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[Page 391]

Important Persons

 

The Rabbis of Lowicz

by A. Wartski

Translated by Esther Snyder

 

According to community memory the first Rabbi and Head of the Rabbinical Court in Lowicz was R' Shmuel Shinaver, z”l, who was one of the outstanding students and hasidim of the famous Hasidic Rabbi, R' Simha Bunim, of righteous memory, from Fasisha (the Rebbe, R' Binem). He was part of a group including R' Menahem Mendel from Kotzk, R' Yitzhak from Varky and R' Yitzhak Meir, author of the “Hidushei HaRi'm, from Gur and other great and learned rabbis. After the death of R' Simha Bunim, R' Shinaver followed R' Menahem Mendel from Kotzk and was one of his enthusiastic Hasidim.

R' Shmuel wrote a commentary entitled, “Ramatim Zofim” on the midrash, “Tanna Devai Eliyahu” - Teacher of the House of Eliyahu. This commentary is full of Hasidic aggadot (legends), learnings and sayings from more than 60 Hasidic masters. The historian, Shimon Dubnow in his book “History of Hasidism in Poland,” and also Professor Martin Buber in his book “Or Ganuz” (Hidden Light” - Hasidic stories), based their writings on “Ramatim Zofim” as the source of the stories about the “Admorim” – Hasidic Rabbis, R' Simha Bunim, Rebbe Yitzhak from Vorky and R' Menahem Mendel from Kotzk.

 

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Title page of the book, “Ramatim Zofim”
by R' Shmuel Shinaver

R' Shmuel was the father-in-law of R' Alter Zilberberg of the Kotzk and Gur Hasidim and great-grandfather of the wife of Meshulam Levin (now of Paris), the daughter of Yehoshua Lipsker.

Near the end of his life he left Lowicz, when he was appointed Rabbi of the town of Nashelsk, where he died. His second marriage was to the daughter of the known genius, the Admor R' Avraham Landau of Tchahanov. After him in Lowicz, the Rabbi of the community was R' Yosef Shaul Buki, z”l. We lack clear and credible information about his deeds and ways. We do know that his family had a tradition that their ancestors were among the Jews expelled from Spain. There were three brothers and one of them during his wanderings arrived in Poland and settled there. R' Itche Buki, the veteran manager of the Burial society in Lowicz, was his grandson. It was also told that he had a respected family (the wife of Avraham Wartzki, Zipppora Volvorski, was the great-granddaughter of R' Buki.

R' Michael Dov Weingott, who previously had been the rabbi in Dobrin and Lifna, was appointed Rabbi after the death of R' Yosef Shaul Buki. He was very sociable and well-liked by the community and loved by the people due to his pleasant ways and his great concern for the public in general and especially for the poor.

During his tenure and thanks to his welcome initiative, a beautiful synagogue was built in the town. He also formed the “Mikra,” a Bible study group mainly for the simple people. Every Shabbat one of the Rav's sons-in-law (R' Aharon Pinhas, mohel and dayan, or R' Shlomo Shohat) would teach this group the Torah reading of the week.

In addition, every Shabbat they would have a public prayer service and one of the members of the group (of course, the more educated among them) would lead the prayers. Even long after the passing of the Rabbi many continued to praise him and his deeds and his many efforts and lobbying of the authorities who respected him.

After him, R' Bezalel Biderman was chosen as Rabbi. This Rabbi also served in the town of Bizon. He was a Gur Hasid and son of R' Yaakov David from Vishogrod. He was an outstanding Torah scholar and came from a very respected family (“yihus”), related to the authors of “Pnai Yehoshua. He would study Torah day and night and was not much involved in community affairs. His son, R' Yaakov Meir, was one of the last rabbis in Warsaw. He was the son-in-law of the Admor of Gur, the author of the “Sfat Emet.”

