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[Pages 345-346]

Editor's Foreword

By Chaim Rabin

Translated by Howard Freedman

Note: Chaim Rabin (1910-1990), the editor of the Shumsk Yizkor Book and author of this foreword to the Yiddish section of the book, was born in Lanovits. His mother, Dina (Berensztejn) Rabin, was the daughter of Kovka and Ides (Yehudis) Berensztejn, prominent members of the Jewish community in Shumsk. Chaim Rabin's parents, Dina and Uziel Rabin, perished in the Holocaust as did two of their children. Chaim Rabin immigrated to Palestine in 1934. He was a prolific author and translator and edited more than 10 Yizkor Books.

When we remember Shumsk, we remember Yiddish, the language of our eternally dear murdered parents, brothers, sisters, friends, neighbors-- all of the dear Shumsk Jews. We know that they held on to their language as a means of defense to protect their Jewish way of life and maintain their uniqueness. In it they spoke, thought, and whispered the 2,000-year secret that brought us back into our Land of Israel, and in it they created, sang, and traded their lovely Jewish jokes and ... cried in times of uncertainty and death.

Therefore we have devoted a large section of the book to Yiddish, although our intuition regarding Yiddish tells us that in the future Yiddish will be supplanted by the use of Hebrew.

We undertake this with love.

The Yiddish section is not a translation. It is the language of creation of the authors and, just as the entire book has been created by the efforts of a few who have taken pains to write, so is the Yiddish in the book the creative language of its authors. Fortuitously, it is almost a parallel reflection of Shumsk to its Hebrew reflection.

Here is a section of nostalgia, of longing for the past of our shtetl with its sorrows and happiness.

Here is a picture of its society, which was built upon a moral law and code of the soul, with its shaded and bright characters.

Here is the longing of its youth for their own state and a safe, secure Jewish life.

And, above all, here is a description of the massacre of the people of Shumsk by three witnesses saved from death.

*

Worthy of mention is the treasury of Shumsk folkore in the chapters by Muni Chazen and the diary of Elye Hersh Nite's daughter Zipora Rojchman, which was written in the 1930s in the midst of seas and oceans, between sky and water, when she was an illegal immigrant to Israel and her heart was torn between her love of Israel and her longing to return home to Shumsk.

*

The Shumsk landsmanshaft in Israel did everything so that the book in Hebrew and in Yiddish would be a fitting memorial to our holy, dear Shumsk Jews, a tribute to all Jews murdered in all lands and generations, and an accurate picture of our shtetl.

We presume that here and there errors and oversights were made. This is natural and pardonable, for if we had not made the effort to prepare this book we would not have fulfilled our duty to immortalize Shumsk for our children and for Jewish history.

We thank all of our Shumskers, whose demand for the book gave us the courage to put up with the obstacles and financial difficulties, and brought the dream of a Shumsk Yizkor Book to realization.

Let us consider this book as the collective expression of all of us Shumskers.


[Pages 356-357]

My Unforgettable Shtetl Shumsk

By Manny Rubin (Avraham Schochet's grandson)

Translated by Howard Freedman

note: This was a rhyming poem. I chose to represent it literally. The syntax from the Yiddish is largely intact.

My small shtetl,
Its surroundings so beautiful
Houses straight in a row,
Study houses, a synagogue between them.
Streets short and long
Shops in a line on the square
The Braver[1], a distillery, and also a mill
All beautiful and delicious to everyone's senses.
The walk to the woods
Through the wood and up the Gorki[2]
When every Sabbath, everyone big and small
Would head from the shtetl
After the delight and rest of Sabbath
Everybody, everybody, you and I.
And the orchard at the New Town[3]
In summer used to blossom so well.
I think now of you and your people
And of your beautiful evenings
The sky, such a pure blue, moon shining
In it, I remember today
The quiet streets, the people sleeping
There was always happiness, cheerfulness
But suddenly evil took you.
Obliterated, I can no longer see you.
By the hand of German murderers
There remains no more than burnt walls.
And together with you
Your people were obliterated
My sisters, brothers, and who was not?
O Shumsk, I will never forget you
In my memory you will always be engraved.


