Jewish Resistance in the Ghetto and the Camp
by Shavti Perelmuter, Tel Aviv, Batzeron
At the end of 1941, some Jewish youths succeeded in putting themselves in
contact with a teacher from the Polish public school in a little town about 20
kilometers from Demblin. This Pole was recognized as a communist from before
the War. The Jewish boys asked him to help them in their efforts to establish a
partisan group in the forest of Kotzker. The teacher promised to give a reply
in a few days.
The Jewish boys in the meantime began to interest themselves in getting
weapons. Afterwards a messenger came from the teacher and told them that
according to a decision made by the committee that was in charge of the
partisans in the area, they had to provide a typewriter for the Polish
underground. We knew that buying a machine was completely out of the question.
We decided to steal the typewriter from the Judenrat office.
There was a curfew from 7 in the evening to 6 in the morning in place in the
ghetto. Still, one of our group managed to sneak in at midnight to the Judenrat
office, broke the door in and stole the machine, which, the next morning, found
itself in the hands of the teacher.
When our group was ready to leave the ghetto, we waited for a sign from the
Polish underground and then we learned that the Germans had uncovered the
ruling Committee with the teacher at the head of it and shot everybody. So,
from our great plan to escape the ghetto came absolutely nothing.
After liquidating the ghetto at the end of September 1942, the Jews who
remained, about 900 of them, were housed in barracks near the airfield and had
to work quite hard there. Besides that site a certain number of Jews were
parceled out to smaller work groups in private German companies, like
"Shultz", "Schwartz", "Lentz". There was also the
group of 300 forced laborer employed at the train center and they were deported
in 1943 to the camp at Poniatov. We knew that at the camp near the airfield
there were serious attempts to get weapons, to organize escapes and to create
an underground organization.
In our camp, there were 50 Jews from Preschov, Czechoslovakia, who had been
deported from there to the Demblin ghetto. Some of them still maintained
correspondence with Christian friends in their old homes. On a certain evening,
3 German officers, later it became known that they were actually Slovaks or
Hungarians, came into the camp and after looking at people's documents they
took 4 Jews from Slovakia who were taken back to Czechoslovakia.
In our camp there were one hundred Jews from the nearby town Ryki. In the
winter of 1944 a group of 10 young people from Ryki organized and succeeded in
escaping from the camp. They took weapons with them. As a punishment, the
Gestapo came into the camp and made a very thorough search of all the people
who were prisoners there and took money from them, gold and food. Afterwards
they shot the very well thought of Jew from Preschov, Feit.
Afterwards we learned that the 10 escapees succeeded for 3 to 4 months in
hiding out. Afterwards they were murdered by the A.K. (Armiya Krayova -
Military Organization of the Polish Overseas Regime in London, which used to
murder Jews who were trying to hide out).
In the summer of 1944 two pals of mine asked me to try to help them get a
revolver. But first we needed to get some money together. They suggested that
we should begin the collection as if it were for people who were in need. In
the morning I with another friend went to our work. On the second day, a camp
policeman suddenly appeared with dogs. We heard a familiar order barked out,
"All men stampede into the outside for line-up!" We stood there on
the open grounds and the head brute ordered that everybody who's first name was
Shmuel should step out in front of the liner-up. Ten Jews did so and the police
smacked them around and then took them away. Three hours later thy came back,
bloodied and tortured. Afterwards we learned the reason for all of this.
The little boy Nateck who had contacted a Pole about the possibility of getting
a hold of a pistol fell into German hands and after a very long third degree
and torture he told them that a certain Shmuel in the camp who's family name he
didn't know, ordered him to ask about getting a hold of a gun. The murderers
went after the 10 Shmuels for that reason but they didn't find the right one
among them, the 11
one, who had been described to them. The police employed by the Germans
together with the Jewish camp police began to look for yet another Shmuel,
Shmuel Locks, is what we began to call him and found him in a moment when he
was attempting to jump over the fence which was around the camp. This Shmuel
put up a very heroic fight against the people who were trying to capture him.
He beat them up, smashed them over the head, and wouldn't let himself be taken.
It was only when they got a dog, which was able to snare him, that he was
Afterwards the camp commander said that when the Germans finally got him, that
Shmuel fell in a very heroic fashion.
On a winter night in 1944, a Jewish camp policeman suddenly ousted us out of
bed. After realizing great terror, we asked him what was going on. He answered
that I had been called to the camp commander Venkart. This was 11 at night. You
have to understand that I was very, very upset and they were really rushing me,
told me to make it snappy because Venkart was waiting for me and they didn't
want me to ask any more questions, they just wanted me to get there.
