From the age of 13, for two years I delivered newspapers. I used to carry about approximately 50-60 pieces: there was AZ EST ( The Night) an evening paper requested by some of the Jewish families, about 16, FRISS ÚJSÁG (Fresh News) a Catholic noon paper, 8 ÓRAI ÚJSÁG ( The 8 O’Clock News) an evening paper bought by mixed population.
My district also included Újgalambos (Szilia) and the Golambus prarie. They paid most of the time by cash, because they bought them also at Goldbergerné ( in the middle of Tót St) and used to pay there. She kept a tobacco shop. I used to rap on the gate, they either took it there when ordered by elder people I would deliver it in side the house.
I was expected to deliver the papers at exactly the same time that the postman made his deliveries.
Beforenoon, we got the newspaper at the Post Office, in the afternoon at the railway station: winter summer at 4 o’clock. We used to walk 3 km to and from.
Petrovics Sanyi used to carry ÚJ NEMZEDÉK – New Generation. It was meant to be an ecclesiastic paper. The Pintér childre sold FÜGGETLENSÉG – Independent - that was a Burgher paper.
Perhaps it was Ella who returned. She became a water carrier for the 26th Building Company. She lived for a long time amoung us.
Lusztig Ákos: He was a director and used to live near the artezi well, on the other side of the Catholic church. I used to work there as a domestic. They loved, honored, and payed me well.
Fritz Péter: He had a general store and was our neighbor. I worked there also as a domestic for a short time. Their son Péter was a bachelor.
Albert Rezsőné: She was a pharmacist
Farkas Számi: He had a general store which stood where the Conditory stands today, near the Pentele club house. One of his 3 daughters came home from the deportation. She died.
Wolmann: He had a general store and his house stood opposite the school.
Szekulesz: He was an innkeeper and had a general store at the beginning of Cemetery st. near the Synagogue.
My mother and I were very surprised when late one night we heard a rapping at the gate. A lady caller appeared. She excused herself and said that she was from America and was on her way to Paks, but wanted to see the place where she had spent her childhood. By way of the church wall she recognized the way that she wanted to go. Her father was a leather merchant, his name was Deutsch. She, Teri, married in –27- and had emmigrated to the U S A. We told her that her old home had been bombed and destroyed.
Auntie Teri then 86,looked around, said good-bye to her cherished place of origin and traveled on .
The modest memorial was innaugarted first on December 7th without names. In 1990 on the first of November the 192 names were added including 56 names of Jewish origin. That was the real innauguration. Taking part were the town principles, directors, Pentele friends circle, the National Prisoners union, and the clerical staff. The Rabbi, in the name of the National Hungarian Jewish Association gave a prayer in Hebrew (a Jewish ceremony seldom seen by a fellow citizen) after the prayer he threw small stones at the memorial where the names of the deportees were inscribed and in Hungarian he thanked all that had given time, strength, and money in order to include the names of the Jewish Victims on the Memorial.
The Jews resided in the center of town or nearby according to their particular occupation. They were peacefull residents of Dunapentele. Some of them were sent to the front for hard labor being cannon-fodder , ( for example the Sziklai boys ; Sándor and György) others were put into the ghetto ( first at Bruck mill on Baracsi St, and then to the school) and then they were deported to be finished in the gas chambers. There was no mercy. Men women and also children had the same fate. The residents, that where at home at the time, saw the Jews being chased to the station between the two rows of gendarmes holding bayonets in 1944, cried for them.
From all those that were deported only one returned, Farkas Ella ( their shop was on the spot where the conditory now stands near the club house ) who lived for a long time amoung us.
Those that did not live through the war can hardly feel the horror and the consequences.
My grandfather Hingyi was still young and with small children. He was walking homeward on the unpaved alley Rác, dusty and tired. From dawn to dusk was quite enough. He wasn’t in a good mood ,he was hungry.
As he neared his house he heard funny rhymmes. He stood still and listened, his tired face turned into a smile. Arriving at his home he peeped through a crack in the fence. He smiled even more as out of his eight children the three youngest were sitting on the kitchen theshold. In unison, like a choir, they were chanting in singing tone, like a studied poem, the leather merchant Deutsch’s ten children’s names.
My grandfather, the youthful Gyuri at the time, started to laugh already behind the fence. He tried to put on a serious face when he entered the gate.
- Be quite- Do you hear me? Don’t sing Deutsch’s names but your own! You are also eight.