Translator's Footnotes

  1. The Braver was a brewery that belonged to the Wilsker family. It was not in use as a brewery, and, being a large space, it was used for some time as the place where the Dramatic Society presented its productions. Return
  2. The Gorki was a hill just outside the town and was used especially by the young people of the town for walks on Shabbat. Return
  3. The New Town was the name of a section or neighborhood of Shumsk. Return


[Pages 358-364]

Shumsk Dies

By Fayge and Yosef Mednik as told to Muni Chazenr

Translated by Howard Freedman

Notes: Howard Freedman's translation from Yiddish to English was augmented by Rachel Karni using a Yiddish–to–Hebrew translation prepared by Ahuva Shalom. Rachel Karni prepared the following introduction.

Introduction: Fayge/Tziporah (Geldi) Mednik was a native of Shumsk. Her parents were Nachum Asher Geldi, a merchant born in 1890, and Chana (Bryk) Geldi, born in 1895. Fayge's parents and her sister Susia[1] all perished in Shumsk. Fayge's brother Pinchas Geldi/Giladi survived the war, hiding in Shumsk itself and in the area, and after the war he settled in Israel. He is referred to several times in the accounts in this yizkor book by other survivors.

Yosef Mednik was from Mizoch, near Shumsk, and married Fayge Geldi before World War II. During the period of Soviet rule in Shumsk that began in September 1939, Yosef headed an economic cooperative in Shumsk known as the MST or Municipal Company for Supplies. With the German invasion in the summer of 1941, he and his wife fled from Shumsk into the Soviet Union. While in the Soviet Union the two became separated when Yosef was taken into the Red Army. They were later reunited in Tashkent.

After the war the Medniks were in Wetzler, Germany. In December 1949 they immigrated to the United States with their two children. In America their names became Fay and Joseph Madnick and they had two more children. Shortly after their arrival in the United States, they spoke at a meeting of Shumskers in New York, relating for the first time to those in America what had happened in Shumsk during the war. Yosef's talk was transcribed by Muni Chazen.

From the following detailed description of events that took place in Shumsk after the Medniks had left the town, it is clear that they had met in Europe with Shumskers who had been in Shumsk at the time of the massacre and survived and that they had heard firsthand reports from them. Almost all the events they describe in this talk are corroborated by survivors' accounts in earlier chapters of this yizkor book, in the section “On the Holocaust.” In the few cases where the Medniks are the only ones to tell about a specific incident, we have learned from researchers at Yad Vashem that unfortunately such incidents were known to have occurred in western Ukraine.

Joseph Madnick passed away in 1987, and Fay in 1990.

 

On June 22, 1941, the war began with a black cloud of death and destruction for the world as a whole, and especially for us Jews.

On the 5th of July at 6:00 in the evening, Hitler's gang arrived in Shumsk. As soon as they arrived, they began to beat and harass all of the shtetl's Jews. They began by cutting the beards of elderly Jews and looting Jewish property and goods. And within a few days, they gave an order for Jews to sew yellow patches onto their backs and onto the front over their hearts, as well as a white band on the right sleeve with a Star of David, so that a Jew could be recognized a mile away. The patches had to be 20 square centimeters. If a patch was any smaller the person was beaten until he fell dead on the spot. From such a punishment fell the first casualty in Shumsk: Berel Lalkis –– BenTsion Burdman's son–in–law, the husband of Reyzel.[2]

 


Here is Shumsk… buried

 

Every day, from dawn until late at night, groups of men were driven to work in the forests, ten kilometers from Shumsk. The work was more difficult than a person could endure. For being unable to lift a heavy beam on the first try, a man was beaten until he lost consciousness. Obtaining food was completely out of the question.

Upon returning from an entire day of work in the forest, if a Jew was found with a piece of bread, a potato, a beet, a carrot, or something of this sort (which some brought to nourish their starving children), he was hanged.

Jews began to purchase food from gentiles covertly. For a piece of bread, cabbage, or potato, one had to pay with gold coins. A good suit was given away for a loaf of bread.

That is how it was until the establishment of the ghetto.