I pulled on a half torn jacket and put on my wet shoes and I was so rushed I
put my right shoe on my left foot, and my left shoe on my right foot. Angel
[the policeman] was disgusted when he saw me with two different shoes on and
screamed, "Faster!" To tell the truth, in general, I didn't really
have much problem with the Jewish commander of police or with the other camp
police. I never asked anything from them, I never asked them for any favors,
but they didn't go out of their way to make life miserable for me.
At that point I put on my wooden shoes, I remember running very, very quickly
and trying to find what this camp boss Venkart wanted with me in the middle of
the night. Some kind of new order or restriction, some new danger that was upon
us. But I wasn't among those people in whom he generally confided, to who he
told his secrets. And so I was absolutely dumb founded, I didn't know what he
wanted from me.
I put my clothes on, such as they were, and walked over to my friend, Yosel
Shildkroit's bed and I told him the news of this unforeseen sorrow that seemed
to be upon us. I was even more astonished to find he was already up and dressed
and he told me that he'd also been woken up by the same guy Angel, and he too
knew absolutely nothing about why we were being called.
So in Venkart's room there was a gathering of 10 people, because Venkart use to
really like to have partner's in crime. He lay in bed. As soon as all of us
came in, and apparently the two of us were the last ones to arrive, Venkart
"All right, everybody who I called is here now". And I ask all of you
who are gathered here to believe me when I tell you that everything that I'm
going to tell you now shouldn't stop you from telling me exactly what you think
without fear, just let your conscious be your guide. But the main thing is you
are compelled to keep what I'm going to tell you a secret as well as the
decision which you're going to be partners to. Although I have a cold and the
doctor ordered me to stay in bed for two days, I still found it necessary to
call you here in order to share with you some information about things that are
being planned by Jews in this camp and the results of these actions can be
very, very serious, and they can even threaten the very existence of the
All of our ears were perked up. The tension among the people who were gathered
there was extremely great. Venkart told us that he had received confidential
information that Meyer Kushner with his brother Moshe and Gershon Albek, were
planning to escape from the camp in one of the coming evenings. But before
escaping they wanted to murder him, Venkart and the German officer who was
second in command. Of course, when the escape of three Jews from the camp
combined with the murder of a German officer, the officials in charge from the
Wermacht of the camp could easily liquidate all of the Jews in the camp. And
without a doubt, the first victims would be the 30 children who were among us
in the camp. Venkart suggested that we should agree that he should talk to the
German commander and ask him to send these three Jews who were planning this
deed to another camp so that they will spare the Jews in this camp the
collateral damage that would come to them in revenge.
From the words of Venkart it became apparent to us who were gathered there that
all of us were totally against his suggestion. Avram Rosenfeld explained his
opposition and he said that to turn the Jews over to the Germans is just the
same as giving them a death sentence.
Joseph Shildkroit said that all of this talk about people running away and
killing people sounded pretty flimsy to him and just on the basis of this here
say, it was ridiculous to turn people over to German hands.
And I myself was against Venkart's suggestion. I added to the responses of the
other people that even if it were true that they planned to escape in this way,
we have to remember that we're all sentenced to death in the first place. We
were the last Jews remaining in the whole Lublin region. All of the surrounding
work camps had already been liquidated. And who knows, maybe if these people
did escape they would remain alive to be witnesses to all the horrors that we'd
undergone and how we ourselves would be murdered.
After hearing our thoughts Venkart said that he would withdraw his suggestion
because there wasn't any unanimity amongst us, but he did ask us to form a
group which would every night guard the camp to make sure those that had been
accused couldn't carry out their plan.
Those who opposed the first suggestion also were opposed to guarding the camp.
But the rest who were among us said OK, that they would each night supply two
people who were among us to stand watch.
I don't know how well they actually kept this promise that they made, but the
main thing is that the Jews who Venkart wanted to turn over to the German
commander survived the War.
