The following is a chart of surnames of well-known Ashkenazic and Sephardic rabbinical families. This is a quick reference for anyone wishing to determine the possibility of rabbinic ancestry in his or her family. There are numerous additional surnames associated with rabbinical families and dynasties. Sources used in compiling this listing of surnames are listed below.

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The Chasam Sofer, Rabbi Moses Sofer-Schreiber, 1762-1839.

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NOTE: EJ = Encyclopedia Judaica
Surname Variations Meaning Century of Origin Notes & Links to Articles
Abecassis       Rabbinical family of Morocco.
Abendanan (see Danan) Abendana, Aben Danan      
Abensur Aben Sur, ibn Sur, ibn Zur     Family of scholars originating in Spain. After the expulsion in 1492 its members are found in Morocco, Italy, Amsterdam, and Hamburg. (EJ)
Search Abensur in Jewish Enc.
Abihsera       Rabbinical family of Morocco.
Abiseror (see Seror)        
Abitbol       Moroccan family of rabbis, dayanim, talmudists, and jurists, who led the community of Sefrou.
Aboulker       Rabbinical family of Algeria.
Abravanel, Abarbanel Abravenel     One of the oldest and most distinguished Spanish families, which traces its origin from King David.
Web site
Abravanel, Abarbanel in Jewish Enc.
Abulafia Bolaffey meaning "father of health" in Arabic lexicon   Family of Spanish origin, one of whose branches bore the surname of Ha-Levi or Levi; found in various cities of the Orient and in Africa in the 16th century.
Abulafia in Jewish Enc.
Adler       Family originally from Frankfort, connected with the chief rabbinate of England.
Adler in Jewish Enc.
Alatrini Alterini, Aletrini. Alatrino, Degli Alatrini derived from town of Alatri, Italy   A distinguished family from Italy.
Alatrini in Jewish Enc.
Alcalay       Rabbinical family of the Balkans.
Alfandari Alfanderi, Alfandery, Alfandaric, Alfandrec  may be derived from Alfambra, Spain 13th Family originating in Andalusia, Spain; Eastern rabbis prominent in the 17th and 18th centuries, found in Smyrna, Constantinople, and Jerusalem.
Alfandari in Jewish Enc.
Alfasi       Moroccan, Tunisian family.
Search Alfasi in Jewish Enc.
Algazi       Rabbinical family of Turkey.
Search Algazi in Jewish Enc.
Almaliah (see Elmaleh)        
Almosnino       Rabbinical family of North Africa and the Ottoman Empire.
Almosnino in Jewish Enc.
Altschul Altschuler, Altschueler, Altszyler, Altszul, Aldszul German name of synagogue in Prague 15th First known bearer was Abraham Eberle Altschul of Prague.
Altschul, Altschuler, Altschueler in Jewish Enc.
Anaw       Family that settled in Italy, and which was originally residing in Rome; one branch was the Bethel or De Synagoga family.
Anaw in Jewish Enc.
Angel       Rabbinical family of Greece (Salonika) and Eretz Yisrael (Jerusalem).
Search Angel in Jewish Enc.
Ashkenazi Ashkenazy, Askenazy Aszkinazy, Ashkenadze, Eskinazy "German Jew" in Hebrew lexicon by 17th Search Ashkenazi, Aschkenazi in Jewish Enc.
Atar Attar, ibn Attar, Abenatar, Abiatar, Benatar     Family of Spanish origin which left Spain during the persecutions of the 14th and 15th centuries; in the 17th century the name reappeared in Amsterdam, Turkey, Morocco.
Search Atar or variations in Jewish Enc.
Auerbach Awerbach, Avarba, Averbuk, Orbach, Urbach, Linz-Auerbach, Metzlein-Auerbach derived from Auerbach, Hessen-Darmstadt, Germany 15th Family of scholars, the progenitor of which was Moses Auerbach, court Jew to the bishop of Regensburg, about 1497. The Austrian branch was also known as Wolf.
Auerbach in Jewish Enc.
Ayache       Rabbinical family of Algeria.
Azulai Azulay     Family who, after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492, settled in the city of Fez, Morocco.
Azulai in Jewish Enc.