On March 12th [1942] during the morning count an order was given to begin work to erect a fence, the purpose of which was to isolate the Jews inside a ghetto. They gathered the shtetl's Jews together to dig ditches for a fence, which stretched from the raised road[3] onward, going from Baruch Godl Shprecher's house until Yakov'ke Berensztejn's house[4] and then up to the monastery that was the Polish horse stable[5]. From there the fence ran to Shimon Duchowny's house and Nachum Kac's, until Mates Kreyzelman's across the way. Then the fence extended until Yente Ingerlejb's house[6], and from there to Yudl Zak's, Sholem Lalkes', Avrahamke[7] the tailor's, and then from Zelig Duchowny's to Zeyde Kac's house. From there it went to Mendel Tober's house, Bayarki's house, and Leib Shimon's house, until the brewery on the river.

The other side the fence enveloped the home of Rabbi Yossele, the bathhouse, the Kanfers' home, and all of the houses that were by the river. In the middle were the study houses and the Great Synagogue, which was already nearly 200 years old. It was all enclosed by a high fence to create a ghetto. The fence was 3 meters high, with boards joined together to form a wall, so that one could not see out through them.

They then rounded up the Jews into this area together with all their possessions.

The congestion was terrible. People were as crowded there as herrings in a barrel, several families to a house. Stationed around the ghetto were Ukrainian policemen – plainly murderers from the nearby villages. They stood guard to prevent anyone from leaving the ghetto. Life became even more bitter than before. Each person received nothing more than ten dekagrams[8] of bread a day, and nothing else was permitted into the ghetto. Only when a Christian felt pity and tossed in some bread did some lucky person have the privilege of catching the bread and feeling fortunate. The hunger was enormous. Often people fought until blood was shed for the sake of a piece of bread. People began to swell from hunger. Children and tiny infants died of hunger.

On one of these calamitous days, the bandits arrived in the ghetto and assembled all the men, women, boys, and girls. With clippers, they cut the hair from everybody's head and beard. They put the hair in a sack and left.

After this work, many of the Germans departed, and only a landver[9] with Gestapo police remained.

From time to time, a forced contribution was imposed on the ghetto through the Judenrat[10] that had been established in the ghetto, and a collection was taken for the contribution. Thus, for example, they once demanded the delivery of 500 gold watches with gold chains, women's necklaces, and gold bracelets. The ultimatum was that if the items were not delivered in the amount dictated by 7 o'clock, they would take a hundred people out of the ghetto and shoot them.

Afterward, they demanded diamonds, gold rings, furs, sewing machines, bicycles, motorcycles, gramophones, typewriters, fine suits, gold coins, and other items with the threat that if we did not comply, they would take 600 people out to be shot. The ghetto was then surrounded by more Ukrainians –– murderers with machine guns. People brought out the last things they owned. People fell on each other's necks and said, “Who knows if we are going to be able to come up with the collection? God knows who among us will fall as martyrs, should we fail to fulfill the demands.”

Every day all the men were driven from the ghetto to do strenuous work in the forest and to break stones for roads. And as they left and returned from work, someone at the gate searched them to see whether any of them were carrying a piece of bread with them.

People in the ghetto were like geese in a cage. Each wanted to comfort the other, telling the person he was speaking with that he had had dreamed of the merits of his ancestors, and that salvation would come soon. People used to sit in front of their dwellings and sleep there because inside it was too crowded and suffocating. Out of the hunger and crowded conditions emerged a typhus epidemic. Many people, especially small children, perished from it. It was crowded, people were hungry, and one slept bumping into another's head.

In the evening, the men came back from work worn out, hungry, and exhausted. They would fall to the floor to rest. The wives and children would ask: “Father, did you bring anything?” If the father should have had the fortune to bring some potatoes or a beet, it was divided among the children, and they ate it raw.

Parents and children felt wretched after waiting an entire day for the father to bring something. If he did not succeed, the children would collect potato peelings and eat them.

Once a false accusation was made that Jews were raising pigs in the ghetto. The landver drove in with Gestapo police on motorcycles, and, with revolvers in their hands, began to beat men, women, and children –– whoever came into their hands –– so they would surrender the pigs. We fainted in fear. We could not understand why this was happening.