The Martyr like Way of Yechiel Bantman
Recorder: Aba Bantman, Paris
To the memory of our sister Miriam, her husband Shlome and children Leah and
Ahron who died at the hands of Nazi murderers
About our Family and Myself
I, Yechiel Bantman, was born in Demblin in the year of 1908. In January of
1925, my father died suddenly of a heart attack in the fullness of his life. My
mother and grandmother, Faiga-Blime, as well as my brothers, Meir and
Mordechai, remained without a way to stay alive. A year passed and our brother,
Aba, left Demblin and made his way to Paris. He sent me the necessary papers
and I arrived in the capital of France. Here I began to learn the trade of
being at tailor. The city of light, famed for its museums, its great
boulevards, its night life, was in the first years, for me, a great confinement
and the scene of a lot of hardship and suffering. From 16 o 20 hours a day, I
was virtually welded to my sewing machine and that in an era when there were
very strict laws on the books and the police carried out all kinds of brutality
on people who were immigrants or illegal workers who first of all, in this
case, turned out to be Jews from Poland.
The Occupation of France
In the summer of 1940, Hitler's hoards invaded and Marshal Peten and Laval
capitulated quickly to the German army. In October of the same year, the first
anti-Jewish proclamation was issued, "All Jews had to come with their
passports to the police station and register there." In January of 1941,
there was a new order. The identity cards and food rationing cards had a
special stamp put on them which was, "Jew". Also, among the French
population there were oppressive measures imposed which demoralized people and
created a sense of hopelessness. Only among the Jews, the situation was truly
desperate. The newspapers, the posters on the wall, never seized to try to heat
up the population against the Jews in their midst. Many French people began to
collaborate with the Germans.
The winter of 1941 was a very cold one, but even more desolate and cold was to
be found in the hearts of the Jews. Even the coming spring couldn't drive away
the dark, heavy clouds which hovered over the heads of the Jews in occupied
France. We waited for a miracle.
Little by little, I worked at my sewing machine until the 13
of May, 1941 when I received a blue card from the police to show up at 7
o'clock in the morning with my belongings and said that family members could
accompany me there or a friend.
After a sleepless night I went at the appointed hour to the police station. It
didn't take long and hundreds of Jews with great fear and questioning in their
eyes looked at each other, not knowing what was going to happen. About 9
o'clock we were taken down to the cells in the basement and put behind bars and
separated, fathers and children, women and men, sons and parents. Each of these
unfortunate people thought, "What's going to become now of those who are
closest and dearest to me? Who's going to take care of their needs? Who's going
to cheer them up in the darkest hour? And who's going to protect them from all
of the dangers that lurk around them?"
The ones who accompanied us, our wives and children, and the men as well, were
ordered to go home, and to bring the people who had been interred, a blanket
with some bread. Half past 11 o'clock, they took us out of the cells in the
cellars and put us into trucks and they took us to the train station,
Oysterlitz, very heavily guarded by Germans and French collaborating police. At
the train station thousands of Jews who had already been rounded up were to be
found. It was a sea of heads. Until the order came, "Into the cars!"
And this was emphasized with blows and screams. And in this way the unfortunate
Jews were stuffed into the cars in which, under normal circumstances, cattle
would be carried. After traveling about 80 kilometers from Paris, we arrived in
Bon-La-Rolon. On the ramp they separated us into 2 groups, one to Pitivye and
the second to Bon-La-Rolon.
In a French Camp
About 4,000 internees, we found ourselves in the camp at Bon-La-Rolon, which
was a wooden barrack surrounded by barbed wire and was very carefully guarded
by police. They didn't take us to work there. There was no work to do. Every
internee had a right to receive a package from home. But when he actually got
his hands on it there was always something missing, either a third of what had
been sent or a half of what had been sent.
In the beginning of July 1942, half of our camp was ordered to put its stuff
together and they sent the Jews away in the direction that we couldn't figure
out. Fifteen days later, the second half of the group was also told to get
ready, to leave, and I was among them.
Again the ramp along the rail platform, the terrible cars, the German police
who at that point took over from the French police. The doors were shut and we
remained inside with our terror and fear in the sealed wagons, without water
and without food. Human needs had to be taken care of right where we were and
more than one of us ended up wetting our dried out lips with our own urine.
Our train arrived in Auschwitz camp about 4 o'clock in the morning. The doors
on both sides of the wagon were opened wide for the half alive people who were
suffering intensely. They were driven with rifle butts, whips and other kinds
of batons, faster and faster, into the place where everybody was sorted out.
The packages we'd taken with us, of course, had to remain behind in the car
along with lots of dead people who weren't able to survive the horrifying
journey which had taken 3 full days.
Here we encountered, once again, the first group from Bon-La-Rolon, and
everybody from the camp at Pitivye. In Auschwitz there were also Germans
imprisoned and Austrians and Ukrainians and Poles and Russians.
