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[Page 313-326]

Names of the Departed and Martyrs

Translated by Ann Gleich Harris

The names of these who died and were martyred in the Holocaust and its destruction were found on the Megilat Ha-Klef, commemorating the Shoah, in the basement in Har Zion in Jerusalem. They are remembered by those from Sanok and the surrounding areas.

ABCDEFGHIJKLM
NOPQRSTUVWXYZ

ABTNissan and Chaya
ADAMONIBinyamin, Hey, Yud (Hebrew Letters)
ADRICHBezalel and his family
ALSTERSchiffra
ALTKORNTzvi-Herman, Yosef, Pipa
AMENTBella, Sima, Yenta, Rachel, Frima
AMENTMordechai, Toltsa
ASTERAmalia, Mordechai, Genia, Adzia, Ronia, Moshe, Zipporah
AMSTERWulf, Chaya and their children
AMSTERYacov, Chaya-Sara, Miryam, Yitzchok
ASCHERMordechai, Amalia, Zlate, Yitzchok
AUERBACHWulf, Matilda, Shmuel, David, Elka
AUFRILAvraham-Yacov, and his family
AYBLERSara, Zipporah, Tzvi, Shrage, Rivke, Yosef, Bilha, Ester, Libe-Gittel, Golda Reizel
BABAD returnYitzchok
BACHBezalel, Feiga-Riva
BARUCHGolda
BAUMOHLMeier, Tziril, Ascher-Lemel, Moshe, Yehudit
BEER/BAERShimon, Sela, Devora
BEILESShmuel, Zebulon, Rachel
BERGENBAUMShmaryahu, Rivke, Dr, Chaim, Vera, Alexander
BERGERChana-Leah
BERGERShoshana
BERGERTzvi-Arye
BERGERYisrael-Shlomo, Sara, Moshe-Yosef, Simcha-Bonim
BERGLASSLeibusch, Malka, Belha, Avraham, Chaim, Shalom, Yehoshea
BERGLASSMenachem
BINGFELDIda
BIRNBAUMChaim, Shmuel
BIRNBAUMShmuel, Ester
BLOCHAvraham, Adah, Hela
BLUM/BLOOMIta, Baruch, Mirel
BLUM/BLOOMNoach, Ester and their children
BLUMENFELDDavid, Hirsch, Mordechai, Henia, Aharon
BLUMENFELDHager, Miryam, Yoel, Perel
BODNEREliezer, Ita
BORFUSMelech
BRANDYosef and Chana (Zagorsh), and their sons Yitzchok and Eliezer and their daughters, Sara and Devora
BRAUNTzvi, Yitzchok, Menachem, Sela
BRAUNYisrael, Sela, Tzvi-Hirsch, Yitzchok-Menachem
BREITYosef
BRIDNER (LEVENTAL)Natan, Binyamin, Frieda, Meier
BRINKArye-Leibusch, Yisrael, and their families
BRINKERChaim, Leibusch, David, and their families
BRINKLAUViska
BROSSMordechai, Dina, Pessel, Chaim
CHARAS returnShlomo, Mendel, Meier, Miryam
CHARASShmaryahu, Chana, Shalom, Hirsch, Sara, Ester, Malka
CHEITChana
DANKBERG returnNachman, Moshe, Rachel, Sela
DILLERIsaac, Pinchas, Ettel
DOMBLeib, Chaya, Abisch, Henoch, Lola
DOMBPeshya, Rachel
DORTHEIMERMonica
DYMGittel (Gisla)
DYMYehoshea
EIDLER returnShalom-Tzvi, Chava, Menachem, Sara, Yisrael
EISSDavid
ENGLANDERReizel
ENGLARDChaim-Yehuda
ENGLARDEliezer
ENGLARDMoshe
ENGLARDPinchas
ENGLARDRivke
ENGLARDSara
ETTINGEREidel, Jochebed, Devora, Tzvi, Sara
ETTINGERMoshe, Malka, Sheindel
FALLEK returnDevora, Shmi, Moshe, Sheindel-Golda
FASSYitzchok, Hey Yud (Hebrew letters)
FEIFERSela, Yacov, Avraham
FEILERShimon, Chaya, Leah-Linka
FEITBerel, Reizel, Shlomo-Zalman, Shmuel-David, Avraham-Hirsch, Sara
FEITSHEVITCHFraedel, Leah and her family, Shimon, Leah and their family
FEITSSHVITCHGolda, Moshe, and their family, Shimon and his family, Rivke, Baruch, Yitzchok