The last Rabbi in Lowicz was R' Avraham Kolbo who had previously served in Zagorod. He was a sharp and clever scholar. He spoke a very high level of Hebrew and gave excellent sermons. He wrote a book of “pipul” – casuistry, entitled the “Mehaded” – the sharp one. He came from a very respected family that formed the Rabbinic dynasty known as Auerbach from Lintchitz.

Rabbi Kolbo was the grandson of the genius R' Meir Auerbach, the Rabbi from Kalish who later came to Jerusalem where he was appointed as the Chief Rabbi of the Ashkenazi Jews and the Head of the Kollels – yeshivot. He wrote a book entitled “Imrai Bina” on the Shulhan Aruch.

R' Avraham Kolbo was killed in the Nazi holocaust together with his whole congregation, G-d should revenge their blood.

Haifa, 3 Nisan 1966.
A. V.


[Page 391]

R' Shalom Albeck

by A. Wartski

Translated by Esther Snyder

R' Shalom Albeck was a scion of a well-connected family from Warsaw. Even as a youth he was extraordinary in his sharp intelligence and amazing mastery of the Talmud and decisors (poskim). The well-respected and wealthy R' Sender Brot from Lowicz gave his daughter in marriage to Albeck. Brot was the grandfather of R' Shmuel Brot, head of the community and great-grandfather of R' Shmuel Brot who was the Rabbi in Tomashov. He was also the President of the World Mizrahi Organization and a representative in the Polish Sejm and later a member of the

[Page 392]

Holocaust Committee and Rabbi in Antwerp. At the end of his life he was the Head of the Rabbinical Court in Tel-Aviv.

R' Albeck was supported by his father-in-law for a number of years, worked diligently on his Torah studies and quickly became known in the city as a great erudite Torah scholar. He was sharp and expert in all aspects of the written and oral law, however, his method of learning the Talmud and its commentaries was very different from the study of learned yeshiva students who used “pilpul” – casuistry. R' Albeck would frequently debate sharply with them and call their method totally worthless.

He was an absolute Gur Hasid and was very meticulous about performing the “mitzvot.” He was careful with his clothes as is appropriate for a Talmud scholar - his clothes were always clean and neat. He spoke eloquently and it was delight to hear him even in casual conversation. He had a pleasant voice and knew how to sing.

Since he was well-liked by R' Bezalel Biderman, the town rabbi, he was chosen to lead the morning prayer service – “shaharit” in the synagogue on the High Holidays. The regular cantor led the Musaf prayer service. The congregation was enchanted by his style of prayer and his melodies. Many people from other “shuls” in town came to hear him and much enjoyed the experience.

When his father-in-law passed away and R' Shalom was no longer supported by him, he opened a shop for writing materials on Zadonska Street. However, he was not meant to be a retailer and made very little income from it. After a while he transferred his shop to Yehuda Leib Gamah, and left with his family for Warsaw. There, he continued his in-depth research into the period of the Talmud and “midrashim” – legends, Gaonim and Poskim, Tosafot and commentators on the Talmud. Sometimes he travelled to Berlin and London, visiting colleges, libraries and archives for his research. For a short while, he was the head of the Odissa yeshiva. He published sections of the book, “HaEshkol” on the Ramban and others.

Rabbi Haim Tchernovitz ( the “Young Rabbi”), Head of the Odissa Yeshiva at that time, in his article “The Time,” writes about Albeck that according to his sharp mind and great knowledge of Torah, he should have been one of the great rabbis in Eastern Europe. Yet according to Albeck's logic and intelligence as well as his extremely intellectual method of learning he should have been a learned scholar and researcher like the Western rabbis. What Albeck could say in an off-hand manner would be subject enough for one of the Western researchers to make a thorough investigation and sometimes a whole book.

Albeck died in 1920 and according to the “Young Rabbi” the world lost one of the most excellent Talmud scholars of that generation, and one of the greatest researchers of the deep and vast Jewish wisdom, about whom one could almost say that there was no one else like him.