Babad Babat abbreviation of "Benei Av Bet Din" (children of the head of the rabbinical court) in Hebrew lexicon   Family of rabbis; founder was Isaac of Krakow, son of Issachar Berish, a parnas of the Council of Four Lands, and grandson of Heschel (d. 1704), av bet din of Krakow, who served as rabbi of Brzezany and Brody (Ukraine).
Bacharach Bachrach, Bachrich derived from Bacharach, Rhineland, Germany 15th Israel and Tobias, two sons of Joseph Solomon Bachrach, were martyred in Ruzhany on September 19, 1659, following a blood libel. Tobias' descendants lived at Tiktin (Tykocin, Poland). (see also Zak)
Bacharach in Jewish Enc.
Benveniste Bienveniste, Benvist, Abenbenist "welcome" in Spanish lexicon   Widespread Sephardic family, originating in Spain and Provence. After the expulsion from Spain in 1492, the family was dispersed, especially throughout the Ottoman Empire.
Benveniste in Jewish Enc.
Berdugo       Family of many distinguished rabbis in Morocco, chiefly in Meknes; according to  tradition, the family is of Davidic descent.
Berlin, Berliner Berlinski derived from Berlin, Germany   Famous family of scholars which counted among its members Yom-Tov Lipman Heller and Meir ben Jacob Schiff.
Search Berlin, Berliner in Jewish Enc.
Bloch Blok, Blochman, Blokman, Belach, Beloch, Balok, Vlok "Italian" or foreigner from Romance country 17th Search Bloch in Jewish Enc.
Boton di Boton     Spanish family which immigrated to Salonika (Greece) in 1492.
Boton in Jewish Enc.
Brill Bril, Bryl abbreviation of "ben Rabbi Judah Lowe"   Search Brill, Bril in Jewish Enc.
Broda Brody, Brojde, Braude, Brauda, Braudo, Breda, Broude, Bravuda, Broder derived from Brod, Moravia 17th Family of rabbis in Lithuania and Slovakia (then in Hungary) from the 17th century on. (EJ)
Search Broda and variations in Jewish Enc.

Brodski Brodsky meaning "from Brody"   Family which produced many rabbis and notable men in the last 400 or more years; Meir Schor moved from Brody in Galicia to Zlatopol (Kiev) in the early 19th century and took the name of Brodski. (EJ)
Brodski in Jewish Enc.
Boucarra       Rabbinical family of Tunisia.
Caro Karo     Search Caro, Karo in Jewish Enc.
Cases Cazes     Italian family; branches lived in Mantua and Ferrara; some emigrated to Turkey and Palestine.
Cases (Cazes) in Jewish Enc.
Chajes Chajas, Chajis, Chayes, Chayet, Chait, Hayot, Hayet derived from the Hebrew given name Chaya 16th Search Chajes in Jewish Enc.
Charlap Charlop, Charlip, Charlup, Charloff, Harlaff an acronym consisting of four Hebrew letters, standing for "Chief Sage of the Exile in Poland" (a title)   A distinguished rabbinic dynasty, which stems from the Ibn Yahya (Don Yahya) rabbis of Spain and Portugal and before that go back to the Exilarchs in Babylonia and Persia. The family claims descent from King David.
Web site
Cheifetz Khejfets, Fejfets, Kejfes "desirable thing" in Hebrew lexicon 17th  
Chouraqui       Rabbinical family of Algeria.
Cohen Kohen      
Covo   from Covo, Italy   Rabbinical family of Greece (Salonika).
Covo in Jewish Enc.
Danan ibn Danan, ibn Dannan, Abendanan, Abendana, Aben Danan     First known members of the family are Asase, who emigrated from Morocco to Aragon in 1249, and Maimon, who was apparently one of the refugees after the anti-Jewish massacres of 1391.
Ibn Danan in Jewish Enc.
Danon Dannon, ibn Danon     Sephardic rabbinical family.
Search Danon and variations in Jewish Enc.
Danzig Dantzig, Danziger derived from Danzig, Germany   Search Danzig, Danziger in Jewish Enc. 
Darmon       Rabbinical family of Algeria and Tunisia.
Search Darmon in Jewish Enc.
de Avila d'Avila, Davila derived from Avila, Spain   Sephardic family, several of whose members held prominent positions in Spain. From the second half of the 17th century the family appears in Morocco, England, and later in the United States.
Search Avila, Davila in Jewish Enc.
Dreyfus (see Treves)        
Duran       Family originally from Provence went first to Majorca, and finally settled in Algiers, Algeria.