After the first segregation, they drove us into the barracks. Everybody
received a little bit of canvas with a number written on it which the next day
was tattooed on our arms. From this point forward we would be just numbers and
nothing more. But one letter, H, adorned our backs. I was separated out into a
group of 12 people which was called Kisen-Grave. At 6 o'clock in the morning we
were ordered to get up. The Kapo, with his helpers, ran from bunk to bunk and
would smack us over the heads and backs with sticks in order to drive us out of
our hard beds and out to our slave labor. At the place where everybody had to
gather, everybody received a little tin with a little bit of lukewarm tea and a
very, very measly ration of bread. After screaming, "Get going!" all
of the people from the different barracks began to march out to their various
work assignments. At the gate there stood an orchestra which played marches and
the slaves had to march to the beat in military style.
My group was given out a Kapo who was a German, and an S. S. man with a
machine gun and a dog. After marching 10 kilometers we were ordered to stop and
dig trenches for sewer pipes. This work was accompanied by blows and shots.
Around 1 o'clock there was a whistle and they brought the meal, lunch. We stood
up in a line with our little tin cups and everybody received a ladle full of
this watery soup in which there swam little bits of radish or rutabaga. After
an hour of resting, the Kapo started to whack people over the head again,
driving them to work. Those who fell dead from the blows or the S. S.
man's bullets had to be dragged back to the camp by the people who remained
alive. Why? So they could show up at the roll call because the same number of
people had to be counted at the roll call, it didn't matter whether they were
dead or alive.
The Death Factory Develops
When I arrived at Auschwitz there were just 3 barracks, but the enormous space
around which was bordered with electric wire and barbed wire, promised that
this emptiness would, undoubtedly, quickly be filled up with construction of
one kind or another. And that's exactly what happened. Every day transports
arrived at the camp, full of people, who had been brought from every corner of
Europe. The procedure of emptying out a transport once it got to Auschwitz was
always exactly the same. The heavy doors of the rail cars were opened up on
both sides, S. S. brutes would stand with their sticks and their whips and
they'd really give it to the unlucky victims who came out of the cars. Tens of
dead people were taken out of the cars. These were the victims of the journey
who had endured days upon days inside hermetically sealed rail cars without
water or anything to eat, without air, in a frightfully crowded space. The
arrival at Auschwitz was marked by orders to stand up in lines while a doctor
from the S. S. carried out his selection. With a little gesture of his
hand, he indicated who went straight to the gas chamber and crematorium, and
who would remain alive for the time being, though in the hideous conditions at
Frightful scenes were played out when children were torn away from their
parents, even babies who were nursing were torn from their mother's breasts.
Some of the mothers fought like lionesses against this brutality, but their
struggle always ended up in a quick death. How much brutal sadism the Germans
displayed in the murder of little babies!?
The part of the transport that was directed to the left was sent to the gas
chamber. It appeared to be a barracks covered with tarpaper, with two tiny
little windows. During my arrival at Auschwitz there was just one gas chamber.
But with time the death industry developed to such a scale that 5 gas chambers
were able to take care of thousands of people on a daily basis. There was also
a great increase in the number of barracks. It didn't take very much time
before there were 40 barracks, each in a row of 20, in each barrack 1,500
internees were kept. With time the neighboring camp, Birkenau, was included in
My Savior Ludwig
After 3 weeks of being in the camp, on a specific day they ordered us to
undress, take off all of our clothes, they shaved our heads, and they shaved as
well, all the other places we had hair on our bodies, took our clothes and our
shoes and everybody received one of the striped outfits of the camp with wooden
clogs instead of shoes. The cold water without soap did very little to improve
our hygienic situation. Sunday, on the day of rest, we had to delouse ourselves.
In September I became sick with typhus and I lay in a terrible condition and
given the fact that this took place in the horrible conditions of Auschwitz, it
is only thanks to my block commander, the Pole, Ludwig, that I was able to stay
alive. In civilian life he was a dancer in a ballet. He found he had been
thrown into Auschwitz as a political prisoner. I have no idea what it was that
I did, or for what reason he showed me so much sympathy, but as soon as he
found out that I was seriously ill, he ordered 2 brothers by the name of Bodnik
from Paris, one day when they were returning from work, to, at the roll call,
hold me up on my feet. When the order came out for people to sound off their
numbers, he told them to pull my cloak over my face and told them to shout out
my number when it was necessary.