He left many manuscripts of his researches that so far have not been published. His son, Professor Hanoch Albeck (born in Lowicz), from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, is one of the great researchers in the Mishna and Talmud in our generation; he published many studies and recently his book, “Introduction to the Mishna.”

Haifa, Sivan 1951.
A. V.


[Page 392]

Sarah Lipski

Translated by Esther Snyder

Reprinted here is the eulogy for Sarah Lipski, z”l, that was written in 1963 by one of her granddaughters, Miriam Tamir Lipski. In this eulogy the Sabra granddaughter expresses her love and admiration for her grandmother, something that is rare in the relationship between those born in Israel and the older generation that came from the diaspora.

Sarah Lipski earned this attitude from her children and grandchildren and from all those around her due to her many and extraordinary virtues, and to her great understanding of others. Her home was always open to guests and she was so happy about every visit from one of our town who came to Israel.

 

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Sarah Lipski

Sarah came to Israel in 1934 with her husband Yitzhak Gershon Lipski and their sons and daughters.

Despite her belief in religion and the traditional lifestyle she led, she was tolerant and understanding to those in her new environment and to the conditions that she found in Tel-Yosef. She quickly adjusted to the cooperative lifestyle of the kibbutz. She viewed work as holy and she worked until her last day. After her hours of work she was surrounded by her children and grandchildren, and die to her love and warm treatment of them she had a great influence on their characters.

A special chapter in her life should be mentioned. In the days of the clashes with the Arabs during the Second World War and the Israeli War of Independence, her sons, along with others, were drafted into the army. She accepted her sons' fighting on the front with remarkable peace of mind and would always send them off with encouragement. She illegally kept a defense weapon hidden in her room and gave it to her sons when there was an attack. Thus was revealed her special personality and character as a wife and mother in Israel. Her Memorial days are observed by her children and grandchildren – they say the Kadish and raise memories of her life.

There is an idea and plan to build a synagogue in memory of Sarah Lipski in Kibbutz Tel-Yosef, in order to preserve the name of a pioneer woman who from Poland, from the town of Lowicz.

 

If only you had seen, my grandmother

I didn't get a chance to say good-bye to you, grandmother, before you would be gone forever. When I arrived your room was empty, your white bed (your death bed, where I had seen you before) stood silent – alone it mourned its faithful friend who left suddenly, to exchange her bed for a simple, plain box … I didn't manage to see you, grandmother, before you closed your eyes, to leave and not to return.

But I did see grandfather, always your friend and companion. I also saw your book, a thick volume bound in black, the “Tzena Urena” (siddur for women in Yiddish) that you so loved and often read excerpts to me. Also your reading glasses with dark frames, and the two silver Shabbat candlesticks (without you they lost their radiance).

Their function is now completed. They will not serve you as in the past, your hands won't touch them, as you have left; you have left all of us and abandoned your herd without a shepherd. We were suddenly orphaned because our mother has gone from us forever. If you could have lived then for one more moment to see the large crowd that came to pay their final respects. They were all your friends, their joy. They were tall, erect and strong. They carried your casket on their shoulders as they walked erect and silent. They carried it with hands that usually held a plow, hoe or weapon directed at the enemy but now caressed the wood as their heads were lowered.

After them, grandmother, came many others – also your teary daughters, amd grandchildren – both young and older. Dismay and pain were on their young soft faces.

You should have seen the tears that flowed at your grave, grandmother, if you only knew how sad everyone felt. They didn't understand why you left, so suddenly, that you would be no more (and they were so used to seeing you). They would never again eat your baked goods. You wouldn't quiet them when they made noise and would no longer hold the babies among them. We will never again see your patient smile on your pale lips.

You were the head of the family, and gave all of us support. You kept brothers together, sisters close to each other and all united together. We listened to you, did what you asked because you were for all and all were your children.

But now you are gone, all has come to an end and we have lost our support.