Duran in Jewish Enc.
Edels Eidels, Edelson     Search Edels in Jewish Enc.
Eger, Eiger Egiert, Aiger, Egier, Egers derived from Eger, Bohemia 17th A family established for a long time at Halberstadt, Germany; appears to have been originally known by the name of "Gins" or "Ginsmann."
Eger in Jewish Enc.
Eisenstadt Ajzensztadt, Asch, Asz derived from Eisenstadt, Hungary 16th Polish family which selected the name of Eisenstadt, Hungary, where some of the family became rabbis.
Eisenstadt in Jewish Enc.
El Baz, Elbaz al Baz, ibn al-Baz     North African family noted for its rabbis; originally lived in Azzaouia, Morocco, from which it was expelled in 1668, then settled in Fez and  Sefrou.
Search Baz in Jewish Enc.
Eliashar Alyashar     Rabbinical family of Eretz Yisrael (Jerusalem & Hebron).
Search Alyashar in Jewish Enc.
Elmaleh Almaliah     Rabbinical family of North Africa and Eretz Yisrael.
Search Elmaleh in Jewish Enc.
Emden Embden possibly derived from Emden, Germany   Embden (Emden) in Jewish Enc.
Epstein Eppstein, Hepsztajn, Etsztajn, Apsztajn derived from Eppstein, Germany 15th Originally Sephardim, normally Levi'im; descendants of Aaron Halevi, b. ca. 1235, in Barcelona (brother of Pinchas Halevi, ancestor of the Horowitz family).
Epstein in Jewish Enc.
Ettinger Etyngier, Eitiger, Eitingen, Ittinge derived from Öttingen, Bavaria, Germany 17th The Galician and Russian family of Ettingers contains many rabbis and writers of some distinction; normally Levi'im.
Ettinger (Oettinger) in Jewish Enc.
Farhi       Rabbinical family of Syria (Aleppo and Damascus).
Web site
Fränkel Fraenkel, Frenkel, Frankel, Frenk meaning "Franconian" 16th Family of scholars and Talmudists widely scattered throughout Central and Eastern Europe; traced back to two 16th-century scholars in Wallerstein, Moses ha-Levi Heller and Aaron Heller; Jews with this surname may be descendants of the original Vienna family, normally Levi'im.
Fränkel (Frankel) in Jewish Enc.
Friedman       Of the Ruzhiner dynasty.
Galante       Family which flourished in Rome, and the head of which, Mordecai, was a Spanish exile of the Angel family.
Galante in Jewish Enc.
Goetz Getz      
Gordon Gardon, Gordyn anagram of Grodno, Lithuania 17th  
Guez       Rabbinical family of Tunisia.
Günzburg Ginsburg, Gintsburg, Ginzburg, Gansburg, Nitsberg, Gunzburg derived from Günzburg, Bavaria, Germany 16th Günzburgs from Ulm, Wuertemberg, carried the surname Ulma-Gunzburg; the Ulm, Ulma, and Ullman families are supposed to be branches of the Günzburg family.
Günzburg in Jewish Enc.
Haddad       Rabbinical family of Tunisia.
Halberstadt Galberstadt, Halbersztat, Halpersztat, Halberstam, Alber derived from Halberstadt, Saxony 18th Search Halberstadt, Halberstam, and variations in Jewish Enc.
Hazzan, Hazan   derived from the office of "cantor" in Hebrew lexicon 18th Oriental rabbinical family, probably of Spanish origin, members of which are found in Spain, and in Smyrna, Alexandria, and other cities of the East.
Hazzan, Hazan in Jewish Enc.
Heilprin Halprin, Halpern, Halborn, Hajlperyn, Galpern, Galperin, Heilbronner, Heilprun, Heilbrun, Alpert, Alpern, Alberman, Alber derived from Heilbronn, Württemberg, Germany 17th There are four distinct branches of the rabbinical Heilprin family.
Heilprin in Jewish Enc.
Heller Geller, Eler, Elert, Kheler derived from Schwäbisch-Hall, Württemberg, Germany 16th Descendants of Vienna (Austria) branch are normally Levi'im.
Search Heller in Jewish Enc.
Heschel Heshel, Geshel derived from a form of the given name Yehoshua 18th Descended from R. Abraham Joshua Heschel, "Oheiv Yisroel," ABD of Apta, Iasi, and Medzhibozh, late 18th/early 19th century.