However, there was among us in Shumsk a Pole, Victor Katshanavski, who was an extreme anti–Semite. He had made an agreement with other bandits and with the landver, and through a nearby hole audaciously smuggled in a pig. The Judenrat came to the place and found the pig, and they were forced to lead the pig in a parade through the ghetto. And later, as a punishment, all of the pretty girls were rounded up and taken away to the landver to be raped. When they did not allow themselves to be raped, they were shot.

The worst began on the 15th of the month of Av, 1942. They stopped calling people to work. The ghetto was now completely sealed. People were no longer given any bread. The situation was becoming worse day by day.

An order was given to list the names of everybody in the ghetto. Men were to be listed separately, and women and children separately. All of the working men would be given “work permits,” as they called it, if they were capable of working. These people walked about happily because they would be able to leave the ghetto for work. When everyone had been registered, people waited for what would now happen. Only, meanwhile, the gates of the ghetto were not opened. On the contrary, where one murderer had been posted between the post office and the glass works, there now stood two. People peered out from their attics day and night to see what was happening outside the ghetto.

People noticed that the Germans were transporting gentile men and women who were holding shovels from the village of Krilitz. It was understood that this was not good and that something terrible was going to happen.

Several days later, on the 26th of Av[11] –– it was a Saturday night at around midnight –– an entire battalion of Nazis arrived and surrounded the ghetto, so that at every two steps there stood two murderers. For three days they stood with their rifles pointed toward the ghetto and gave the order that nobody should move from his or her place. Should anyone leave his or her house, or move from one building to another, he would immediately be shot. From these bullets fell Valie the mezshe, Shaya Bat, Dudi Bikovitzer, and several others.

The martyrs were left lying there, as people were scared to go out to bury them. The heat was stifling , and the corpses began to emit a strong stench, such that it was difficult simply to breathe. Motl Chazen risked his life and, along with the chairman of the Judenrat and two Jewish policemen from the ghetto, with upraised arms set out to go to the fence to ask the murderers if they would permit him to go to the landver. They asked the landver why they had surrounded the ghetto and killed many people who were still lying there, and whom people were afraid to bury. It was hot and the bodies were already emitting a stench, and this could lead to an epidemic. The landver answered that they had surrounded the ghetto because they had heard shots from the ghetto (which was an utter lie). Therefore they had to conduct a house–by–house search in the ghetto to look for weapons. Should nothing be found, the guarding of the ghetto would be relaxed. In the meantime, the corpses could be gathered and buried within the ghetto, since it was forbidden to exit the ghetto. The martyrs were buried in Leib Shimon's garden.

The mood inside the ghetto was very tense and depressed. Everybody lived in deadly terror, as the guarding of the ghetto did not subside. One felt in the air that something awful was being prepared for the Jews. People feared leaving their houses, so they sat and waited for what would come.

The complete extermination of the ghetto came.

This was on a Wednesday, the eve of Rosh Hodesh Elul 1942[12], at 4:00 in the afternoon. Rabbi Reb Yosele asked everyone to fast and to pray that a miracle would happen and we would be helped and rescued from the murderers. That same Wednesday, the murderers had driven into the ghetto and told the Judenrat that everyone who had been given a work card was permitted to come to the square and line up. They would take these men to work, and everybody who did not have such a certificate would be taken to a concentration camp. Those who were going to work were permitted to bring their families with them. Thus, many people came out of their homes, as most people wanted to extricate themselves from the sealed ghetto.

When everybody was in the square, they were ordered to march around the square and then told to sit on the ground without moving. People already saw what going to happen to them. Next, they called on those eligible to work to stand up in rows with their wives. Their children remaining behind, they departed the ghetto, surrounded by the murderers. This took place in the square by the synagogue.

The first group left through the gates between Avrahamke the tailor and Shaya Duchowny's house.

This happened on the second day of the month of Elul[13]. They led the group of Jews to the New Town. When the group of Jews was near Pesach Bat's house, they were attacked by bandits, whose presence had been arranged earlier, and were beaten murderously. Thus were the Jews led close to the Christian cemetery. There, three huge pits were prepared. A large board was placed alongside each pit. People were ordered to undress and go up in groups of ten upon the board. Two Gestapo agents shot them in the head, and the holy ones immediately fell down into the pit.