- OK Good But the Deutsch’s are more, they are ten and we are only eight - argued back one of the little ones. And again they started singing –
Oh Ho – How well you have learned it. Let’s hear if you could chant together your names. Could you tell how many you are?
The three small ones started to sing their brothers and sisters names , altogether eight:
Their father, laughing, put down his hoe and knapsack in the shed.
( Told by my mother ,Nyuli Istvánné, Hingyi Katalin)
In the Pentele quarter there is a bus stop called Baracsi road station. One of my elder female cousins doesn’t call it that she says: I got on the bus at the front of Neti.
Nowadays younger residents and immigrants don’t know that here at the beginning of the street there was a house ( it was destroyed) that once upon a time, at the beginning of 1900, lived an old maid, Kohn Neti. She had a little shop and from it she made her living.
The neighbors’ children would quarrel among themselves – with lots of agitation --about who would be the one that would light the fire on Saturday in Neti’s fireplace. Jews that practice their religion were not allowed to light a fire.
Netike was a pious solitary old maid. She liked to read so she had a lot of good books. One of the neighbor’s young boys asked her for a book to read. Neti told him:
– Don’t be angry, I take lots of care of my books, but if you would like to read one you may come in the evening, then I have more time and it doesn’t make any difference whether I sit alone or some one else also.
So be it. At night there were two reading in Netike’s room. The youngster enjoyed the book very much.
-- Miss Neti, Pali would also like to read it.-
-- Pali can also come, there is plenty of room at the table.
After a while there were ten readers. On winter’s nights they used to bring with them dried pumkin seeds ( with funny names). They would pour them on the top of the table, as the custom of the local folk. They clicked, smacked the seed and read a lot and enjoyed themselves.
-- Boys, perhaps when you come here so nicely to read, you could bring one or two pieces of wood or dried corn stalks ( after they had been snapped) in your pockets.
They did bring wood and other things – the carnival arrived and they were enjoying themselves so much at Netike’s club that in their pockets they brought doughnuts, corn cakes,and some even brought a zither and a harmonica.
How happy this lonely old maid became! Finally there was a lively activity going on in her apartment too. Something was missing for the boys. It would be nice to have a bit of wine with the doughnuts and the scones. Opposite, on the other side of the road was Mátyá’s Inn, but they were too young to be served.
- Oh I will go over and bring a pitcher of wine – offered Netike – but there will be no getting drunk! On this I will take care.
So there arrived a little wine, they ate, drank played music, were singing:
- Miss Neti - says one of the boys one evening--- Please let two girls come in. They are outside at the gate.Rajna,my dog is barking,
Here comes my sweetheart the brown one,
Even if he is brown, he’s not a gypsy,
He loves me truly.
- Let them come, it’s carnival time!- the house owner gave her consent.
So then there was dancing, eating,and fun among themselves.
It became known in the village that in the evenings at Netikes’ there is a gathering. The parents did not like it. There is the Boy’s Union, and they should go there because there they would have the watchful eye of the priest. But here at Neti………………
- Why do they go to Neti’s? She is too old for them.
- They don’t go there because of Neti, they go there because Neti doesn’t lend out her books out of the house.
- But they not only read, they also party among themselves. They drink wine and Neti allows the girls to join midst the boys.
- They are not adults, only young boys and the girls are only fourteen.
- There will be trouble opportunity gives possibility to lure
- Oh true! The devil never sleeps. No No !
This was how the parents were talking. Neti’s door remained open along with her heart for the youngsters. From the readings a romance developed. Józsi one day came to his mother.
- Mother I would like to get married.
- To get married? You are not engaged.
- There is ! Dear mother I do love someone and am engaged.
- But really, who would you take? I don’t know of anyone.
- I am taking Kati, my old sweetheart.
- Kati!! This I could miss! It is true that she is your former girlfriend, sure I know about it, don’t fret. But what kind of a girl is she that goes regularly to Netike midst the boys.
- Sure she came because dear Mother she loves me also.
- Go away from me. I don’t want to see you any more.
What a pity this rejection. The marriege between Józsi and Kati became quite admirable. So as the custom, after the birth of the first grandchild, perfect peace existed between the old and the young.
( My cousin Fekete Feri told the story)
In the past many Jewish families lived in Dunapentele. Most of them were well to do, with lots of money, or industrialists. They had a service maid , and some even had two, an upper maid and a lower maid. A few Jewish families even had a German nanny for the children. They had from where and could afford to spend. A poor man’s daughter could use the payment of her small monthly service wage well. Out this she could buy herself a nice dress, nice shoes, and stuff she needed for her dowry.