Search Heshel in Jewish Enc.
Horowitz Horovitz, Horwicz, Gurwicz, Gurevich, Gurevicz, Gurvich, Gorovits, Orovits, "Ha-Levi Ish Horowitz"; Munka derived from Horovice, Bohemia 15th Originally Sephardim, normally Levi'im; descendants of Pinchas ha-Levi (brother of Aaron ha-Levi, ancestor of the Epstein family).
Web site.
Search Horowitz in Jewish Enc.
Israel       Rabbinical family of Turkey and Isle of Rhodes.
Isserlis Isserles, Isserlein, Isserlin derived from the French variation of the Hebrew given name "Israel"   Search Isserles and variations in Jewish Enc.
Jaffe Joffe, Yaffe, Ioffe, Effa, Yappo, Yufa "beautiful" in Hebrew lexicon 16th Family of rabbis, scholars, and communal workers, of Germany, Austria, Russia, Great Britain, Italy, and USA; descended from Mordecai Jaffe (1530-1612), author of the "Levushim," and his uncle Moses Jaffe, both of an old family of Prague.
Jaffe (Joffe) in Jewish Enc.
Jerucham Jerachim, Jeruchem derived from the given name "Jeruchim" in Hebrew lexicon    
Kalonymous Kalonymus   8th One of the most eminent Jewish families in Germany, which flourished from the 9th-13th centuries; originated in Italy.
Search Kalonymus in Jewish Enc.
Kassin Katsin     Rabbinical family of Syria (Aleppo).
Katzenellenbogen Katsenellenbogen, Ellenbogen derived from Katzenelnbogen, Hessen-Nassau, Germany 16th Old, widely ramified rabbinical family from Italy, Poland, Germany, Alsace, and USA.
Katzenellenbogen in Jewish Enc.
Kimhi     11th Family of scholars from Spain and Provence, which spread into Italy, Turkey, Syria, and England.
Kimhi in Jewish Enc.
Klausner       Search Klausner in Jewish Enc.
Labi ibn Labi     Turkish family of rabbis.
Labi in Jewish Enc.
Landau Landa, Lenda, Landes, Lando, Lande derived from Landau, Pfalz, Germany 15th Normally Levi'im.
Web site
Landau in Jewish Enc.
Laniado       Sephardic family which settled in Italy and Aleppo, Syria.
Laniado in Jewish Enc.
Levi Ha-Levi, Bet ha-Levi     Prominent, wealthy, and ramified Sephardic family of scholars and rabbis, many of whom served as congregation leaders during the 15th–17th centuries; The family originated from Evora, Portugal, and later found in Salonika (Greece). 
Lipkin       Russo-Jewish family which derives its origin from Dov Ber Lipkin, rabbi of Plungian in the first half of the 18th century; a member was Rabbi Israel Salanter.
Lipkin in Jewish Enc.
Lipschütz Livshits, Lifshits, Lipshits, Lipszyc derived from Landau, in Bohemia or Silesia or Germany 16th Family of Polish and German rabbis.
Lipschütz (Lüpschütz, Lipschitz, Libschitz) in Jewish Enc.
Luria Lurie, Loria, Lorie, Lurius perhaps derived from the Loire river region of France or Loria, Italy 14th Well-known family which spread throughout Germany, Bohemia, Eastern Europe, Italy, and oriental countries; main family is descended from Rashi.
Luria in Jewish Enc.
Luzzato, Luzzatti   derived from a town in Italy 16th Family of Italian scholars; descended from a German who immigrated into Italy.
Luzzato (Luzzatti) in Jewish Enc.
Maimaran Mimran     Rabbinical family of Morocco.
Malca ben Malca, ibn Malca, Malkah, ibn Malkah  1) with an aleph at the end, is Aramaic derived from Melekh;
2) Malka/Malki is derived from Malaga (until recently called Malaca)
  Moroccan family of scholars.
Web site
Margolioth Margolis, Margulis, Margolin, Margalesh "pearls," or from female given name meaning "pearl" in the Hebrew lexicon 15th Polish family of Talmudic scholars that traces its descent from Rashi and the families of Shor and Samuel Edels on the other.
Margolioth in Jewish Enc.