My medical crisis lasted for 12 days, there was one occasion when Ludwig didn't
allow me to go to work, but he hid me under some straw in the barracks so that
I wouldn't be discovered in an inspection. He was also able to make sure that I
got an aspirin and a little bit more bread. In September of 1942 Ludwig got me
a job in a working group of tin workers who covered the roofs. I spent the
whole day sitting on the roof, banging nails, in a section of the camp and the
conditions were much, much better than the previous work that I had.
The bloody Spectacle
New Year's 1943. The brutes in Auschwitz decide that they want to welcome the
New Year with a little bit of a kind of celebration. They wanted to have their
wives and women friends observe the bloody spectacle. An order came down. The
order was that from certain barracks people had to march towards the
headquarters, that is to say, near the gate where the S. S. people and
some women were sitting at little tables, drinking beer and snacking. The
orchestra was playing. One murderer gave the order that an inmate should take
off their camp jackets and then put them on again backwards, that is to say,
they should button them up their backs. After that people had to pour sand into
their neighbors jackets and with this baggage, the unfortunate Jew had to run,
driven by blows from sticks and whips. The victim ran around in a circle and
after that, he had to pour out the sand by the toilets and come back. At that
point they filled up their jackets once again with sand. And in this little
game thousands of Jews took part and in the process hundreds of them were
tortured to death with blows or just shot on the spot to the laughter and
pleasure of the Germans and their acquaintances. The next morning we had to
bury all of the victims in a mass grave.
Russians and Gypsies in Auschwitz
In the month of February 1943, a work group of 150 Ukrainians disarmed their
guards from the S. S. and they escaped. The whole camp was ordered to come
out for a roll call. Two days and two nights we stood outside in a bitter cold.
Understand that many victims fell during this roll call, until they caught up
with 3 of the men who had escaped. They brought them back. Each one had been
bound to two pieces of wood, in the form of a cross. We all had to witness the
execution and watch them led up to the gallows.
On a certain day there came an order, "Shut down the barracks!" All
the barracks were shut down. We didn't dare even to look out of the windows,
but there was always somebody who was curious and wiling to take the risk, and
one of them crept up to the window and saw how they were leading a whole
transport of Russian prisoners of war into the gas chamber.
On the next day we were assigned as a work group to sort out the clothes of the
Russians. We found letters from wives, children and parents, photographs,
documents. On their clothes there was an identification which said, R.K.G., or
Russian prisoner of war. When the German guard was looking the other way, we
succeeded in pulling on a pair of boots from one of the Russian soldiers and
then we would let our pants fall down to cover the boots. If I'd been caught in
this kind of theft there's no question that I would havc been shot on the spot.
In Auschwitz there were certain separate barracks for gypsies and whole
sections of other barracks for them and there were whole families of gypsies
there, with wives and children, but not for long. They also waited for the gas
chamber and crematoria. The first transport of gypsies originated in Germany
itself. When they were led to the gas chambers the screams of the unfortunate
ones ripped into heaven, but nobody could do anything to help them.
What's happening in France
Once when I was at work cleaning the courtyard and the paths in the camp, I
noticed a large group of French women who were assigned to work digging sewer
canals, not far from the toilets. I wanted to just ask one of the women a
question, and I said, "What's happening in France?" And all of a
sudden a woman guard appeared right next to me with an automatic rifle in her
hand and she ordered, "Come over here!" I was terrified as I went
over to her and she asked me angrily what I was talking about. I answered her,
"Nothing really". She ordered me to go into the toilet with her and
there she gave me a cigarette to smoke. She wrote down my number and she
ordered, "Get out of here!" Coming back to my barracks I was certain
that my life had run its course and sure enough, that evening a messenger came
running and called out my number and ordered me to come to the headquarters. I
left my portion of bread behind to a pal in the barracks. I said good-bye to
people who I was close to and I said farewell with the certainty that I was
going to meet my death. At headquarters the female guard was waiting for me.
She ordered me, in a stern tone, to go with her, she led me into a room, and
she gave me an order in an especially high, harsh voice that I should start to
clean up that room to make it spotless. When I grabbed a brush and a rag in my
hand, she said to me in a very gentle tone, I should sit down at the table, and
she brought me a meal fit for a king. In the conditions of Auschwitz, one could
only dream of eating like that. She indicated in a very civilized way that when
I was going to go out, she was going to give me a little bit of meat and
cigarettes. I explained to her that If I go into the barracks and I am
discovered to possess these things, it would mean a minimum of 25 or 50 lashes,
that is if I didn't get shot on the spot. She said, "Well, it's worth the
risk as long as you're able to eat and smoke."
