archives of the Ministry of Interior in Vienna. back
103 Photo and text (in German), p. 52 of Yizkor Book. In 1849, there was a shortage of banknotes in Rohatyn and the surrounding area. To ease the monetary distress, the municipality and the Jewish community issued money orders that were used for a certain period as a means of payment. This is an example of a money order issued in 1849.


10 Franks in Austrian Currency
Bukaczowcer Land Leaseholder
Paid Against 6 Orders/Demands
One Gulden in Banknotes
Chaim Grauberg


104 Galizien Judenwesen… IV Vol. 11 23472/682
In a notice of 11 November 1854 to its officials in Galicia, the Interior Ministry said, "However, what can least be tolerated are levies that involve a thoroughly illegal burden on commerce, indirectly involve other co- religionists in the expenses of the Jewish religious community, and are partly put to uses that may thwart the effectiveness of existing governmental provisions. Therefore, the administration is requested to examine this matter urgently and to revoke those taxes that have been introduced without authorization and unlawfully, and, in cases where the established sources of income are found to be insufficient, to cover necessary expenses of the local authorities and initiate legal hearings on this basis."  back
105 "Über die allgemeinen Rechte der Staatsbürger für die im Reichsrate vertrenen Königreiche und Länder" (About the general rights of citizens in the kingdom and lands represented in the parliament), "Staatsgrundgesetz v. 21.12.1867" (State Constitution of 21 December 1867), Regierungsblatt (Government document), no. 142.Avraham Mendel Mohar, Shvilei Olam (Pathways of the World), (Lwow 1865): 156, section 3. [This paragraph occurs a few paragraphs later in the Yiskor Book but chronoligically belongs here. Tr]  back
106 Avraham Mendel Mohar, Shvilei Olam (Pathways of the World), (Lwow 1865): 156, section 3.
[This paragraph occurs a few paragraphs later in the Yiskor Book but chronoligically belongs here. Tr] back
107 Galizien Judenwesen… IV T 10 ZL 14499 ea/1868, 1841 ea 1869. Interior Ministry Archive in Vienna. back
108 Galizien Judenwesen… IV T 10 14499/1041, 1869. back
109 "Assembly of the Delegates of the Communities of Galicia," Hamagid May 17 (Cracow 1900): 19-20:216. back
110 Hamagid June 7 (Cracow 1900), 23:262. back
111 The Herzl Archive, Central Zionist Archive. back
112 Printed by Yisrael Weinlaz in Haolam, 1937, 36:643. back
113 Bohdan Wasiutynski: Ludnosc zydowska w Polsce w wiekach XIX i XX (The Jewish population of Poland in the 19th and 20th centuries) (Warszawa 1930): 123. back
114 1,086 Poles (15.1%), 2,576 Ruthenians (35.8%), 23 others (0.3%). Stanislaw Gruinski, Materialy do kwestyi zydowskiej w Galicyi. (Material pertaining to the Jewish question in Galicia)( Lwow 1910): 15. back
115 1,206 Poles (16.7%), 2,678 Ruthenians (37.2%), 100 others (1.4%). Stanislaw Gruinski, Materialy. back
116 1,530 Poles (20%), 2,863 Ruthenians (37.4%), 17 others (0.2%). In the first census taken by newly independent Poland in 1921, there were 5,736 inhabitants; of these, 2,233 were Jews (38.9%). Stanislaw Gruinski, Materialy. back
117 Stanislaw Gruinski, Materialy: 23. back
118 Stanislaw Gruinski, Materialy: tablica XLVI, 73. back
119 Protest against the election of Dr. Wladyslaw Duleba. A picture of the terrorism and crimes committed in favor of Dr. Duleba in connection with the elections to the Austrian parliament in the 29th electoral district of Brzezany, Rohatyn, Chodorow, and Brzozdowce in Galicia. At the same time, an appeal to civilized Europe (in German) (Vienna 1907). See printed proclamation on previous page. back
120 The names of the elderly are as follows: Yisrael Gottlieb, 85; Berel Eigen, 78; Meir Staltzer, 94; Shmuel Braun, 90; Moshe Faust, 70; Wolf Schwartz, 72; Moshe Stok, 85; Lazar Michael Putzter, 70; Yitzchak Spiegel, 65; Eliahu Aharon Klareneter, 65; Aharon Barenfeld, 70; Isaac Schrafer, 70; Yehoshua Kalman Fox, 65; Simcha Natan Rotraub, 50; Yona Rappaport, 75; Simcha Toffler, 80; Shalom Weiler, 73. Children: Mendel Blochsberg, 12, Yisrael Putzter, 13, Yehuda Hirschenhaut, 10. The woman was Janette Rotraub. Jewish War Archive (Vienna 1915). back


Editor's Footnotes
Ed1 [The above citation is apparently a misquote. In 1375 Wladyslaw of Opole was a regent, not yet a king. Also, reference to Rohatyn in M. Hruszewskij (5:428) states that Rohatyn was given at that time to the archbishopry of Halicz, with the right to collect revenues. Ed.] back
Ed2 [Before Lwow developed and became more important, Halicz was the capital of Red Ruthenia. The district of Halicz included the town of Rohatyn and surrounding communities. The name "Galicia" derives from Halicz (Galicz, in Russian). Ed.] back
Ed3 ["German brothers" here may mean "cousins" rather than German nationality. Ed.] back
Ed4 ["Czerwona Rus", a province that included the area that later became Galicia] back
Ed5 [probably Zbrzyz, possibly Zbaraz. Ed.] back
Ed6 [The Schorrs changed their family name to Wolowski and took Christian first names. Ed.] back
Ed7 [See note 66 for an elaboration of this statement. Ed.] back
Ed8 [No source is given for the data about the surrounding towns. Presumably it comes from Bohdan Wasiutynski: Ludnosc zydowska… or Stanislaw Gruinski, Materialy… Ed.] back


Translator's Footnotes
Tr1 [Interestingly enough these towns later became Hasidic strongholds. Tr.] back
Tr2 [As a result of their debaucheries, they were reported by the Jews to the Polish government, which arrested them and transferred them to the rabbinate and the kahal for trial. Afterwards, they were excommunicated, while Frank was banished. (See Dubnow, History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, 1:213.) Tr.] back
Tr3 [This debate was composed of seven theses, six of which dealt with the Messianic belief and basic Christian dogma. In the seventh, they claimed that "the Talmud considers the use of Christian blood obligatory." After the second debate, no radical action was taken by the Church, but there was a reaction among the people. Tr.] back
Tr4 [According to Dubnow and also Balaban (History of the Frankist Movement), the administrator of the diocese was Mikulski. Tr.] back
Tr5 ['devoid of adequate religious knowledge.' Tr.] back

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