FEITSHEVITCHShlomo, Rachel, Yosef-Chaim, Bracha and their families
FEITSHEVITCHShalom-Tzvi, Sara, and their family
FELLMordechai, Malka, Hinda
FINKHelena
FINKELSTEINNaftali, Feiga and their family
FLAMMHerman, Blanka
FLEISCHERRoza
FLUHRShmuel-Yissacher, Devora-Ita, Yisrael, Yekotiel, Sheindel
FRANKYitzchok, Dina
FRANKELMoshe, Perel, Gittel-Ester, Ephraim, Chana
FREIBaruch
GEFFEN returnNachman, Chana
GELDZAHLERYisrael, Roza. Chava, Yacov
GELENDERMichela, Mendel and their family
GELENDERMoshi, Gittel, Chaya, Rivke, Hirsch-Mordechai and their families
GELENDERYitzchok-Meier
GINZBERGAvraham, Breindel, Moshe, Notta, Basha
GINZBERGEliezer, Mali, Serel
GINZBERGFriede
GINZBERGFeiga-Reizel
GLEICHMatzi, Golda, Leibusch and their families
GLEICHNotta and his family, Moshe and his family
GLEICHERNachum and his family
GOLDMordechai, Alta-Penina, Mina
GOLDSTEINBlima
GOTTLIEBEster, Fula, Tosi, Natan
GOTTLIEBLeah, Berel, Hirsch, Sara, Shmuel
GOTTLIEBYisrael, Devora
GRANIKMoshe, Keile, Pinchas, Shalom
GRATENBERGDavid, Breine, Yehuda, Leah
GROMLICKMoshe, Malka
GROMTShlomo, Levi, Aharon, Yitzchok, Yacov, Yisrael, Moshe, Liba
GROSSFrimta and his family
GROSSINGERBileh
GROSSINGERMoshe, Roza
GROYERYisrael-Zev
GRUNSHirsch, Elimelech, Fraidel, and their families
GURFEINAvraham, Sara, Yitzchok
GURFEINYitzchok, Feiga, Avraham, Golda
GUTMANMichel, David, Jochebed, Lipe
HERZBERG returnChana, Pinchas, Chaya, Shimon, Avraham
HERZBERGDavid, Feiga, Devora, Sara, Shmuel, Yisrael, Chaya, Avraham, Shlomo
HERZIGRivke
HERZIGYosef, Ester-Mindel, Chava, Ita, Bluma
HIRSCHFELDYitzchok, Chava, Yifa
HOIZNERYitzchok
HOROWITZLeib, Reizel, Yacov, Moshe, Yitzchok
HOROWITZMenachem
HOROWITZHa-Rav Tovie, Yota, Menachem-Mendel, Tzvi, Malka
IMNER returnElimelech
IMNERYona, Batia, Sender
JARMARK returnDavid, Mordechai, Rachel, Dov, Bilha, Moshe, Avraham
JARMARKRivke, Tzvi, Shmuel and their families
JONASTzvi and his family
JORSCHYitzchok
KAMPF returnHirsch, Eidel, Shlomo
KANFILPessel, Yitzchok, Chana
KASNERYacov, Miryam, Malka, Aharon
KATZChaya, Sara, and their families
KATZSara
KAUFLICKChaya, Aharon
KAUFLICKSara, Moshe
KAUFLICKShmuel, Rachel, Shimon
KELTERChaya, Sheindel, Kalman
KIEHLShoshana, Menachem-Pinchas, Yehudit
KIFFELChana
KIMMELAlexander, Dorothy, Ernestina, Isabella, Caroline, and their families
KIMMELRivke (Regina)
KIRSCHNERYacov, Yehoshua
KIRSCHNERZissel, Yacov
KLEIBER
ETTELFrieda, Rivke, Chaya
KLEINEster, Shoshana
KORMERAharon
KORMERFeiga, David, Jochebed, Mordechai, Fraedel, Meier, Eidel
KORMERYacov, Golda, Eiezer, Yoel, Mirla
KORNREICHTaube, Menachem, Rivke
KORNREICHYeshia-Ascher, Zipporah, Chana, Malka
KRELLYisrael
KROHNTzvi, Mindel, Sara, Rachel, Mira, Moshe, Shmuel
KROPDavid, Yacov, Carmella
KROPEster
KURTZ/KURZYisrael, Henia, Bezalel, Beila, Pessel
LANDESMAN returnShmuel, Sara-Frieda, Yehudit, Michel, Rivke
LANDESMANYehoshea-Menachem, Sheindel, Ester, Zelda