Goose meat was the best liked Jewish food. In the old world people were religious, and so also were the Jews. As in the Jewish custom poultry was killed at the throat and only the shakter was allowed to do this. He had an instrument, razor-sharp, that he could cut the animal’s neck with, in one instant it was killed and didn’t suffer.
Naturally the servant girl used to take the poultry that was to be slaughtered. They went there very troubled because they were afraid of the shakter. Maybe this was because he had such sharp instruments. In my childhood we used to frighten one another with the shakter.
Farkas Számi ( Samuel) a merchant, once trusted his servant girl Rosi with an especially big-grown goose.
- Are you able to carry it? – asked Mr. Merchant to the girl. – I can see that you can barely reach the handles of the basket.
- Yes I can carry it if I must! But please liston to me honored sir! I would like it better if I could cut the throat of this enourmously heavy goose. I really don’t know why it must be dragged to the shacter?
- Not your mouth should be talking, but your feet should be walking, go already !
The goose was so heavy that Rosi was tottering from one side to the other dragging it in the big basket. Damm, the devil should take care of this thing. I will win out by wit. The devil can take it to the shacter. Anyway I am afraid of him like fire. This goose will perish without the shakter!
Her girlfriend was serving at Kánitz Móric the merchant, so she went by way of that road. The Kanitz family, even the honorable lady, used to work during the whole day at the shop, only for dinner at noon they went to there apartment. Here is a good opportunity, they both, she and her girlfriend will deal with the goose.
Quickly she smuggled herself through the big arched gate.
- You, Marie –she whispered into the ear of the other girl –quickly take a big sharp knife. Hurry! I ‘m not going to take this heavy as lead goose to the shakter! Come, help me, we will run down to Brettyó stream with it.!
- Oh, you are crazy, how crazy! There will be a lot of trouble from this, you will see. – said Marie- but she quickly snatched out the sharpest biggest knife and hurried with Rozi to the Brettyó valley. ( Today Tolstoj Valley). Beside the bridge they crept under the brushes in the brook.
- Oh, oh Rozi! This knife isn’t as sharp as the shakter’s instument? Oh this huge goose will never die!
- Don’ t you wail any more Marie, I will squeeze it so it won’t splash about, and you will cut its neck quickly.
- Look Rozi, how ugly his neck has become. They will notice it, it isn’t like it should have been.
- You see my dear friend, you see it is already done. I will even out its neck at home. Tell me when you need anything, I will also help, from now on we will not go to the shakter! But not a word to anybody.
When Farkas Számi met the shakter he asked proudly:
- Please Irvin, what do you say about that enourmous goose of ours?
- When did you have this enourmous goose?
- Oh, the one sent you last week.
- Don’t be foolish Számi, you did not send a goose last week.
- Are you serious?
- Really, the servant didn’t bring any goose.
- Well then there is big trouble!
The merchant Számi came to the kitchen very angry
- You Rozi! Did you or didn’t you take the enourmous goose to the shakter last week?! Listen, you girl! The shakter said that you didn’t bring a goose to him! Look into my eyes and not at the stones on the kitchen floor, you, you !!
Rozi became red as pepricka (hot red pepper). She just looked down and wasn’t able to look at the master. Farkas the merchant became more enraged , he was guessing as to how it happened. He shouted at the girl:
- You, you girl! Who cut the throat of that goose?!
- Me!! Honorable sir, you must know that it was me! – shouted Rozi sobbing - I am also able to cut it, and I am not going to take it there any more. It was so heavy, like the devil! We didn’t have any problems even though I cut its neck nobody choked on it. Correct?
- How dare you shout, you good for nothing. Take your bundle right away and don’t stop till you reach your mother’s house! Dissappear from my sight! I don’t want to see you any more.
Rozi collapsed onto a wooden chair because she didn’t have any strength in her feet. Home? How can I go home? Her mother would chase her back, why, because there is a big need for the money she earns here. She can’t allow herself to go home! She can’t stay here either, she was discharged. What should she do? Does she have to go to the Danube over a goose?
She shrieked and wailed bitterly. She was unable to gather her bundle, only cried and moaned.
- You are still her? – stamped the merchant master- liston, girl! Your mother takes the Easter food to the church on Easter for blessing because it your religious practice, we have the shacter cut the throat of the goose because this is our religious custom.