Melli   derived from Melli, an Italian village in the province of Mantua 15th Family of scholars and rabbis.
Melli in Jewish Enc.
Meyuhas       Rabbinical family of Jerusalem.
Meyuhas in Jewish Enc.
Mintz, Minz Mints, Minc derived from Mayence (Mainz, Hessen, Germany) 15th Family of rabbis and scholars.
Minz in Jewish Enc.
Mitrani (see Trani)       Rabbinical family of Turkey.
Mizrahi       There are two main branches: one in Constantinople, and the other in Jerusalem.
Mizrahi in Jewish Enc.
Morawtschik Morawczyk, Muravchik, Murawczyk derived from the village of Murava in Pruzhany district or Moravia 16th Family of Polish scholars of the 16th and 17th centuries coming originally from Moravia.
Morawczyk in Jewish Enc.
Morgenstern Morgiensztern "morning star" in German lexicon    
Munk Munka derived from a form of the given name Shlomo   Family of rabbis.
Ohana       Rabbinical family of Morocco.
Palacci Palatchi     Rabbinical family of Turkey.
Search Palacci in Jewish Enc.
Perahia Perahia HaCohen     Rabbinical family of Greece (Salonika).
Perles       A family probably originating in Prague many members of which have been rabbis and scholars; related to Altschul.
Perles in Jewish Enc.
Rabinovich Rabinovicz, Rabinovski, Rabinowicz, Rabinowitz   18th Search Rabinowitz in Jewish Enc.
Rapoport Rapaport, Rappoport, Rappo, Paport, Proport Rappa family from Porto, Italy 16th Normally Kohanim; family originated in Germany.
Rapoport in Jewish Enc.
Rosanes Rozanes derived from Rosas, Spain   Family members, originally from Spain, emigrated to Portugal at the end of the 15th century, and others settled later in Turkey (Constantinople), Bulgaria (Ruschuk), Austria, and Russia.
Rosanes in Jewish Enc.
Rottenberg Rotenberg, Rothenberg derived from Rothenburg, Prussia, Silesia    
Sackheim (see Zakheim)        
Samama Scemama     Rabbinical family of Tunisia.
Sarfati Ha-Sarfati, Zarfati "from France" in Hebrew lexicon   Oriental family traced to a line of French rabbis descended from Rashi through his grandson, Rabbenu Tam. (see also Trabot)
Zarfati in Jewish Enc.
Sasportas Saportas, Saporta, Sforta derived from place called "Seisportas" 16th Earliest known members lived in Oran, Algeria.
Sasportas in Jewish Enc.
Schneerson       Descendants of R. Shneyer Zalman of Lyadi (Belarus).
Schrentzels Sztrencel, Schrenzel derived from the female given name Shrentsel   Search Schrenzel and variations in Jewish Enc.
Segre       Italian family.
Segre in Jewish Enc.
Serero Serrero     Family of Spanish scholars who settled in Fez, Morocco, after the Expulsion.
Search Serero in Jewish Enc.
Seror Abiseror     Rabbinical family of Algeria.
Shor Schor, Schorr, Szor, Szorer, Szoor "ox" in Hebrew lexicon; derivation of the "Firstling Bullock" which became the kinnui (nickname) for Joseph 12th Descendants of Joseph ben Isaac Bechor-Shor, 12th century, most renowned scholar of Orleans, France.
Search Schor and variations in Jewish Enc.
Sofer-Schreiber Sofer, Sojfer, Schreiber Sofer is a "scribe" in Hebrew lexicon   Descended from Moshe Sofer, the Chasam Sofer; the surname Schreiber was used in civil records.
Search Sofer, Schreiber, and variations in Jewish Enc.
Soloveichik     18th Prominent Lithuanian rabbinical family first heard of in Slobodka.
Search Soloveichik in Jewish Enc.
Spira (Spiro) Shapiro, Shapira, Szpiro, Szapir, Saphir, Saper, Sapir, Safir, Shpir, Shuper, Super derived from Speyer, Bavaria, Germany 14th Originally bore the name "Ashkenazi," to distinguish it from the Kahane or Katz-Spira family; prominent families of Bohemia added to their names, e.g., Frankl-Spiro, Wiener-Spiro,  Porges-Spiro; a branch is descended from Solomon Spira, 14th century, a descendant of Rashi.
Spira (Spiro) in Jewish Enc.