LANGSAMSara, Reizel, Meier, Pesach, David
LANTERElka
LEFFELLeah, Yosef
LEFFELSTILMattel
LEIB (DOZENFELD)Mordechai, Golda, Miryam, Moshe
LEIBERMalka
LEIBERReuven, Nechama, Malka
LEIFLeah
LEITNERIta-Malka
LEMBACHEster, Eliahu, Shimon
LERNERChava
LERNERIsaac, Nina
LERNERLeib, Chaya, Avraham, Tziva
LERNERYacov, Chana, Lasche, Yossi
LERNERYehoshea
LESCHNER/LESHNERSara
LESER/LESSER/LOESSERAvraham, Ester, Hertz, and their families
LESER/ LESSER/LOESSERChana, Avraham, Yitzchok, Mani, Meier
LESER/ LESSER/LOESSERChaya, Necha, Yosef
LESER/ LESSER/LOESSERYeshiahu-Hertz
LESER/ LESSER/LOESSERYosef, Sara
LOMShoshana
MAIER/MEIER/MEYER returnHansi-Feiga, Chana
MAIER/MEIER/MEYERYitzchok-Arye, Chaya, Ida, Dina, Sara
MANNShraga-Feivel
MARKGershon, Hadassah, Ezra, Moshe, Avraham
MAYChana-Devora, Avraham, Yitzchok-Arye, Yisrael-Nachum
MAYIsrael, Menachem, Chaya, Beila, Miryam, Leibusch, Chana, Nachum
MAYYecheskel-Shraga
MENDELLazer, Chana, Menachem
MIESERYitzchok
MILLERMendel, Zische, Zebulon, Feiga, Beila
MILLERMoshe, Shmuel
MILLERMoshe-David, Hirsch, Yosef, Zebulon, Mishkit
MILLERYisrael, Feiga, Penina
MORGENBESSERYacov, Rachel
MORITZAharon, Yisrael, Arye, Bilha, Naftali-Hertz
MORITZMoshe, Frieda
NEHMER returnYitzchok, Fani
NEISTEINShimon
OBERLANDER returnBezalel, Tova, Moshe
OHRENSTEINAlfred, Isadore, Chaim, Ida, Malka, Ruth, Shmuel, Golda, Lila, Yosef
OHRLINGNaftali, Ettel
OLLECHYosef, Henna, Yenta, Tzvi, Fraedel
OSTERRINGFrieda, Seltsi, Rivke, Mendel-Shlomo, Moshe, Yosef
OYLINGHirsch, Yitzchok, and their families
PERELROTH returnSabina, Alfred
PICUSYisrael
PIEPEAlter-Hirsch, Chana, Shmuel-Zeinvel, Moshe, Ettel
PROPPERRoza, Mishka
RAAB returnDavid, Mindel, Chaya, Yenta, Rivke
RABBACHMonique
RABBACHYosef, Malka
RACKERBenzion, Vilka
RANDMalka, Chana
RAUCHNatan, David, Ascher
RAUCHShimon, Henoch, Hinda, Mala
REBHUHNMiryam
REICHMarcus, Natalia, Ernest
REICHENTALTzvi
REIN (FENIG)Pinchas, Penina
REINBACHBerish, Ita, Leibusch, Breindel, Rachel, Yitzchok
REISYitzchok, Chaya, Malka, Mattel
RICHLERSara, Dov, Reizel
ROEMERDr. Shlomo, Regina
ROMEster
ROSENYisrael, Rivke, Yechiel
ROSENFELDDov, Ita, Avraham-Arye, Yacov-Shlomo, Golda
ROSENFELDMoshe, Yacov-Yosef, Feiga
ROSENFELDShalom, Moshe
ROSENFELDShalom, Moshe, Yacov-Yosef
ROSENZWEIGShaul, Feiga, Finkel, Henia, Eidel, Tzvi, Aharon
ROSNERAvraham-Chaim, Roza
ROSNEREliezer, Tzivia, Rika
ROSNERYitzchok, Mina
ROTHKalman
ROTHERKISCHYechezkel, Meier
ROTHMANMalka, Devora, Mina
RUBENFELDBenzion, Sara, Chaya, Rachel, David, Shmuel, Hela, Yitzchok
SALIK returnAharon and his family
SALIKShalom
SALIKShalom, Rosalia, Mendel
SCHABESTzvi, Shprinzta, Abba-Zische
SCHACHNERChaim
SCHECHTERMoshe
SCHECHTERYenta, Avraham, Moshe
SCHEINERDevora
SCHERERLibe, Tzippa, Hinda, Gershon, Chaya, Chana, Glikel, Yenta, Shaya-Ascher
SCHLISSELFELDEster (Bat Eliezer), Blima
SCHLISSELFELDShimon, Sara, Shmuel, Golda, Gittel (or Golda-Gittel)
SCHLISSELFELDTzvi, Ester
SCHLISSELFELDZische, Moshe
SCHNEIDERand the family
