Bulgarian Jewry

Translation of
Yahadut Bulgaria

Editor: A. Romano et. al.

Published in Jerusalem 1967




This is a translation of: Yahadut Bulgaria (Bulgarian Jewry),
Editor: A. Romano et. al., The Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora, Published: Jerusalem 1967 (Y 1018 columns)

Note: The original book can be seen online at the NY Public Library site: Bulgaria

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Translated by Yocheved Klausner


Part One
Early Generations Chaim Keshles
   a. When the first Jews came to Bulgaria 25
   b. The Jews in Bulgaria at the time of the Ottoman rule 37
   c. The Bulgarian Jews in the first 20 years after liberation from Ottoman rule 63
   d. The beginnings of Zionist activity, aliya and settlement in Eretz Israel 87
   e. The first years of the Zionist Organization in Bulgaria 101
The Question of the Bulgarian Jews at the Berlin Congress 1878 Dr. N. M. Gelber 153
Dr. Herzl in Bulgaria Yosef Nisim Halevy 161
Part Two
The Zionist Movement in Bulgaria Albert A. Romano
First Period: 1898-1918
The personality of Albert A. Romano 169
Introduction 181
   a. The Bulgarian Jews at the end of the 19th century 185
   b. The Zionist movement in its first decade 191
   c. Disputes between Bulgarian Jews 249
   d. The moderates rule the Zionist Organization 271
   e. The Anti-Semitic movement in Bulgaria 312
   f. The Maccabi Association in Bulgaria 319
Second Period: 1918-1930
   a. The Zionist Movement in Bulgaria 1918-1930, after WWI 357
   b. Zionist education activity 367
   c. Zionist life 373
   d. WIZO in Bulgaria 381
   e. The youth movement 391
   f. Aliya and settlement in Eretz Israel 409
   g. Congress of the Community representatives - community by-laws 435
   h. Religious life 455
   i. Economy 459
   j. Schools 473
   k. Cultural institutions 485
   l. Keren Hayesod 497
   m. Anti-Semitic events 509
   n. Poets and writers 513
Third Period: 1930-1940. Crisis and division in the Zionist Movement
The era of crisis and separation 1939-1940 537
Personalities 609
Prof. Zvi Belkovski 609
Yakir (Perisiado) Avraham Romano 610
Dr. Yehoshua Kaleb 611
Dr. Marco Romano 613
Karl Herbst 613
Dr. Hirsch (Zvi) Rimalovski 614
Dr. Moshe Nachimson 616
The scholar R'Yom-Tov Bechmoharem 617
Yakov (Jacov) Moshe Kaleb 618
Bechor Azaria 620
Avraham Davidchon Levy 621
Shlomo Rozanis 622
Chaim Aharon Farhi 623
Avraham Chaim Assa 625
Yosef Chaim Gron 626
Regina Silberstein 626
Nisim Daniel 627
Leon Israel Cohen 628
Yakov (Jack) Friedman 629
Dr. Marcel Kaleb 630
Dr Isidor Baruch 631
Binyamin Yosef Arditi 632
Yakov Nitzani 633
Eliyahu Ben-Mayor 634
Statistical Tables
Table 1: Pupils of the Jewish Schools in the school years 1923-1925 and school budgets 643
Table 2: Budgets of the Jewish schools in Bulgaria in 1924-1925 647
Table 3: Teachers of Hebrew Subjects 647
Table 4: Number of students in 1925-1936 649
Table 5: Budget of the Hebrew schools 1925-1926 651
Table 6: Number of Jewish students in 1926-1927 653
Table 7: Number of students in Jewish pre-high-school in 1926-1927 655
Table 8: Jewish children in Bulgaria in 1926-1927 657
Table 9. Comparative Table 657
Table 10. Number of Jewish pupils in Bulgaria in 1920-1921 659
Table 11: Income and expenses of the Jewish schools in Bulgaria 661
Jewish Life in Bulgaria Dr. N. M. Gelber 681
Poalei Zion in Bulgaria Jean Daniel 699
Benei Brit in Bulgaria Boris Maximov 717
The development of the co-operation movement Eli Baruch 727
The Jews in Art Albert Michael 755
Part Three
Bulgaria under Fascist Rule (1940-1944) Chaim Keshles
   a. Jews under the Fascist regime - first persecutions 769
   b. The illegal Aliya ships “Salvador”, “Dorian” and “Gadjda” 775
   c. “The “Law for the Protection of the Nation” 789
   d. Laws passed in Parliament concerning the “Jewish problem” 809
   e. The Commissariat for “Jewish affairs” 819
   f. The events of the 9th and 10th of March 1943 823
   g. Certificates and documents 831
   h. Dimitri Pashev's struggle 855
   i. The deportation of the Jews of Sofia 867
   j. The situation after the deportation 875
   k. The connection with Istanbul 891
The Partisan Movement during the Fascist Regime in Bulgaria Yosef Ben 895
The Plewen Ghetto David Yosifor 901
The Camp Somovit Affair Alberto Versano 909
The fire in Keilika R. Rubanov 913
The Tchechlera affair Jack Levy 917
Part Four
Liquidation of the Bulgarian Diaspora (1944-1949) Yosef Ben 921
Liberation 925
The Zionist Press 929
The Youth Movements 934
The struggle to preserve the characteristics of the Bulgarian Jewry 941
Bulgarian Olim (immigrants) who fell in the War of Independence 965
Avigdor Yeshayahu 973
Almozlino Moshe 973
Alkalay Avraham (Jack) 973
Alkalay Yitzhak 974
Alkalay Leon 975
Amado Moshe 975
Assa Moshe 975
Assa Menachem 975
Ashkenazi Yehoshua 976
Asher Meir 976
Bechar Arie (Loni) 976
Bechar Yakov 977
Belo Avraham 977
Ben Bassat Meir 978
Ben Yeshaya Yosef 978
Ben-David David (Dario) 978
Benish Shlomo (Moni) 979
Ben-Moshe Moshe 979
Ben-Zion Binyamin 980
Bassan Yosef 980
Baruch Shabat 980
Bracha (Brahms) Yakov 981
Berger Shlomo 981
Garon Eli 981
Giron Yitzhak 982
Gibri Chaim 983
Eliezer Avraham 983
Eliezer Rachamim 983
Chaimov Yosef (Yoshko) 983
Tabbach Avraham 984
Toledo Siman-Tov 984
Talbi Yosef (Yosko) 985
Yitzhakov Yitzhak (Davitcho) 985
Aizikov Bochor Yakov (Jack) 985
Levi Asher 986
Levy Yosef (Yossy) 986
Levy Yosef (Yoshko) 987
Levy Nissim 987
Levy Nissim (Niko) 987
Lussi Shlomo (Muni) 987
Leon Yosef 988
Leon Shalom 988
Lidgi Refael 989
Lilo Yosef 989
Meshulam Moshe (Moski) 989
Strumtza Eliyahu (Liki) 990
Stashi Moshe (Marcel) 990
Samo Yitzhak (Jack) 991
Eli Leon 991
Fardo Asher (Achko) 991
Fardo Malka (Rancha) 992
Conforti Shabat 992
Cordova Yitzhak 993
Rachamim Moshe (Sambo) 993
Shmuel Moshe (Muchu) 994
Shem-Tov Gavril (Gabi) 994
Shem-Tov Eliezer (Lasko) 995


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