The pits were 6 meters wide, 3 meters long, and 8 meters deep.

After every three or four groups of ten were shot, the Germans called on the Ukrainian murderers to go down into the pit and compact the bodies and sprinkle them with chlorine.

Thus was the first group of approximately 1,500 Jews buried in a single pit. Once the Germans had taken care of the first group of Jews, they went back for the weak and elderly Jews, along with women and children. They threw the small children who could not walk onto trucks covered with tarpaulins, and drove them to the pits. They threw them in alive and shot them with machine guns in the pit. When the second group arrived, the German murderers took out the older children, and finished the toddlers' grave with them. This was the second pit. All of the remaining Jews were brought to the third pit in the same manner and sprinkled with chlorine.

Afterward, the gentiles covered the pits, and what remained of 4,500 Jews were three large graves.

Some Shumskers succeeded at the last minute to escape from the pits. They were Berel Segal[14], Avraham Refzon, and Yoske the wagon driver[15]. They alone among all of our townspeople survived, having witnessed the death of our Shumsk martyrs. While they were escaping they were shot at, but were fortunate enough to save themselves.

They survived in the fields amid the piles of grain and some gentiles helped them to hide.

Gentiles said that for three days the tops of the pits heaved. When the murderers had become tired of shooting, they pushed the martyrs into the pits alive.

After the annihilation, there still remained a few families in bunkers, but they were found and murdered: Nachman Sosna with his wife; Kopl Segal the butcher with six daughters, two sons–in–law, one son, and nine grandchildren; Zelig Duchowny with his wife and three children; Avraham Oife's wife with four children; Goldberg and his family; Sholem Sosna's daughter with her husband, Yenkl Efros' son; Hirsh Szwarc's daughter, and others.

On the sixth day of the final slaughter, there were still hidden in a cellar Shlomo's son Yudl Dovid with his family: Yudl with his wife, five daughters, five sons–in–law, two sons, two daughters–in–law, and eight grandchildren. They were starving in the cellar, and had run out of food and water. Two young children died from lack of water, and had to be buried within the cellar. The oldest son David took a chance and went out to search for a little water. He was spotted and tracked, and the hiding place was reported to the Germans. They took them out and, next to the graves, dug a separate pit and shot all of them. Thus they lay in a separate grave.

It is reported that there were still others who remained and were able to save themselves, and now live in Israel. But they are very few.[16]


Translator's Footnotes

  1. Susia Geldi's picture appears on page 442 of this yizkor book. Return
  2. Reyzel (Burdman) Lalkis and her brother Yoel Burdman also perished in Shumsk. Another brother, Herzl Burdman, survived the war and settled in South America. Return
  3. The writer used the word grebele, a Ukrainian word for a raised road through a low-lying area, usually a marsh or swamp or wetlands. Return
  4. Kovka Berensztejn had died in 1922. A detailed description of the interior of his large house in Shumsk is contained in “Remembering Life in Lanovits,” a 2006 interview with his grandson Azriel Berenstein. Lanovits or Lanovtsy is about 23 miles south of Shumsk. Return
  5. A Franciscan monastery existed in Shumsk until 1832. The monks' residence may have been the site that was converted to a horse stable. Return
  6. Yente Ingerlejb was a dentist. She and her husband and their entire family perished in Shumsk. Return
  7. This is a reference to Avraham Vajner (alternate spelling Weiner), who was a tailor. Return
  8. A dekagram is 10 grams, so 10 dekagrams is 100 grams or about 3.5 ounces. Return
  9. Landver : (German) The landver were a corps of older German soldiers, similar to reserves, who were called to active duty in wartime. When the Germans occupied a town or area, typically they stationed someone there to govern economic matters, so that production would continue and the Germans could then confiscate the goods. In the case of Shumsk this person was a landver. Return
  10. Judenrat: (German) A Jewish governing body which the Germans ordered Jewish communities to set up and through which edicts were imposed on the Jewish population. Return
  11. August 8, 1942 Return
  12. This date, which was August 12, 1942, in the Gregorian calendar, matches other accounts in the Shumsk Yizkor Book of the mass killing at pits near the Christian cemetery. Return
  13. This date, which was Saturday, August 15, does not match the Wednesday reference above it and appears to be in error in reference to the first and largest mass killing at pits near the Christian cemetery. Further massacres did occur later, in smaller numbers, of Jews who were found hiding in bunkers and those who had been rounded up and held at the synagogue until Yom Kippur. More detailed descriptions of the short period from the main massacre to the very end of the Jewish presence in Shumsk can be found in earlier chapters of this yizkor book, “The Last Days of Shumsk” by Ruth Sztejnman Halperin, beginning on page 29, and “Shumsk at Her End” by Yaakov Geler, beginning on page 66. Return
  14. Berel Segal survived the war and settled in the United States. Return
  15. Yoske the wagon driver is recalled as Liova Veber in an earlier chapter of this yizkor book, “After the Holocaust” by Shalom Krakowiak, beginning on page 103. His wife and three children were killed. He survived the war and afterward settled in the United States, where he was known as Yossie Weber. He remarried before coming to the U.S., and he and his second wife, Dora, had four children, according to Shumsk native Ruth (Ackerman) Markiewicz, who lived near him in the U.S. and recognized him from Shumsk. Return
  16. Survivors from Shumsk are listed by country on pages 475-476 of this yizkor book. Some of the survivors who settled in Israel wrote chapters of this book. Return