SCHNITZLERMoshe, Sara, Yosef, Shmuel, Mendel, Freda, Henia, Yitzchok, Chaim
SCHNITZLERPinchas, Rivke
SCHORTZChaim, Genia
SCHORTZYitzchok
SCHREIBERIta, Moshe (Mondik)
SCHWARTZLeib, Golda, Gershon, Mendel
SCHWARTZMordechai
SCHWEITZERTzvi, Perel
SCHWEITZERYola, Denosha
SCHWERDEliahu-Zosche, Leah, Zissel, Pinchas
SCHWERDHinda
SCHWERDMeier, Leah
SIEGEL/SEGALBluma, Leibusch
SELTZERHadassah, Moshe, Tzvi, Shmuel
SHMARLOBISKIMenachem, Bilha, Sar, Yosef, Dov
SHMARLOBISKIYisrael, Yehoshua, Dov, Chana, Chaya, Rivke, Avraham, Gittel, and their families
SIGNERMoshe, Gittel
SOBELHirsch, Chaya
SOBELYisrael
SOFERMoshe-Wulf, Alta, Chana
SOLOMONPinchas-Aharon, Tzarna, Feiga-Rachel, Yacov, Arye-Nachum, Bluma, Gittel
SPEIGELYona
SPINDLERChana
SPRINGERPesach
SPRUNGEliezer, Pinchas, and his family
STEIFFBilha
STEINBERGSprintze
STEINERDevora
STEINMETZEster, Herman, Minka
STERNYacov-Meier, Ita-Leah
STERNBACHMiryam
STERNHELAida, Ada, Dr. Leon, Elza, Adolf
STRENGERChaim
STRENGERMoshe, David
STRENGERSender
STRENGERShlomo, Leah
STURMTuva, Aharon
STURMLAUFERBlima, Sara-Malka, Rachel, Tzvi-Yitzchok, Sheindel and their families
STURMLAUFERHa-Rav Yehuda, Miryam
TABIZEL returnDavid, Sheindel, Yitzchok, Chaya, Rivke, Tzvi
TEICHERElimelech, Eliezer, Glikel, Ester, Feiga, Tola
TIGER/TEIGERChana, Elimelech, Shlomo, Yitzchok, Shimon, Malka, Moshe-Avraham, Leib, Blima, Chana-Roza, Shmuel, Yacov, Tzippora
TISCHHirsch-Ber, Mala
TODERMenachem, Tamar, Yael, Beila, Tzvi, Yitzchok, Henia
TRACHMANChana
TRACHMANMina, Chaya
TRACHMANTzvi, Rachel, Eliezer
TRANGMoshe-Yosef, Aharon, and their families
TRATNERRivke, Avraham, Blima
TRAUMAvraham, Miryam, Mindel, Moshe, Sara, Feiga, Ascher-Anschel
TRAUMYosef, Ita
TRAUNERChaim, Roza
TURKYacov
UNGER returnAkiva (Maggid of Tehilim)
UNGERYitzchok, Rivke
UNTERRICHTRoza
WACHTAL returnAscher-Anschel, Sara, Leah
WALDChana
WALDDavid, Mina, and their sons
WALDShmuel, Leah-Perel
WASSERMANAdela, Shoshana, Benyamin
WEIBERGMattisyahu, Sara
WEINERYitzchok, Roza, Avraham-Artur, Eliyahu, Yosef
WEINERYoel
WEINERYosef
WEINRYBMattisyahu, Sara
WEISSSara
WEISSYacov, Rivke
WEISSMANMelech, Perel, Leah, Tzvi, Sara
WENIG/VONEG?Chaim-Tzvi
WENIG/VONEG?Eliezer
WENIG/VONEG?Sara, Yisrael, Yitzchok-Isaac
WERNERShimon, Malka, and all their family
WILDMANMiryam
WILKSara
WILNERKalman-Shaul, Moshe-Menachem, Mordechai, Chava
WILNERKlara, Miryam, Yeshiahu
WINDNERMordechai, Chana, Moshe, Yacov, Leah, Batia
WINDNERYisrael, Rachel, Batia
WIZNERFrieda
WIZNERTova-Feiga
WROBELHirsch
WROBELMitlzi,Yisrael
ZEISEL returnRivke
ZELLINGERShoshana
ZILBERObediah, Blima
ZILBERYitzchok
ZILBERZacariah
ZILBERMANAvraham, Moshe, Miryam, Zissel, Sara, Eidel
ZILBERMANEphraim, Ita, Blima, Ester
ZILBERMANTzipporah
ZILBERMANYacov, Mendel, Tamar, Eliahu, Meier-Tzvi, Gittel, Natan, Bilha
ZILBERMANYitzchok-Isaac, Chana
ZINGERRachel, Ester-Malka, Taube
ZINGERZalman
ZUCKERMANDavid, Toltsa, Pessel, Elimelech, Chava, Yitzchok, Bluma, Simcha