Therefore, we swear on this fresh gravesite where you will lay forever, grandmother, that we will always hold you in our hearts and perpetuate your memory forever.

Your granddaughter, Miriam.
(“Hayeinu” 29 May 1959)


[Page 393]

Shlomo Tamir (Lipski)

Translated by Esther Snyder

Shlomo Lipski was born on 1 Adar 1904 in Lowicz, to his father Yitzhak Gershon Lipski, the son of R' Haim and grandson of R' Yehezkia who was known in those days in Poland by the name, “Yehezkel Lowiczer.” His jokes and riddles were famous among the Polish Hasidim, from the Hasidim of Kotzk and to those in his home. Shlomo's mother was Sarah, daughter of Mordechai Baum.

 

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Shlomo Tamir

In 1920, when the Red Army invaded Poland and reached the gates of Warsaw, Shlomo and his brother Mendel (who later moved to Russia) were arrested by the authorities as “suspicious elements.” He was released due to the intervening of the Jewish delegates to the Polish Sejm, Dr. Shiffer,z”l, and Yitzhak Grinboim. Shlomo was released after 6 weeks.

On November 1, 1920 Tamir left Poland and travelled to Antwerp in Belgium. There he worked as a Hebrew teacher and was chosen to the Central Committee of the Poalei-Zion where he organized the youth. On May 1, 1921 news came of violent acts in Yaffo in Eretz Yisrael where a number of Jews were killed and others had to fight for their lives. Tamir suggested that money be raised to purchase weapons for the Jews in Eretz Yisrael. He arranged this fund-raising with the help of the Poalei-Zion party.

In view of the violence in Eretz Yisrael, he decided to quickly go to Eretz Yisrael. The gates of the country were closed to Jewish immigration so he first moved to Paris. At the farewell party in his honor, his friends in Antwerp gave him a letter for Yitzhak Tabenkin, one of the leaders of the workers organization in Eretz Yisrael, asking him to buy Tamir a gun for which that would pay.

In Paris, in the home of Mark Yahrblum, he met the delegation of Poalei Eretz Yisrael (Berl Katznelson, Mania Shohat, and Yosef Baratz, the founder of the first group in Degania A.) They helped him acquire a certificate to immigrate to Eretz Yisrael together with a group of youth he had already organized for aliya. On November 15, 1921, they reached the shores of Yaffo. Shlomo joined the work brigade of Yosef Trumpledor. He worked paving streets in Tiberias, Tabha, Afula-Nazereth, Kiriyat Shmuel (Tiberias), Jenin, Eyelet-Hashahar, Kfar Giladi and Metulla. He worked in quarries, construction, and digging. He was also sent by the brigade to help the groups in Kinneret and Merhavia in working the fields. He went to Ein-Harod that was located at the foot of the Gilboa (Maayan Harod). With the division of the brigade, Shlomo went with his friends, who had remained loyal to the brigade, to Kibbutz Tel-Yosef.

In 1934 he was sent abroad by the Union of Workers and the Zionist Administration to Czechoslovakia and Karptorus (which was then a part of Czechoslovakia.) On the way to Prague he went to visit the town where he was born, Lowicz. He stayed there about two weeks during which he sent his parents to the kibbutz in Eretz Yisrael and liquidated their assets in Lowicz. His parents and all nine of their children came to this country.

He was active in Czechoslovakia for two years, organized the “Halutz” and the “Halutz Hazair.” In Karptorus he also established a Workers Union, where he organized families to prepare for immigration and life in Eretz Yisrael. He organized about five thousand families of whom several hundred families made aliya.

In 1935 he participated in the Zionist Congress in Switzerland as a delegate of the Zionists of Czechoslovakia. From there he went to Poland and Lithuania, where he was active as an agent of the “Halutz” and “Haoved” movements. Near the end of 1935, while travelling back to Eretz Yisrael, he participated in the Conference of German Zionists in Berlin. There, he met the initiator of the project of “Aliyat Hanoar” – bringing the youth to Eretz Yisrael, Mrs. Reha Freier and tried to convince her to include in this project the children of Karptorus.