[Pages 365-368]

How My Son and I Survived

By Chaim Geler

Translated by Michael Goldstein

Editor's note: After the massacre of almost the entire Jewish community of Shumsk on August 12, 1942, about 100 people who had succeeded in hiding but were subsequently found were selected by the Germans, housed in the synagogue and assigned work. During the ensuing five weeks, many of them were killed, and a few succeeded in escaping. Then only 15 remained in Shumsk. Accounts of this five-week period are in other chapters of the Shumsk Yizkor Book: “The Last Days of Shumsk” by Ruth Stztejnman Halperin, “My Last Days in Shumsk” by Haim Cisin, “Shumsk, My Tragic Host” by Moshe Grenoch, and “Shumsk at Her End” by Yaakov (Yankel) Geler, son of Chaim Geler.

From all of Shumsk only 15 of us were left, among them myself and my poor son. We worked for the Germans, serving them and cleaning for them, and at night came back to the synagogue to spend the night in the Ghetto.

Once, when I came to the German, who was a sailor, he was not at home, and his wife, a Russian, said to me: “Tomorrow they are going to shoot you and finish you off, the last 15 Jews. Save yourself; I hate the Germans; do not sleep in the synagogue tonight.”

I conveyed this to everyone and the 15 of us took off to the villages rather than spend the night in the synagogue.

I and my son Yankel went to a gentile, who was a Shtundist[1], an evangelical that is, a neighbor of mine. When he would meet me on my way to work for the Germans, he would say that he would risk his life to save me and my son. I would tell him that it was dangerous for him to hide me. But on that night, I went to him and told him everything. “Do as you see fit,” I said to him.

As we were talking a gentile from a village came in and says he brought the Germans potatoes and the storehouse is closed, so he has to make the trip back home with the potatoes. My acquaintance speaks up: “Take these two Jews home with you and keep them safe.”

This gentile was also a Shtundist, but he had come with another gentile, not a Shtundist, and he says that he was afraid of the other gentile. So I tell him, “Go to the other man, let him go home alone, and at night take us to your house.”

I told him to go just out of town and wait for us. From there we would go together.

Leaving town was highly dangerous but we safely made it through all the streets. It was very dark. We arrived at the spot, and the gentile was not there. He was fifty meters further on but in the dark we didn't find one another. So, we went back to our acquaintance.

The gentile also went back there, so the three of us now set off for his village.

It was terribly dark. We walked 30 kilometers all the way to his home. Our clothes were wet from perspiration. He took us up to the garret, where we dropped down and fell asleep like the dead.

In the morning he comes up and says his wife is very scared to keep us. The Germans come into the village every day, so we must move to another gentile, he will take us there.

It took nine days for him to find a gentile, also an evangelist, and we went to him. On the way he says, “Don't reveal that you were staying with me. Say that I found you in the woods. Otherwise he will tell me to go on keeping you.”