- Honorable sir, please forgive me this goose! I can not go home. I have a good position here, and from now on I will always take the poultry to the shakter. – cried Rozi.
- Go back to your work! But if another time…………….
( Story told by my older cousin Újbányi Ilus)
In May 1996 I went for a visit to the Jewish cemetery, the 6th plot on the left side parralel to the Danube, at the Hundred Leg Bridge, after the upper inlet ( the place where the beach is free).The fence is new: made of red brick, in the middle there is a gate with a black painted Star of David with two wings. Locked. Above the entrance there is an arch built of red brick. This was built by the Organization of Beautification of Pentele.
After the rainfall I was wandering in the high grass, looking around, jotting down notes, and drawing. I was exploring the differences between the Big Cemetery and this one. There are and there aren't. I enjoy going there, taking flowers, a candle, and wreaths. There is always someone to be seen, who is taking care of his loved one's grave. Here is an island of peace where the soul can rest.
There is a deathlike-silence. Right now there are no visitors. Approximately 100 burial places (monuments) can be seen in this plot below the uneven clay bed. The upkeep can be very difficult, (last year the Museum took care of cutting the grass, the Society of Friends of Pentele also takes care, students of Szórád school, and the organization of Town Protectors).
Crosses can not be seen, tombs out of limestone and granite with Hebrew and Latin inscriptions are more than in any other cemetery.
There are family tombs, but I have seen couples buried seperately. Some of the stones are cracked, some where the insrciptions can not be read. Sometimes there is a grave stone that has no name and grave stones that are finished in a curve.
The Hebrew inscriptions were done in Budapest by Bineter, 5 Károly Avenue.
The oldest date of birth I have seen: 1806
I have seen the following inscriptions:
Born Freund Emilia
Born 1851 Died 1911
In her 43rd year of happy marriege
May she rest in peace
(black granite obelisk)
(Hebrew inscription,Latin below)
May he rest in peace
(black granite obelisk)
Born Müller Berta
Blessed be her memory
Here liesFarkas Samuel
(grey limestone decorated with a Weeping Willow tree)
Died January 7, 1890
In his 37th year
Mourning his loving wife
And grieving parents
Peace on his ashes
(inside a 60cm high black fence)
Died November 15,1895
In his 70th year
Mourning after him his wailing widow
Peace and blessing on his ashes
Born Vibganer Lídia
Died November 10,1907
In her 72nd year
Mourning her wailing children
(below Hebrew inscription)
(a nut tree with climbing vine)
Former president of Jewish Community
Died November 28, 1916
Mourning his loving family
Jewish scholar and warrior of Jewish thought
He never gave in
His heart great and heroic
His nature strong
His life an example of work and morality
Died at the age of 66
Born Rosenthal Johanna
Lived for his family
Died for his country
Born Bruck Adél
Lived 47 years
Died January 20,1922
Peace and blessing on her dear ashes
Mourning her loving husband
And two sad daughters
Juliska and Aranka
Your memory will live forever in our hearts
A symbolic monument for those dear ones
That were dragged away in 1944
His wife Goldberger Dávidné
His daughter Janka
His son-in-law Bruck Imre
On the right and left side of the cemetery are family dwellings with small plots. There are many on both sides. Whether they(the residents) are there in winter I do not know. I would suggest that there should be a sign put on the cemetery gate (at least from spring to fall) that the key could be found with the neighbors, so that visiters that come unexpectedly would not have to go to the Town Hall to the The Society for Beautification ( the office is mostly closed because of their other occupations, they are not always there at that time), or to the Szórád School, or to the President of the Pentele Community Center on the the Temető St.
How could those that come from far away know where to find the key? There are no signs with directions. The fence is high. It is possible to peep from 3 meters, or from the neighbor's side where there is an open iron fence. This is very unsatisfactory.
Long ago the cemetery was an open and unrestricted place with a caretaker. Anyone who wanted could enter.
Many of the residents in town don't even know where the Jewish Cemetery is.
H-né Ilonka: When I was a child I saw a Jewish funural in the north of the country. The deceased was wrapped in white linen tied in two places by black ribbons. Like this he was put into the grave.