After Hitler's forces conquered Austria in 1938, Shlomo was sent to Prague, Czechoslovakia. His mission was to warn the Jews there about the disaster that would happen there due to the entrance of Hitler's army. He was to organize the Jews in Czechoslovakia to prepare for immigration to Eretz Yisrael, to persuade them to send their children to Eretz Yisrael and to use any assets they had for this purpose.

[Page 394]

In 1939 Shlomo was sent by the Jewish Agency in Budapest (Hungary) to organize illegal immigration to Eretz Yisrael of the Jews of Budapest and other places in Europe. He purchased a boat named “Rotznitzir” and arranged the immigration of hundreds of families who thus were saved.

In September 1939 Shlomo was chosen by the Hungarian Zionists as a delegate to the Zionist Congress in Switzerland. When the Second World War began he returned to Budapest. At the end January 1940 he was asked to return to Eretz Yisrael. He did so and returned to his work at Tel-Yosef.

In 1941 he joined the British army in order to participate in the war against Hitler in Europe. Also while in the British army he helped, in various ways, to save Jews and bring them to Eretz Yisrael.

In 1945, after the war, he returned to Eretz Yisrael.

On May 6, 1948, just a few days before the declaration of the State, he was sent by the Jewish Agency to Brazil. On the way, he spent several weeks in Paris and was active in raising funds for our War of Independence. He also started fundraising for Israel among the youth from his town, Lowicz.

During his whole life in Israel and the kibbutz (about 45 years) he was active in the kibbutz and among its members. He served in the “Hagana” and defense actions.

In 1953 he joined, at the request of Ben-Gurion (then Prime Minister and Defense Minister) an isolated and remote settlement in the Negev called Yeruham. In those years he was also asked to spend a year dealing with the residents of the “maabarot” – temporary camps.

He was very active for the Jewish National Fund. He was also involved in financial projects, a fund for purchasing land to found settlements. He managed a fund for “Keren Magen” (defense fund) for Haifa and its surroundings.

Even now, at the age of 65, Shlomo continues to fulfill what he preaches to others.

(Collected from various sources)


[Page 394]

People of Lowicz in the Israel War of Independence

Haike Grossman

Translated by Esther Snyder

Englard, Ephraim

Born 1913, son of Moshe and Rena. Made aliya to Eretz Yisrael in 1936. Active in the Hagana. Member of Kibbutz Massada.
Apelson (Yardeni) Moshe
Born 1921. Son of Haim-Yaakov and Sara. Made aliya to Eretz Yisrael in 1938 with students. Was in the Haganah. Served in the British Army. Fought in the War of Independence, on the road to Jerusalem. Sergeant in regiment 163. Resident of Ramat Gan.
Oster, Masha
Born 1921. Daughter of David and Yulia (Lifshitz) Weingot. Made aliya to Eretz Yisrael in 1937 in the illegal immigration. Served in World War II in the E.T.S. (British army) in a nursing school. Served in various places in Eretz Yisrael, Egypt, Tubruk and Italy (1942-1946).

 