Sutton Sethon     Rabbinical family of Syria (Aleppo).
Teomim Teomum, Teumin, Tauman, Taumin, Tumim, Tomin, Thumim "twins" 17th First bearer was Jonas ben Isaiah, rabbi in Nikolsburg, Moravia.
Search Teomim in Jewish Enc.
Tiktin   derived from Tiktin (Tykocin), Poland 18th Silesian family originating from Tykocin, near Bialystok (Poland).
Tiktin in Jewish Enc.
Toledano de Toledo derived from Toledo, Spain   Family of rabbis and hakhamim originating in Toledo, Spain. After the expulsion from Spain in 1492, they were found in Safed, Salonika, and Morocco, and later in Holland, England, and Turkey; latest was chief Sephardic rabbi of Israel.
Toledano in Jewish Enc.
Trabot (Trabotti)       Family of Italian scholars of the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries, which immigrated to Italy from France, so that several of its members bore the additional name Zarfati.
Trabot in Jewish Enc.
Trani di Trani     Family of scholars, members of which were prominent in Spain and the Levant (Middle East).
Trani in Jewish Enc.
Treves Trivush, Travush, Trejvis, Trejvius, Trius, Trywasz, Dreyfus, Drajfus derived from Trier, Germany, or Troyes, France 14th First bearer was Joseph ben Johanan, rabbi of Paris or Marseilles, a descendant of Rashi.
Treves in Jewish Enc.
Twersky Twierski derived from Tweri, Kowno Gubernia, or Tiberius, Israel, or Twierdza, Galicia    
Ulm, Ulma, Ullman (see Günzburg)        
Uziel     15th After the expulsion from Spain and Portugal, the family was scattered throughout northern Africa, Italy, and the Levant (Middle East).
Uziel in Jewish Enc.
Ventura       Family of rabbis and scholars prominent in Italy and Greece in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.
Ventura in Jewish Enc.
Vital       Italian family of scholars
Vital in Jewish Enc.
Wahl Wohl, Wal meaning "ox" 16th From the nickname of "king for a night" Saul Wahl, 1541-1617, of the Katzenellenbogen family.
Wallich Wallach, Walich, Walch, Weilach, Walchowicz, Wlach   14th German family.
Wallich in Jewish Enc.
Walsch Walsh "Welsh" in German lexicon    
Weil Wajl, Weill, Weyl, Weille derived from Weil, Württemberg or Baden, Germany 13th A branch from southern Germany is descended from R. Meir of Rothenberg.
Search Weil in Jewish Enc.
Yahya Yahia, Ibn Yechia     Portuguese family of the Middle Ages, members of which were prominent in Portugal, Spain, Italy, and Turkey. The family claims descent from King David. (see also Charlap)
Web site
Yahya in Jewish Enc.
Zak Zaks, Sak, Saks, Zakshtejn, Zakson, Zakman, Zakov, Zak-Zakovski abbreviation of "Zerae Qoydesh," meaning "holy seed" in Hebrew lexicon 17th First bearers may have been three sons of Rabbi Israel of Ruzhany, martyred in 1659. (see also Bacharach)
Search Sak in Jewish Enc.
Zakheim Zakgejm, Sackheim, Zakim   18th Variation of Zak taken in Vilna (Vilnius, Lithuania).
Zarfati (see Sarfati)        


  • Beider, Alexander. A Dictionary of Jewish Surnames from the Kingdom of Poland. Teaneck, NJ: Avotaynu, 1996.
  • Beider, Alexander. A Dictionary of Jewish Surnames from the Russian Pale of Settlement. Teaneck, NJ: Avotaynu, 1993.
  • Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica-Keter, 1971. 17 Vols.
  • Jewish Encyclopedia. New York-London: Funk and Wagnalls Company, 1901-1906. 12 Vols.
  • Klausner, Yehuda. "European Rabbis Throughout the Generations." Sharsheret Hadorot (Journal of Jewish Genealogy). Israel Genealogical Society: October 2001, Vol. 16, No. 1.
  • Rosenstein, Neil. The Unbroken Chain: Biographical Sketches and Genealogy of Illustrious Jewish Families from the 15th-20th Century. New York: CIS Publishers, 1990.
  • Rottenberg, Dan. Finding Our Fathers: A Guidebook to Jewish Genealogy. New York: Random House. 1977.