“Jugenheim”
Encyclopaedia of Jewish Communities:
Germany volume 3

(Germany)

49°54' / 08°05'

Translation from Pinkas ha-kehilot Germanyah

Published by Yad Vashem

Published in Jerusalem, 1992




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Acknowledgments

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This is a translation from: Pinkas Hakehillot: Encyclopaedia of Jewish Communities, Germany
Volume 3, pages 218-219, published by Yad Vashem, Jerusalem, 1992


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[Pages 218-219]

Jugenheim, Germany

a village in the district of Mainz-Bingen, today part of Nieder-Olm in the state of Rheinland-Pfalz.

 

Population

Year Number of
Inhabitants
Of them Jewish By %
1824   49 individuals  
1861 1,100 67 6.1
1880 1,083 44 4.1
1905 1,093 34 2.2
1913   26  
1933 934 18 1.9
1939 869 -  

 

Religious Affiliation by % in the Year 1933

Jews Catholics Protestants Others
1.9 2.8 94.8 0.5

 

From the History of the Community

Two Jews from Jugenheim are mentioned in the tax rosters of the 'Sons of the State' in 1725 and in 1740 three, with property worth 3,500 gilder. In the tax rosters of the authorities from 1802 there appear two Jews whose wealth is estimated at approximately 2,700 gilder.

In approximately 1846, due to the community's growth, a synagogue was built, which fell into disuse in 1927 and until then also served the Jews of nearby Partenheim (qv). The cemetery, which was opened apparently also during the first half of the 19th century, served the Jews of Partenheim, Nieder-Saulheim, Vendersheim (qv) and Stadecken. In spite of the cooperation of the public institutions the communities of Jugenheim and Partenheim were not allowed to unite, as these towns were located in different districts. In 1855 the community maintained its own school, which was closed apparently in the 80s, and since then the Jewish teacher served only as a religious teacher and cantor.

In February 1881 local inhabitants threw stones at the homes of Jews in Jugenheim and Partenheim and caused damages to the windows and the roofs. According to the existing law the village had to bear the expenses of the repairs if the guilty party was not apprehended, and in response the local inhabitants refused to light fires and heat the stoves in the Jewish homes on the Sabbath, during the severe cold of winter. Nearly all the Protestant inhabitants of the two villages signed the anti-Semitic petition. In March in the same year unknown perpetrators chopped down 60 to 70 fruit trees in the Jews' gardens. In July 1885 the Jewish cemetery was desecrated.

Due to the constant decline in the number of Jews, public prayer was halted in 1927, the community was dismantled, and its members joined the community of Alsbach (qv). In spite of this in January 1932, a conference of the 'German Traditional Rabbis Union' still took place, and it dealt with taking steps against the rising anti-Semitism.

In the elections of 19.6.1932 for the Landtag the Nazis won an overwhelming majority -54.3% (as opposed to 44% in all of Hessen).

Under the Nazi Rule

Immediately upon the rise of the Nazis to power a severe economic and social boycott was imposed against the local Jews. The incidence of insulting Jews also became more frequent. In 1934 a sign stating 'Judenfrei' (free of Jews) was affixed to the entrance of the pool of Jugenheim, which was later taken down by order of the village council.

On 10.11.1938 in the afternoon a group of SA men from Ingleheim (qv) and a group of Austrian legionnaires who served in a nearby camp arrived in Jugenheim, after they carried out pogroms against the Jews of the Sprendlingen, Partenheim and Wallertheim (qv). In Jugenheim they destroyed the synagogue and caused damage in the homes of the last three Jewish families there. After they left local residents burned the Hevra Kadisha (burial society) wagon, completely destroyed Fritz Miller's house and struck the homes of Germans opposed to the Nazis. The acts of destruction continued after sunset, during which time the street lights were extinguished in order to make difficult the identification of the perpetrators.

Most of the Jews of Jugenheim left during the Nazi reign. On 20.3.1942 a 60 year old Jew was deported to a concentration camp in Poland and on 27.9.1942 a 77 year-old man was deported to Theriesenstadt. The synagogue, which on Kristallnacht was not completely destroyed, was used thereafter as a residence.

After the war the participants of the Kristallnacht pogrom were put on trial. Ten local residents were acquitted due to lack of evidence and an SA man from Ingelheim was sentenced to eight months' imprisonment.

In 1978 33 gravestones in the Jewish cemetery (3,208 sq. m.) were knocked over.


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