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Masha Oster

Baum, Yitzhak

Born 1906. Son of David and Nena. Made aliya to Eretz Yisrael in 1933. Was active in the Etzel. Served in the Civil Guard in the War of Independence. Resident of Tel-Aviv.
Besserglik (Yitzhaki), Tirtza
Born 1915. Daughter of Shmuel and Raizl. Made aliya to Eretz Yisrael in 1939 on an illegal ship. Member of Kibbutz Evron.
Greenblat, Yaakov
Born 1918. Son of Yehiel-Mayer and Yahla. Made illegal aliya to Eretz Yisrael in 1937 on the ship, “Af-Al-Pi”. Member of Etzel. In the War of Independence was a Sergeant in the Infantry. Resident of Netanya.
Gort (Azori), Yehuda-Benyamin
Born 1905. Son of Yosef and Rahel. Made aliya to Eretz Yisrael in 1933. Active in the Hagana. Resident of Moshav Batzron.
Goldberg-Zayde (Keller), Bella-Lea
Born 1917. Daughter of Berl and Huma. Made aliya to Eretz Yisrael illegally in 1940 on the ship “Patria” known for the sinking disaster. Resident of Tel-Aviv.
Gross (Savir), Tova
Born 1913. Daughter of Moshe and Zippora. Made aliya to Eretz Yisrael in 1935. Helped in guarding the kibbutz. Member of Kibbutz Ramat-Hashofet.
Dormbus (Rida), Pnina
Born 1912. Daughter of Mordecai and Zelda. Made aliya to Eretz Yisrael illegally in 1939 by boat. Member of Kibbutz Dafna.
Dormbus, Mordecai Mendel
Born 1908. Son of Baruch-Zvi and Hava-Feige. Made aliya to Eretz Yisrael in 1933. Active in the Hagana. Resident of Tel-Aviv.
Wartzki, Elazar
Born 1920. Son of Avraham and Zippora. Made aliya to Eretz Yisrael in 1935. Active in Hagana. Participated in the defense of Haifa. Major. Resident of Haifa.
Wartzki (Zafrir), Bruria
Born 1927. Daughter of Avraham and Zippora. Made aliya to Eretz Yisrael in 1935. Active in Palmach (Hagana). Resident of Haifa.
Weintraub, Reuven
Born 1924. Son of Akiva and Haya-Sara. Made aliya in 1948 on the boat, “Altalena.” Active in Etzel. Served as a Private in the Golani Brigade, regiment 12, in the War of Independence. Helped conquer Eilat. Resident of Bnai Brak.

 

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David Zichlenski

Zichlenski, David

Born 1919. Son of Yosef and Malka-Rahel. Came to Eretz Yisrael with the Polish army in World War II. Served as a corporal in Division 7 in the War of Independence. Was one of the first volunteers in the first regiment of the Palmach. Participated in the battles of Latrun, the conquest of Nazareth, the attack on Tarshisha, the conquest of Ein-Zeitim until Malkiya. Resident of Tel-Aviv.
Zemel, Ephraim
Born 1909. Son of Simha and Rahel. Made aliya “illegally” in 1939 on the ship “Las Perles.”
Lipski (Tamir), Shlomo
Born 1900. Son of Yitzhak Gershon and Sara. Made aliya in 1921. Active in the Hagana. Guard in the British police force. Participated in World War II, in the Brigade, in Europe. Member of Kibbutz Tel-Yosef.
[Page 395]

 

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Mordechai Tamir (Lipski), as the Commander of Nahal Unit, passes over his position. Standing with Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion

Lipski (Tamir), Mordechai

Born 1917. Son of Yitzhak Gershon and Sara. Made aliya in 1934. Active in the Hagana, served in the Infantry in the War of Independence. Commander of the Nahal Unit, Corporal. Now serves as the commander of the town of Beit She'an. Member of Kibbutz Tel-Yosef.
Lipski (Ginsburg), Tzvia
Born 1913. Daughter of Yitzhak Gershon and Sara. Made aliya in 1930. Participated in guarding the kibbutz. Member of Kibbutz Tel-Yosef.
Lipski (Tamir), Eliyahu
Born 1931 in Tel-Yosef. Son of Shlomo and Devora. Served in the War of Independence as a sergeant in the Infantry.
Lipski (Tamir), Tzvi
Born 1936 in Tel-Aviv. Son of Yehezkel and Hadassa. Served in the Nahal. Seriously injured near Gaza in 1956.
Lipski (Hayat), Tirza
Born 1915. Daughter of Yitzhak Gershon and Sara. Made aliya in 1935. Participated in guarding the kibbutz. Member of Kibbutz Tel-Yosef.