 

[Page 322]

My Teachers and Mentors

by Shimon Toder

Translated by Jerrold Landau

I will recall here a few of my teachers left a special impression on me because of some unique trait that they possessed.

 

Reb Lemele Baruch

My first visit to the cheder of Reb Lemele left an indelible impression upon me. It was a fine, clean cheder, completely different from the other cheders in which I had studied until that time. The atmosphere was pervaded by unusual silence. At that time, I did not understand the meaning of that silence. Today I would call it “the silence of nobility” if not the “silence of holiness”. Each student sat in his place, and the discussion among them was conducted in a whisper. Reb Lemele (if my memory serves me correctly, he did not want to be called Rebbe, but I have forgotten what he did want to be called) sat down at the head of the table, opened his Gemara, and told the students the page that he wished to begin. Suddenly, our attention was turned to a small book that lay atop the Rebbe's Gemara, from which he read the verses of the Torah that were relevant to the topic of the Talmud. This little book, or at least in that particular form, was not known to me until then. This was the “Letteris Bible”, which, as I later learned, not every Jew would allow in his home. This Bible was published by

[Page 323]

The British Museum, and was compiled and annotated by Reb Meier HaLevi Letteris, a Jewish scholar during the time of the Haskalah who was not accepted by Orthodox Jews. The rustling of the thin pages that interrupted the silence also added to the unusual atmosphere, for the rustling of the pages of the volumes of the large volumes of Gemara did not resemble the rustling of the pages of that bible.

The connecting of the biblical verse with the topic of the Gemara would take place in every lesson. After many years, whenever I remember this, I compared this with what I have heard from Hassidim who would speak about Rabbi Elimelech of Lizhensk. When he entered his Beis Midrash to teach the daily lesson, he would begin as follows: “My students, you remember the sublime event at Mount Sinai so-and-so many years ago, where the Holy One Blessed Be He himself told us...”, and then he read the verse upon which the Halacha in the Mishna was based. Reb Elimelech did not continue until all of his students answered: “Yes Rebbe, we remember.” Only then did he begin his lesson...

After I left my studies in the cheder, I heard that this Reb Lemele, as the trustee of the “Book Purchase” group of the Sadagora Kloiz, obtained for the Kloiz the set of Mishnas with the “Tiferet Yisrael” commentary of the scholar Rabbi Yisrael Lifschitz. This Gaon was not acceptable to Hassidim due to his “modernism” as expressed by his use of German or vernacular words, his permitting of the carrying of an umbrella on the Sabbath, and other such things. Similarly, Reb Lemele obtained scholarly books such as “Haakeida” and “Ikarim” for the Kloiz.