In Auschwitz camp I had the opportunity to be exposed to see and to really hear
and know the behavior of the block commanders and their helpers. The commander
of Block 27 was a certain Greenboim, and he was from Warsaw. He distinguished
himself with his brutality towards Jews. There was another one from Warsaw,
Yosela and Laibeshel from Radom.
Once, when I was cleaning an area not far from the ramp between 2 cars which
had arrived from France, I noticed my Uncle Shabotai, who had been ordered to
go to the right side. I was sure that I'd be able to find him in one of the
quarantine barracks. The next day I went to Barracks No. 8, where Laibeshel was
the Kapo. And to my question, if I could see my Uncle, he gave me a very
sinister answer, which was that I can't interrupt him now because he's in
prayers, Mincha. When he got to another prayer, Shmone-Asera, Laibeshel's
answer was that your Uncle if just an old kacker, and he wouldn't live long
The Hell of Warsaw
The end of April 1943, the French Jews in Auschwitz received an order to fall
in for roll call. After going out and getting arranged in lines, we were asked
who wanted to volunteer for a transport. About 500 men wanted to get out of the
Auschwitz death factory. We received a half a loaf of bread each, a little jug
of water and got into the rail cars on the same track which had brought us
here, but this time we were traveling away from Auschwitz.
The next morning, very early, we arrived at Prager station. They took us from
the station in trucks to the Jewish quarter of Warsaw. Who is capable of
describing what our eyes beheld after the hell of the Warsaw ghetto and after
the suppression if the heroic uprising of Jewish fighters against Hitler's
Our task was to clean up the ghetto, to destroy the remaining walls, clean the
bricks which the Poles would then take away in their horse drawn wagons. We
also had to bang on the cellar walls to see if they were empty or not, or if
there were places where there was hidden quantities of food or jewelry and
money. At 27 Volinske, we actually did uncover, under a wall, a whole warehouse
full of products that you couldn't have seen otherwise. In it were clothes and
shoes and boots. We were able to make little deals with the Poles who would
come into the ruined ghetto and what we'd do is we'd trade them some little
thing of value that we were able to stash away, and in return from them we
would get cigarettes or bread or other things to eat, because our one and only
striving was to have something to eat. Had we had enough to eat, then the
situation might have been different.
Daily there were fresh transports coming in to Warsaw from Auschwitz, of French
Jews, in order to clean up the ghetto. There were 4,000 Jews at that point
during a period of 8 months.
The confusion which began to overtake the Germans, the sounds of bombardments
and artillery fire from both sides of the Vistula promised that the front was
closing in, and with it the possibility of our liberation. The German bandits,
though, didn't want to resign themselves quite so quickly to the loss of their
slaves. An order came to march. The first day we made 30 kilometers, without a
drop of water or anything to eat. Along the way the brutes did everything that
they could to cause more victims to fall. When we arrived at night to a river
and some unfortunate people decided that they would bend down to take a drink
and still their thirst, the Germans opened fire and the river ran red with
blood. I mean, half of the people were shot down at that point.
When we arrived at the train station they locked us in wagons and after another
half a day of traveling in horrible conditions, we arrived at Dachau. A
thousand or 1,200 of worn out Jews were stuffed into barracks No. 16 and 27.
For about 2 months we were there in quarantine, we didn't work, a sign that the
Third Reich had come to the beginning of the end. They didn't know what to do
with us. They didn't even know how to put to work their legions of worn out,
tortured slaves. After that they drove us on foot to Karslfeld, 6 kilometers
from Dachau where we began to work in an underground bunker, far from a forest.
Since our employer was a company "Todt", we had added to the standard
pathetic little food rations that we usually got in the camp, a little ration
of one cigarette a day. The cigarettes we bought in the canteen which was open
The dogs who watched us used to receive far better food than we. When the dogs
had finished their meal, we used to get their leftovers, bones, and that would
still our hunger.
A Meeting with People from Demblin
When the allied armies came into Germany many thousands and thousands of
imprisoned Jews were liberated, not only Jews but other people too. Among the
transports of liberated people, I once recognized my fellow towns people -
Chana Goldberg and the 2 sons of Moshe Faiges. I took them into a barrack and I
hid them until their group traveled away. Together we lived to see the day of
liberation, the 9th
of May, 1945, when a group of American troops came into Dachau and we were set free.
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