In the five weeks that only 15 of us had remained in the ghetto, I had realized that we had to put away some goods in case we managed to save ourselves. I had left two crates/trunks of belongings with my Polish acquaintance, clothes and other things. So I tell the gentile, “You hide us and I will reward you.” I asked Valenik[2] to go to the Pole, take the belongings from him, sell them, and buy provisions for our current gentile [the one now caring for us].

He came back having found everything was in order, but he had seen a new “pizshak,”[3] so he put it on himself. This was my older son's “pizshak,” which he had never even managed to try on when alive. When I saw the “pizshak” I almost fainted; I felt ill and the gentile noticed it. So he took off the “pizshak” and said, “You can take it with you to the garret. It's cold there.”

But I didn't take it.

At night he would keep us in the house because it was very cold upstairs. One night I heard a loud knocking on the door and shouting in Russian, “Open.” I understood that it was the Ukrainian hooligans. So I yanked my son awake and we got out in time to the garret. The hooligans saw that there were no Jews there, so they left.

From then on, we were afraid to be in the house. We stayed in the cellar until Passover. It was very cold in the cellar but better cold than dead.

Once the landlord came to the cellar with the elder Shtundist and he saw that I was standing and praying with tfillin[4]. The elder said, “You ought to know that we consider tfillin foul.[5] I would like you to burn them; we are not allowed to have them in the house.” I instructed Yankele to remove the “parshiot,”[6] to put them away somewhere safe, and to burn the “batim.”[7]

And so every day we now prayed with “parshiot.” During Passover we did not want to eat hametz[8] so we got by on three to four potatoes a day. Non-kosher food never passed our lips and the gentile did a fine job of guarding us.

One time, panic broke out. Ukrainian robbers came in looking for Poles to murder, so the parents of our landlord's wife, Poles, came to hide. Says he, unfortunately, I must save my wife's parents and you have to go to someone else.

Meanwhile we learned that other Jews, a boy and a girl, were hiding in the village. I said to him, bring us to that gentile and I will also pay for the two of them. He went and came back, and said the other one did not agree. So I sent off my son: “You go to him and promise him a lot [of money].”

The gentile heard this and agreed. We came into the attic and two people were sitting there, a boy and a girl, afraid that he might send them away and keep us. I calmed their fears and told them that I was also paying for them, and the four of us remained.

I arranged with the Shtundist that he allow us to dig out a pit for the four of us. We did the digging at night and covered the pit with boards, earth and planted grass over it, so that it would not be detected. The pit adjoined the chamber and he handed us food, bread, potatoes and water through the small door.

We did not go out of the pit. We relieved ourselves in a pan and at night we emptied it.

In about March, the gentile comes and says that the Russians are already here, and we should leave as he no longer wants to keep us.

It was cold, the frost strong and the snow over a meter deep. From lying for so long in one place, I could not stand straight, but he simply drove us out.

At 12 midnight we went out, took with us two more Jews who were at a neighbor's, and set off into the frost and blizzard. The Partisans noticed us. We were going to Shumsk and it turns out the Germans were still there. We stayed there until a Jewish Partisan saw us and told us that Jews were gathering in Zdolbunov, near Rovno, so with his help we went to Zdolbunov, from there to Kiev and after much wandering we arrived in Israel, thank God.


Translator's Footnotes

  1. Shtundist: An Evangelical sect of German origin, long ago settled in this area, that was sympathetic to the Jews. Return
  2. A Shtundist and a good friend of the author. Return
  3. Pizshak: A warm jacket worn by the Ukrainian peasants, made of cloth on the outside with a cotton batten lining. Return
  4. Tfillin: phylacteries -- religious objects consisting of leather boxes and straps, with handwritten biblical verses on parchment inside of them, worn daily during morning prayers except on the Sabbath. Return
  5. The writer used the Yiddish word “treif.” Return
  6. Parshiot (Hebrew): Literally, “chapters.” Handwritten biblical verses inside the phylactery boxes. Return
  7. Batim (Hebrew): Literally, “houses.” Leather phylactery boxes that house the biblical verses. Return
  8. Hametz: Leavened foods forbidden during Passover. Return

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