 

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Haim Lipski (Tamir)

Lipski (Tamir), Haim

Born 1920. Son of Yitzhak Gershon and Sara. Made aliya in 1934. Active in the Hagana and the Palmach. In the War of Independence served in Armored Corps as a Major in a Tank Company. Participated in the Sinai campaign. Resident of Hofit near Kfar Vitkon.
Lipski, Yehezkel
Born 1903. Son of Yitzhak Gershon and Sara. Made aliya 1928. Active in the Hagana. Resident of Tel-Aviv.
Lipski (Tamir), Yehoshua
Born 1922. Son of Yitzhak Gershon and Sara. Made aliya in 1934. Active in the Hagana and Palmah. Served in the Jewish Brigade in the Second World War. Sent to the front in Europe. Fought in the Negev in the War of Independence. Captain in the Infantry.
Netzer-Lifshitz, Moshe
Born in Jerusalem. Served in the IDF in the Communications Unit as a Captain. Participated in Sinai Campaign in the battle of the Mitleh.
Futermilch (Borshtein), Miriam
Born 1915. Daughter of Shmuel and Esther. Made aliya in 1939 on an illegal ship. Member of Kibbutz Evron.
Pantshevski (Bressler), Golda
Born 1916. Daughter of Yaakov and Rivka. Made aliya 1947 on an illegal ship. Resident of Hadera.
Fisher, Moshe
Born 1912. Son of Yaakov and Masha. Made aliya in 1936. Active in the Hagana. Resident of Tel-Aviv.
Fisher (Startz), Tova
Born 1917. Daughter of Yaakov and Masha. Made aliya in 1936. Active in the Hagana. Resident of Tel-Aviv.

 

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P. Potchennel

Potchennel, Peretz z”l

Born 1915. Son of Moshe-Tzvi and Devora-Haya. Made aliya in March 1948. Served in the IDF. Was killed during his service on 12 Tishrei 1948 (15.10.48) in Abu Gosh near Jerusalem.
Kurtzbaum (Gatlin), Bronka
Born 1915. Daughter of Yaakov and Rahel. Made aliya in 1938. Participated in the Hagana operation in Tzefat. Member of Moshav Kfar Baruch.
Kritzer, Fishel
Born 1914. Son of Leibush and Rivka. Made illegal aliya in 1939 on the ship, “Parita.” Served in the Bristish army in World War II, and in the War of Independence, Regiment 132. Resident of Even-Yehuda.
Kritzer, Yosef
Born 1911. Son of Leibush and Rivka. Made aliya in 1935. Active in the Hagana. Corporal in the Israel Defense Force. Resident of Haifa.
Kleinbard (Tzfoni), Ruth
Born 1916. Daughter of Yeshayahu and Hava. Made aliya in 1936. Served in the British army, E.T.S. Active in the Hagana. Resident of Tel-Aviv.

 

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A. Kripel

Kripel, Avraham Eliyahu

Born 1905. Son of Nahman-Feivel and Sara. Former member of Betar in Lowizcz. Made aliya 1935. Member of the Hagana from 1936. After the riots of 1936 served in the Jerusalem Police force on Mt. Scopus. Studied in the Police school. In the years 1939-1940 while he was serving in active Police service on the shore near Haifa, helped receive illegal immigrants. Resident of Tel-Gibborim.
Rosenkrantz (Vardi), Shlomo
Born 1909. Son of Pinhas and Masha. Made aliya in 1929. Active in the Hagana. Member of Moshav Beit She'arim.
Shayak, Yeshayahu
Born 1919. Son of Yedidia and Hanna. Made aliya in 1946 on an illegal ship. Served in the War of Independence in the Golani Brigade. Sergeant in the “Barak” regiment. Member of Kibbutz Beit Zerah.

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