Stan recalled that in his younger days there were two con­gregations in Vincennes because there were German Jews and Russian Jews, and they didn't mix. The German Jews were more reformed than the Russian Jews. There was also an economic difference. The German Jews were able to bring money and goods with them, but the Russian Jews esca'ped with "only their skins." Yet, they were eventually united in spirit.

Neither Stan nor Albert had a Bar Mitzvah celebration such as families hold today because in the small Jewish community existing in Vincennes at the time they became of age, finances were not available to provide such a celebration. However, they did have Bar Mitzvah celebrations for their own sons at the temple in Evansville.

The Bar Mitzvah is a ceremony held on the Saturday nearest to the 13th birthday of the Jewish boy. The ceremony is held in a temple or synagogue, and the 13 year old Jewish boy is "given the status and duties of a man" at this time. The corres­ponding ceremony for the girls is held when they reach the age

of 12 and is called a Bas Mitzvah.20

Bas Mitzvah ceremonies were not being held when Sandy Dumes was 12, but the Rosenbergs and Dumes shared with me the festivities of a recent Bas Mitzvah attended in St. Louis for the grandaughter of a mutual friend and former resident. They are as important to the families of today as the Bar Mitzvah as women take more of a role of leadership in the synagogue.

Sam Rosenberg was the rabbi for a number of years as was an aged Jew named Mr. Silverman; Rabbi Bloom and several