Krámer Simon Goldner Vilmos 1832-1892 Szabados Lajos 1864-1893 Salamon Steiner Lukács Mór 1851-1923 Krausz Joachim 1839-1028 son of Yahuda Krausz Joachimné 1848-1927 born Bruck Flóra Bruck Simonné 1881-1934 born Binet Zsófia * Bruck Mór Dr. Strasser Lipót 1846-1927 Dr. Strasser Lipótné 1848-1886 born Braun Róza Pfeiffer Ignáczné died November 10,1907 Kohn Jakabné 1846-1903 born Grünwald Fanny Goldberger Dávidné
symbolic grave put up by Goldberger Dávid Weisz Mór 1866-1936 Weisz Mártonné died October 7 1902 Weisz Erzsébet lived 24 years Weisz Zsigmond 1877-1941 Yakov Zvi ben Eliyahu This is also a symbolic grave for our dear mother who was abducted in 1944
* Was the mother of Goldenberg Lajosné born Bruck Manci
From Historical Hungary 300 thousand emmigrated, ( about 10% of Israel’s population)
Peace should rein under the olive tree!
I showed a lot of pictures of the Holy Land because Jerusalem is also Holy to them. The wailing wall, they don’t call it like us, the wall of the destroyed temple, they pray and doven and touch the wall with their face and hands. In the stone gaps many put small folded papers with their requests written on them. These stones have seen Jesus, as they are 2000 years old.
The pictures of Israel let us get to know better their customs, clothing etc. Let us accept the differences and the church too has dropped their inflexible position of the hundreds. There are more ceremonies in ecumenic(universal) style. Pope János II also endorses this modern view.
The graveyard here is visited by the descendants. Newly planted flowers gives evidence to this.
They come from America, Budapest and Pécs.
We make an effort to keep up this reverent place and when we visit the Big Cemetery we put flowers on the right side of the central entrance below the marker with the names of the martyrs.
We cherish their memory
|Name||Occupation||Date of birth||Age|
|Bruck Ernő||Grain Merchant||1880||64|
|Bruck Ernőné||House wife||1885||59|
|Deutsch Anna (Panni)**||Young girl||1920||24|
|Deutsch Áron||Leather store||1904||40|
|Deutsch Mózes||Leather store||1902||42|
|Farkas Sámuel||Merchant: textiles/iron||1890||54|
|Farkas Sámuelné||House wife||1895||49|
|Frankl Zsigmond||Land owner||1872||72|
|Frankl Zsigmondné||Land owner||1878||66|
|Fritz Móricz||General store||1862||82|
|Fritz Oszkár||General store||1897||47|
|Goldenberg Aladárné *||Former Cantor's wife||1880?||64|
|Kánitz Móricz||General store||1880||64|
|Kánitz Móriczné||House wife||1885||59|
|KhonnéDeutsch Rozália||Fowl Merchant||1901||43|
|Khon Márta||House wife||1926||18|
|Kiss Miklós||Spice merchant||1885||59|
|Krámmer Márta||House wife||1900||44|
|Dr Lax Jenőné||Housewife||1907||37|
|Lax Péter János||Pupil||1936||8|
|Paskus Endre András||Cantor||1915||29|
|Parkus Endre Andrásné||Housewife||1917||27|
|Pechner Dávid||Tailor shop||1887||57|
|Szekulesz László||Public house||1894||50|
|Sziklai Miklós||General store||1890||54|
|Sziklai Miklósné||General store||1892||52|
|Weisz Jakab||Inn: owner||1887||57|
|Weisz Rozália||Inn: family||1910||34|
|Weisz Katalin||Inn: family||1913||31|
|Weisz Irén||Inn: family||1915||29|
|Wolmann Béla||General store||1889||55|
*Grandmother of Vera, not in original list.
** Her nickname
|Family Name||Address||Lajos House Today|
|Ihász – auntie||Tót St. ( now Petőfi St.)||Coffee House|
|Sziklai family||"||(general store)|
|Goldenberg Lajos Bela||"||( Bicycle shop)*|
|Goldenberg Aladárné**||?||Wife of former cantor|
|Paskus Endre András||Tot St. ( now Petőfi St.)||Jewish cantor|
|Pajzs Miklós||Magyar St.|
|Dr Lax Jenő||"|
|Deutsch Lajos||Lengyel Lane||Tailor|
|Bruck family||Gőzmalom St.
(now Baracsi St.)
|Szekulesz family||Temető||Pub- brewery|
*Goldenberg Lajos also worked in contructing the electrical wiring for all the towns in the vicinity together with Erdősi (Surname not known).
** Grandmother of Vera, not in original list.
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