 

Reb Menashele Melamed (the teacher)

Photo page 323: Reb Menasche Ader
and its synagogue hall

The second personality that remains etched in my memory from my early youth is the bizarre image of Reb Menashele Melamed, who was also called “Menashele the Apikorus” (heretic) (without the title Rebbe). He was a unique type of teacher of the older youths. Of the subjects studied, Bible stood out -- especially the weekly Torah portion with a broad and deep linguistic and grammatical explanation, at times even overly exaggerated. His methodology was to deliberate over a grammatical point and make efforts to explain the non-understandable words of the Torah, of which entire generations did not pay attention to the explanations given by the various melamdim until the generation of the Haskalah arose and began to address the disgrace to the Torah in the name of progressiveness. I remember one of these classes on the Torah portion of Shemini, which speaks about the pure animals and fish. Our Rebbe, Reb Menashele, stood on a chair and removed from the bookshelf three thick books that were similar to the small Balban version of the Talmud. They were bound in black leather, and engraved with Latin letters. They contained all of the names of domestic or wild animals in accordance with various dictionaries, the living domain of the strange beasts, its structure, and the link. I am not sure if even one of the students understood the explanation, and if there is anyone who recalls his explanations today. There is one thing that I knew then: that until I came there, I was able to imitate the garbled explanations of my previous teachers; but now I came out with great confusion, for the animals were transferred from place to place, from one part of the world to another. I also interchanged their image, but their names never penetrated my head. Today, I can state that this style of teaching was not without influence. It did encourage the internal will for research and understanding.

[Page 324]

I recall another personality who influenced my future studies. This was Rabbi Avraham Levine, the son-in-law of Aharon Bergenbaum, who immigrated to America after the First World War and served as a rabbi in one of the communities there. Today he is in Israel. He gave me several private lessons in Talmud, from which I learned the methodology of logical analysis, as opposed to didactics, and influenced my future research methodology. Rabbi Avraham founded and directed the modern cheder in Sanok (see the later article in the section on Houses of Study). He composed and published a special textbook for the study of Judaism in that school, which was a very great innovation in that time. To every lesson, he would bring several printed pages that included sections of the Bible, Mishna, Gemara, and Halacha (especially from Maimonides).

Another personality in the arena of Hebrew education was the Hebrew teacher Hershele Abt, whose home and heart were open to every scholar and student of Hebrew language and literature.

I will also remember my uncle Shmuel Bergenbaum as a personality who was also a “character” in my opinion. He suffered greatly when he served as a soldier during the First World War. After great efforts and bribes, he was transferred to the factory for wagons and train cars in Sanok as an “expert”.

Of course, during the war, he was forced to work on the Sabbath. Right after the war finished, however, he went to the factory directory and informed him that he was prepared to continue on working there only if he would not have to work on the Sabbath. The director, who benefited in no small way from my uncle, agreed to this condition. He was the only Jewish worker who did not work on the Sabbath, despite his responsible job as a warehouse keeper. On the Sabbath, he wore silk clothes and a streimel like one of the Hassidim, for he was indeed an observant Hassidic person according to his behavior and actions. He worshipped and studied in the Sadagora Kloiz, and he often served as the prayer leader, for he had a pleasant voice, and his prayers and singing were enjoyed by the people. When May 1 fell on the Sabbath, my uncle participated in the workers' parade through the streets wearing his streimel, thereby expressing his solidarity with the proletariat...

My Uncle Shmuel was my first Hebrew teacher. Every Sunday, the day of rest at the factory, he would come to our house and give me lessons in Hebrew. Aside from this, I studied Gemara with him every Sabbath afternoon in the Kloiz. The language of instruction was Hebrew.

I will mention another personality here -- Reb Moshele Granik. He was an upright Jew, a scholar and a fearer of Heaven who never engaged in unnecessary conversation. On the Sabbath, he would only speak in Hebrew. His children Chaim and Shalom became attached to Bolshevism, and Chaim escaped to Russia. Before I left Sanok, he sat with his father in the Sukka and engaged in a sharp debate about the righteousness of the regime which came to bring equality to the world, and that there would be no more poor people in the world. I recall this image clearly: A confirmed Bolshevik was sitting in a Sukka with ten Jewish idlers, attempting to convince them to support a regime that said it would give every Jew his worth, and that there would be no more poor people, as they themselves were at that time...

Those who studied in the Beis Midrashes and Kloizes of our city merit special mention and articles. The sounds of Torah never left them in the morning or the evening. However, it is impossible for me not to mention here a group of three people who studied in the Sadagora Kloiz: Shimon Koplik, Chaim Leib Goetzler, and the writer of these lines. We set for ourselves a weekly course of studies that included Talmud, bible, and medieval philosophy. We also delved together into the new literature of those days. I remember that the debate we once had about the meaning and intention of Bialik in his “Scroll of Fire” was no less sharp and open than that of a deep section of Gemara and Halacha.

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